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NAAS (North), a barony of the county of Kil- 
dare, Leinster. It is bounded, on the north, by 
North Salt; on the east, by South Salt; on the 
•outh-east, by co. Wicklow ; on the south, by 
South Naas ; and on the west, by Connell and 
Clane. Length, southward, 7 miles; breadth, from 
2 to 6| ; area, 25,579 acres, 2 roods, 5 perches, 
— of which 65 acres, 14 perches are in the river 
Lifley. The surface consists of, for the most part, 
a low, flat, rich, and pleasant portion of the east 
side of the basin of the Lifley ; and is traversed by 
both the Grand Canal itself and one of its branches. 
The Act 6 and 7 William IV., cap. 84, transferred 
two townlands of the parish of Rathmore, and part 
of a townland of Killishee, from South Naas to 
North Naas ; pop., in 1841, d2._North Naas con- 
tains part of the parish of Killashee, and the whole 
of the narishesof Bodenstown, Johnstown, Kardiffs- 
town, Naaa, Rathmore, Sherloekstown, Tipper, and 
Whitechurch. The towns and chief villages are 
Naas, Sallins, and Johnstown. Pop., in 1831, 
8,002; in 1841, 8,081. Houses 1,313. Families 
eooployed chiefly in a^culture, 588; in manufac- 
tures and trade, 301 ; m other pursuits, 575. Fam. 
ilies dependent chiefly on property and professions, 
53 ; on tha directing of labour, 615 ; on their own 
■oanoal labour, 779; on means not specified, 17. 
Males at and above 5 years of age who could read 
and write, 1,616 ; who could read but not write, 718 ; 
who could neither read nor write, 1,171. Females 
at and above 5 years of age who could read and 
write, 1,250; who could r«Mi but not write, 964; 

who could neither read nor write, 1,437 This bar- 

ony lies wholly within the Poor-law union of Naas. 
The total number of tenements valued is 1,423; and 
of these, 790 were valued under £5, — 187, under 
XIO,— 126, under £15,—^, under £20,-^, under 
jk-25.— 26, under £30,-36, under £40,-23, under 
XiO.— and 1 19, at and above £50. 

NAAS (Socth), a barony on the east border of 
the county of Kildare, Leinster. It is bounded, on 
the north, bv North Naas ; on the east and south, 
by ro. Wicklow; and on the west, by Kilcullen and 
^'onnell. I>erigth, southward, 7k miles ; extreme 
breadth, 51 ; area, 27,478 acres, 1 roo<l, 12 perches, 
— of which 178 acres, 3 roods, 7 perches are in the 
h rer LiflTey. A small district in the east is moun- 
tainoa«, consists of spurs from the va^^t alpine region 
ot Wirklow, and contains the two summits of Slic ve- 


roe and Bishop's-hill, with altitudes of respectively 
1,094 and 935 feet above sea-level ; and all the other 
districts are prevailingly low, flat, and rich, and com- 
paratively free from bog. The LifTey runs across 
the interior. — This barony contains part of the par- 
ishes of Kill and Killishee, and the whole of the 
parishes of Ballybought, Ballymore- Eustace, Bren- 
nontown, Carnaway, Coghlanstown, Gilltown, Jago, 
and Tipperkerin. The towns are Ballymore- Eustace 
and part of Kilcullen- Bridge. The Act 6 and 7 
William IV., cap. 84, transferred the whole of the 
parishes of Ballybought, Ballymore- Eustace, and 
Tipperkerin, from Uppercross, co. Dublin, to South 
Naas, CO. Kildare, — pop., in 1841, 3,138; and two 
townlands of Rathmore, and part of a townland of 
Killishee, from South Naas to North Naas, — pop. 
32. Pop. of the barony, in 1831, 4,377; in 1841, 
7,608. Houses 1.219. Families employed chiefly 
in agriculture, 800; in manufactures and trade, 210; 
in other pursuits, 310. Families dependent chiefly 
on propertv and professions, 22 ; on the directing of 
labour, 49^ ; on their own manual labour, 767 ; on 
means not specified, 39. Males at and above 5 years 
of age who could read and write, 1,625; who could 
read but not write, 633 ; who could neither read nor 
write, 1,212. Females at and above 5 years of age 
who couJd read and write, 982 ; who could read but 
not write, 891 ; who could neither read nor write, 
1,388 South Naas lies wholly within the Poor- 
law union of Naas. The total number of tenements 
valued is 611 ; and of these, 308 were valued under 
£5,-73, under £10,-51, under £t5.— 28, under 
£20,-17, under £25,-14, under £30,-28, under 
£40,-11, under £50,~and 81, at and above £50. 
NAAS, a parish in the barony of North Naas, co. 
Kildare, Leinster. It contains the town of Naas, 
and part of the village of Sallins : see these articles. 
Length, southward, 3^ miles ; extreme breadth, 2? ; 
area, .5,526 acres, 3 roods, 17 perches, — of which 15 
acres, 3 roods, 2 perches are in the river Liffey. 
Pop., in 1831, according to the Census, 4,891, but 
according to the EccIe^iftsticaI Authorities, 5,228 ; 
in 1841, 4,863. Houses 809. Pop. of the rural dis- 
tricts, in 1841, 1,053. Houses 185. The surface 
is low and flat ; and the land is, in general, above 
medium quality. The highest ground is on the ea.Ht 
border, ana has an altitude above sea-level of 3<15 
feet. The LifTey flows along part of the western 
boundary ; and a branch of the Grand Canal, and the 


roads from Dublin to Waterford, New- Ross, Cork, 
and Limerick, traverse the interior. The seats are 
Jegginstown-house, Bluebell-bouse, Mill view-house, 
Roseborough-house, Maryfield-house, Osberstown- 
bill, Barstown-bouse, and Coolmoonan-house. — This 
parish is a vicarage, and a separate benefice, in the 
dio. of Kildare. Vicarial tithe composition, £164 
Is. 9d. ; glebe, £98 2s. Id. Gross income, £401 19s. ; 
nett, £328 10s. Patron, Thomas Burgh, Esq. of 
Oldtown. The incumbent holds also the benefice 
and prebend of Tipper in St. Patrick's cathedral, 
Dublin, and the office of sequestrator and curate oif 
Heinstown and Forenaughts adjoining Naas, in the 
dio. of Kildare. The rectorial tithes of Naas are 
impropriate, and have been purchased as an endow- 
ment for the perpetual curacy of Upper Falls, in the 
dio. of Connor. A curate receives a salary of £75. 
The church is of very ancient but unknown date; 
and was enlarged first in 1822, and again about 3 or 

4 years ago. Sittings, previous to the latter enlarge- 
ment, 300 ; attendance 400. The chapel in the gaol 
is under the care of the vicar of Bodenstown, per- 
petual curate of Sherlockstown, and stipendiary 
curate of Killishee. The Independent chapel has an 
attendance of from 50 to 60. The Roman Catholic 
chapel has an attendance of 2,300. In 1834, the 
parishioners of Naas — including the inhabitants of 
the parish or denomination of Osberstown, amount- 
ing to 518 — consisted of 593 Churchmen, 4 Presby- 
terians, 6 other Protestant dissenters, and 5,050 
Roman Catholics; 14 dail;^ schools had on their 
books 300 bo^s and 157 girls ; and 3 other daily 
schools were m operation, but made no proper re- 
tuRis of their attendance. Two of the schools were 
salaried with respectively £21 and £24 from the 
produce of some seats in the Roman Catholic chapel ; 
one was aided with an unreported sum from the 
bishop and clergy of the diocese ; and one had at- 
tached to it the office of parish clerk, and a salary 
from subscription of £40. 


A market and post town, one of the two assize towns 
of the county of Kildare, and formerly a parliament- 
ary borough, in the parish of Naas, barony of North 
Naas, CO. Kildare, Leinster. It stands on a branch 
of the Grand Canid, and on the mail-roads from Dub- 
lin to Carlo w, New Ross, Kilkenny, Waterford, 
Cork, and Limerick, 4^ miles south by east of Clane, 

5 west-north-west of Blessington, 5^ east-north-east 
of Newbridge, 5 J north -north -east of KilcuUen- 
Bridge, 7} south-west of Rathcoole, 9| east-north- 
east of Kildare, and 15 r south-west of Dublin. 

General Description.'] — The country immediately 
around Naas is a fertile and well-cultivated part of 
an extensive champaign district; and while suffi- 
ciently interpatched and ornamented with demesne- 
land, it is not a little rich in the quantity of its agri- 
cultural produce. Jegginstown-house, in the imme- 
diate southern vicinity of the town, is the ruin of 
one story of a domestic pile, commenced on an 
enormous scale by the unfortunate Earl of Strafford. 
The town consists principally of a main street, ex- 
tending } of a mile south-westward along the road 
from Dublin to Kilkenny; a cross street, of 540 
yards in length, intersecting the main street at right 
angles ; a street of about 250 yards in length, ex- 
tending along the road to Sallins ; and various sub- 
ordinate streets and lanes, all of very brief extent. 
The main street, in consequence of its forming the 
placeof junction of the leading roads from Limerick, 
Cork, Waterford, New Ross, and theSnany inter- 
mediate towns, to Dublin, has a stirring and lively 
appearance ; but the town, as a whole, presents a 

character far beneath the tone of its great advantage* 
of situation ; and the rows of cabins in the outskirts 
are poor, miserable, and to a great extent ruinous. 

Public Buildings.'] — A priory for canons regular 
of the order of St. Augustine, was founded at Naas 
in the 12th century ; and its possessions were granted, 
at the general dissolution, to Richard Mannering. 
An abbey for Dominican friars was founded about 
the year 1355, by the Eustace family, near the 
centre of the town ; and, together with its appur- 
tenances, it was granted at the dissolution to Sir 
Thomas Lutterell, and was afterwards sold by Lord 
Carhampton, Sir T. Lutterells descendant, to Mr. 
Finlay of Dublin. A monastery for friars-eremites 
of the order of St. Augustine, was founded at Naas 
in 1484 ; and a lease of it was granted in the 26th 
year of Queen Elizabeth to Nicholas Aylmer. Some 
remains of the Augustinian monastery still exist. 
The old church, now incorporated with additions or 
enlargements, and constituting the parochial chifrch 
of Naas, is an uninteresting edifice ; and its unfinished 
steeple was erected by one of the Earls of Mayo. A 
pyramidal monument of black and white marble, 
situated within the walls of the church, was ** erected 
by John, fourth Earl of Mayo, in memory of his 
grandfather, John, first Earl of Mayo, and his father, 
Joseph Deane, Lord Archbishop of Tuam and Earl 
of Mayo, who died in 1794." A small almshouse, 
for four poor widows, was founded in Naas by the 
family of Lattin. The large modern workhouse and 
the fever hospital will be noticed in connection with 
the Poor-law union. A strong square tower near 
the church, is called the Castle of Naas, belongs to 
the Burgh family of Oldtown, and was constituted 
the parsonage- house of Naas. A large moat at the 
upper end of the town is a remarkable object. A 
large new barrack stands in the western outskirts of 
the town ; and the gaol and court-house stand be- 
tween the town and the barrack. The gaol is a new 
structure ; and contains 18 cells large enough, and 
heated with hot air from a stove or furnace, for 
separate confinement : its entire accommodation com- 
prises 44 cells, and 8 beds in 4 other rooms ; and, in 
1843, the average number of prisoners was 51, the- 
greatest number was 83, the total number, including 
debtors, was 330, and the total expenditure waa 
£1,364 9s. 8id. The old market-house stood in the 
centre of the main street ; but the present market- 
house, much to the damage of the retail trade, is 
situated at the extremity of the town, toward the 

Trade.] — Naas has by no means prospered in pro- 
portion to the number and value of its advantages 
for trade ; but, on the contrary, has experienced 
some decline, while the nearest markets, possessed 
of no kindred advantages, have been improving. 
The cut from the Grand Canal at Osberstown and 
Callan-Bridge to Naas, a distance of about 2 statute 
miles, was completed in 1789, at the cost of £12,300. 
The Grand- Trunk line of railway, as projected by 
the Public Commissioners, passes within 2\ miles of 
the north-west outskirt of the town. The public 
conveyances in 1838 were a car to Ballymore-Eus- 
tace, a caravan to Dublin, a car to Newbridge, a 
caravan in transit between Dublin and Kilcullan, 
three coaches in transit between Dublin and Kil- 
kenny, a coach in transit between Dublin and Birr, 
a coach and a mail-coach between Dublin and Water- 
ford, a coach in transit between Dublin and Thurles, 
a caravan in transit between Dublin and Roscrea, a 
coach in transit between Dublin and Clonmel, two 
mail-coaches in transit between Dublin and Cork, a 
caravan in transit between Dublin and Mountrath, a 
caravan in transit between Dublin and Mountmel- 
lick, a coach in transit between Dublin and Carlo w» 



and a mail-coach and a coach in transit between 
Dublin and Limerick. A considerable quantity of 
agricultural produce is sold at the weekly markets 
on Monday, Thursday, and Saturday ; and fairs are 
held on Jan. 16, Feb. 16, March 17, April 15, May 
25. June 5. July II. Aug. 10, Sept. 20, Oct. 20, 
Nov. 22, and Dec. 14. 

poor-law Union. — The Naas Poor-law union ranks 
as the 16th ; and was declared on Feb. 12, 1839. It 
comprises parts of the counties of Kildare, Dublin, 
and Wicklow, comprehending an area of 199,335 
acres, with a pop., in 1831, of 51,731. Its electoral 
divisions, together with the number of valued tene- 
ments in each, are Kill, 376; Bodenstown, 181; 
Naas. 1,033; Rathmore, 209; Killishee, 198; Oar- 
nalway. 127; Giltown, 258; Rilcullen, 530; Usk, 
280; Clane. 454; Timahoe, 323; Downings, 303; 
Carragh, 196; Kilmeague, 496; Old-Connell, 173; 
Newbridge, 376; Rathaman, 282; Kildare, 638; 
Ballyaax, 364; Moorfield, 266; Ballymore- Eustace. 
614; Blessington, 463; and Boysto'wn, 428. The 
baronies and portions of baronies, together with the 
number of valued tenements in each, included within 
the union, are Uppercross, 1 ; Clane, 1,276 ; Con- 
nell, 1.489; Kilcullen, 611 ; East Narragh and Rhe- 
ban, 171 ; North Naas, 1,423; South Naas, 1,225; 
East Ophalv, 1,023 ; West Ophaly. 85 ; South Salt, 
376: and Lower Talbotstown. 890. The total 
number of valued tenements is 8,570 ; and of these, 
5,087 were valued under £5,-1,138, under £10,— 
587. under £15,-300, under £20,-239, under 
£25.-141, under £30,-233, under £40,-168, 
under £50,— and 677, at and above £50. The 
total nett annual value of the property rated is 
£134.695 ds. 6d. ; the total number of persons rated 
is 8,570 ; and of these, 2,556 were rated for a val- 
uation not exceeding £1, — 1,043, not exceeding 
£2,-683, not exceeding £3,-525, not exceeding 
£4, — and 379, not exceeding £5. The work- 
bouse was contracted for in July, 1839, — to be com- 
pleted ia Dec, 1840.— to cost £5,550 for building 
and completion, and £960 for fittings and contin- 
gendes, — to occupy a site of 5 acres, 1 rood, 14 
perches, obtained tor an annual rent of £26 12s. 7id., 
— and to contain accommodation for 550 paupers. 
The date of the first admission of paupers was Aug. 
4. 1841 ; the total expenditure thence till Feb. 6, 
184a. was £6,690 128. lid.; and the total previous 
expenditure was £586 58. Id. The number of pau- 
per inmates on Dec. 2, 1843, was 347. The medical 
charities within the union are the county infirmary 
at Kildare, fever hospitals at Naas and Kilcullen, 
and dispensaries at Blessington, Kilcullen, Naas, 
Newbridge, and Robertstown ; and, in 1839-^, they 
received £477 9ls. 6d. from subscription, £2,110 19s. 
from public grants, and £25 lis. from other sources, 
expenided £518 Is. lOd. in salaries to medical officers, 
£132 Os. 5id. for medicines, and £1,293 15s. 6id. for 
contingencies, and administered to 873 intern and 
7.^24 extern patients. In 1839^40, the Naas fever 
hof^pital expended £364 12s. 6d., and admitted 234 
patients ; and the Naas dispensary served for an area 
of 8,814 acres, with a pop. of 5,712, expended £33 
17s. 6d.. and administered to 2,012 patients. 

Mumicipai Affairs. "^ — Naas is a borough of great 
antiquity, and probably by prescription ; and it has 
charters of 2 Henry v.. 11 Elizabeth, and 7 James 
I. The borough limits, according to the charter of 
Elizabeth, include **all the lands, tenements, rents, 
and services, and all and singular other hereditaments 
which then were known, accepted, or reputed as 
part and number of the town of Naas, or >^'ithin the 
precincts thereof;" but they neither define the in- 
cluded lands, nor indicate how far they extend from 
%ht centre of the town ; and though they certainly 

comprised a considerable district around the whole 
town, and possibly extended three miles northward 
and three miles southward, they have now, for a 
long period, been practically unknown. The corpo- 
ration, according to charter, was stvled, ** The Sove- 
reign, Provosts, Burgesses, and Commonalty of 
Naas;*' and consisted of one sovereign, two provosts, 
and an indefinite number of burgesses and freemen. 
In 1833, no burgess and only 2 freemen were resi- 
dent within the borough, only 8 burgesses and 7 
freemen were anywhere in existence, and 6 of these 
burgesses and 3 of the freemen were members of 
Lord Mayo's family, while even the remainder were 
all his nominees and creatures. No instance was 
known, at the date of the Municipal Corporation 
Enquiry, of a Protestant dissenter, or a Roman Ca- 
tholic having been admitted to the burgesship or the 
freedom. Two members were sent, nominally, from 
the borough, but actually from Lord Mayo, to the 
Irish parliament; and the £15,000 of compensation for 
disfranchisement at the Legislative Union, were paid 
to the Earl of Mayo and the Hon. and Rev. Richard 
Bourke, to be applied upon the trusts of his lord- 
ship's marriage-settlement. A borough court was 
at one time in existence, but has now been very long 
in desuetude. Naas is the seat of the spring assizes 
for the county of Kildare, of a half-yearly court of 
quarter-sessions, and of a weekly court of petty-ses- 
sions. The public peace is maintained by a party 
of the county constabulary. ** The streets," says 
an official report in 1833, ** are in a bad state of re- 
pair, although they form portions of the county 
roads, and should be kept in order by the trustees of 
the turnpikes. They are not often cleansed by the 
authorities, who, at the same time, prevent the in- 
habitants from doing so, as one ojf the portreeves 
claims the sweepings, which are valuable for manure. 
To such a length has this been carried, that persons 
have been fined for removing heaps of filth which 
had remained for days opposite their houses. No 
attempt has been made to introduce the provisions , 
of the 9 Geo. IV., c. 82, for the purpose of lighting 
and paving the town." A considerable extent of 
property formerly belonged to the corporation ; and 
the report now quoted sa vs, in reference to a portion 
of this property which still remains : ** Great poverty 
exists in this district, which might be materially 
alleviated by the application to public purposes of 
the property yet remaining to the corporation ; and, 
if the management of that property were submitted 
to an efficient public control, a very considerable 
fund would be produced from it." 

5/a/M/ic«.]— Area of the town, 188 acres. Pop., 
in 1831, 3,808; in 1841, 3,571. Houses 590. Fam- 
ilies employed chiefly in agriculture, 14; in manu- 
factures and trade, 211 ; in other pursuits, 462. 
Families dependent chiefly on property and profes- 
sions, 37 ; on the directing of labour, 318 ; on their 
o>vn manual labour, 331 ; on means not specified, 1. 
Males at and above 5 years of age who could read 
and write, 727 ; who oould read but not write, 261 ; 
who could neither read nor write, 473. Females at 
and above 5 years of age who could read and Write, 
632 ; who could read but not write, 398 ; who could 
neither read nor write, 667. 

History.'] — Naas was a place of considerable im- 
portance in the early ages of Irish history, and con- 
stituted a seat of the kings of Leinster. The town 
itself and the country around it formed, at the date 
of the Anglo-Norman invasion, the toparchy or sub- 
ordinate principality of the chief sept MacCallan ; 
and, after the Anglo-Norman conquest, it first was 
granted to William Fitzgerald, the son-in-law of 
Earl Strongbow, and then passed to successively the 
families of De Londres and De Preston. Soon after 



the arrival of the English, the town was fortified ; 
at various subsequent dates it was made the site of 
private embattled or military dwellings ; in 1419, it 
was the scene of a meeting of parliament ; in 1534, 
it was taken by the Lord-deputy Skeffington from 
Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, who was then in open re- 
bellion ; in 1577, it was to a great extent reduced to 
ashes, by an irruption of Rory-Oge-O'More, dynast 
of Leix ; in 1650, it was captured for Cromwell, by 
Colonels Hewson and Reynolds ; and, in 1798, at the 
very outset of the rebellion of that year, it sustained 
an attack from a body of insurgents, headed by a 
farmer of the name oi Reynolds, but was success^ 
fully defended, at great loss to the assailants, by a 
body of the king's troops, un der the command of 
Lieutenant-general Dundas, — Naas gives the title 
of Viscount to the Earl of Mayo. 

NACHORE, a hill in the parish of Ardclinis, 
barony of Lower Glenarm, co. Antrim, Ulster. It 
extends invwrd from the beetling promontory of 
Garron Point ; forms a small ridge ; and attains an 
extreme altitude of 1,179 teet above sea-level. 

NACUNG, a lake in the parish of Tullaghobeg. 
ley, barony of Kilmacrenan, co. Donegal, Ulster. 
It measures 3 miles by 3 furlongs, has a surface- 
elevation of 188 feet above sea-level, and is nearly 
dissevered into two parts, called Upper Nacung and 
Lower Naoung; yet it almost striotly forms one lake 
with Lough Dunlewy, which extends 1^ mile away 
to the east; and, viewed as including this lake, it 
stretches westward from the base of Errigal moun- 
tain to the source or rather formation of the Clady 

NAFFOY, or Nafoout, a lake in the parish and 
barony of Ross, co. Galway, Connaught. It lies 
among the mountains of Joyce- Country, 8f miles 
west- north. west of Cong. Length, eastward, 2) 
miles; breadth, (; area, 630 acres, 1 rood, 7 perches; 
surface-elevation above sea-level, 96 feet. Its super- 
fluent waters are carried off by the Finny rivulet, 2 
miles eastward to an arm of Lough Mausk; and on 
its shores are the hamlets of Shanafaraghaunmore 
and Shanafaraghaunbeg; 

NAGLES MOUNTAINS, a range of mountains 
on the mutual border of the barony of Barrymore on 
the south, and the baronies of Fermoy and Condons 
and Clangibbon on the north, co. Cork, Munstor. 
They extend about Q miles westward firom the im- 
mediate vicinity of the town of Fermoy ; they form 
part of the south screen of the valley of the Black- 
water, and of the great backbone mountain-range 
of CO. Cork ; and their chief summits, named from 
east to west, are Rathcormack mountain, Knockin- 
skea, Sechane, and Nagles, The loiliest of these 
summits is Knockinskea, which has an altitude of 
1,388 feet above sea-lfvel. A large portion of thq 
Nagles mountains was formerly sheeted with forest ; 
and a considerable extent of their declivities is still 
beautifully wooded. 

NALLENROE, an alias name of Lough Carrown 
more, barony of Erris, oo. Mayo, Connaught. 

NALTEl^N. See Niltehn. 

NANNY WATER (The), a rivulet of tho 
county of Meath, l4einster. It rises about 3 mil^s 
east-south-east of the Boyne at the town of N&van, 
and flows 13 miles east by northward, along the 
boundary between the baronies of Lower Navan and 
Lower Duleek on the north, and the baronies of 
Skreen and Upper Duleek on the south, to the Irish 
fiea, at a point 3^ miles south by east of the mouth 
of the Boyne. In the course of its progress, it suc- 
cessively flows along the romantic glen of the Dia- 
mond-Rock, curves along the base of a pleasant 
amphitheatre of hills, expands into a beautiful lake 
witliin the ornate demesne of Somerville, and makes 

such comparative rapids as afford sites for three 
flour-mil U and several grist-mills. The water of the 
stream has been reported peculiarly suitable for the 
purposes of bleaching, 

NANTENANE. See Natenake. 

NANTINAN, or Nantknaut, a parish in the 
baronies of Shanid and Lower Connello, 2^ miles 
south-east by south of Askeaton, co. Limerick, Murs- 
ster. Length, 2 J miles ; breadth, 2. Area of the 
Shanid section, 1,330 acres; of the Lower Connello 
section, 6,592 acres. Pop. of the whole, in 1831, 
2,869; in 1841, 3,018. Houses 480. Pop. of the 
Lower Connello section, in 1841, 2,669. Houses 429. 
The entire surface, in a general view, consists of 
inferior land ; the uplands being rocky, and the low- 
lands boggy and wasteful. Yet a considerable ag- 
gregate of good and even ornate ground exists ; and 
the three seats of Nantinan, Thos. H. F. Royse, 
Esq., Stone ville, J. Massy, Esq., and Ballinvirigb, 
are situated in respectively the north, the south, and 
the east. The road from Adare to Shanagolden, and 
that from Askeaton to Rathkeale, intersect each 
other in the interior. — This parish is a rectory, and a 
perpetual curacy, in the dio. of Limerick, 'the rec- 
tory is part of the benefice of Loughill: which see. 
Tithe composition, £461 10s. The perpetual 
curacy is a separate benefice. Glebe, £3 15s. Gross 
income, £103 15s.; nett, £102 4s. 6d, Patron, the 
precentor of Limerick cathedral. The church was 
built in 1817, by mean^ of a loan of £738 9s. 25d. 
from the late Board of First Fruits. Sittings 150 ; 
attendance 100. The Methodist meeting-house ha:» 
an attendance of about 110. In 1834, the Prot^^s- 
tants amounted to 425, and the Roman Catholics to 
2,564; and a daily school was salaried with £5 
a-year from subscription, and had on its books 22 
boys and 11 girls. 

NAPPAGH, an islet, immediately west of the 
island of LettermuUen, barony of MoycuUen, co. 
Galway, Connaught. 

NARIN, a post and fishing hamlet, on the north 
coast of the parish of Inniskeel, barony of Boylagh, 
CO. Donegal, Ulster. It stands opposite the island 
of Inniskeel, 5 miles north of Ardara, 13 north, 
north-west of Inver, and 118 north-west of' Dublin. 
" Narin, if we can assign it a locality," says Mr. 
Eraser, <* consists of a few wretched cabins, inhabit- 
ed by poor fishermen, along the east coast of G wee- 
barra bay, near to the Island of Inniskeel, on which 
there are some monastic remains. There is a church, 
a glebe-house, and a Methodist chapel in the neigh- 
bourhood. The ocean sets in with great force in 
this part of the coast, and from the extent of drifted 
sand mingling with the rocks and moorland, the 
shores have a wild and desolate appearance." Pop. 
returned with the parish. 

NARRAGH AND RHEBAN (East), a barony 
of the county of Kildare, Leinster, It is bounded, 
on the north, by Kilcullen; on the east, by co. 
Wicklow; on the south, by Kilkea and Moone; 
and on the west, by West Narragh and Rheban and 
West Ophaly. Length, south by westward, 6| miles; 
extreme breadth, 6^ ; area, 21,374 acres, 10 perches. 
The surface consists, in the aj^regate, of good 
champaign land ; and its three lomest grounds have 
altitudes above sea-level of respectively 574, 489, 

and 389 feet This barony comtaina part of the par- 

ishes of Foiitstown, Moone, Narragkmore, and Tan- 
kardstown, and the whole of the parishes of Davids- 
town, Timolin, and Usk. The chief villages are 
Timolin and Ballytore. The Act 6 and 7 William 
IV., cap. 84, transferred one townhmd of Narragh- 
more, containing a population of 13, from Eitidt 
Narragh and Rheban to West Narragh and Rheban. 
Pop., in 1831, 7,386 ; in 1841, 7,049. Houses l,l4d 



Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 905; in 
manufactures and trade, 218; in other pursuits, 143. 
Families dependent chiefly on property and profes- 
sions, 35 ; on the directing of labour, 369 ; on their 
own manual labour, 830; on means not specified, 32. 
Males at and above 5 years of age who could read 
and write, 1,217; who could read but not write, 
576; who could neither read nor write, 1,357. 
Females at and above 5 years of age who could 
read and write, 757 ; who could read but not write, 

755; who could neither read nor write, 1,565 

Eait Narragh and Rbeban is distributed among the 
Poor-law unions of Athy, Baltinglass, and Naas. 
The total number of tenements valued is 1,129; and 
of these, 664 were valued under £5, — 137, under 
£10,-72, under £15,-46, under £20,-28, under 
£25,-26, under £30,-^50, under £40,-26, under 
£50,— and 80, at and above £50. 

NARRAGH and RHEBAN (West), a baronv 
of the county of Kildiare, Leinster. It is bounded, 
on the north, by West Ophaly ; on the east, by East 
Narragh and Rheban ; on the south, by Kilkea and 
Moone, and by Queen's county ; and, on the west, 
by Queen's county. Length, southward, bk miles ; 
extreme breadth, 5^; area, 22,126 acres, 3 roods, 
20 perches, — of which 139 acres, 1 rood, 29 perches 
are in the river Barrow. A considerable district in 
the north is part of the great bog of Monavullagh. 
The rest of the surface consists, in general, of good 
champaign ground. The Barrow river and naviga- 
uoii pass through the interior. — This barony con- 
tains part of the parishes of Narraghmore, St. John's 
of Athy, and St. Michael's of Athy, and the whole 
of the parishes of Churchtown and Kilberry. The 
only town is Athy. Pop., in 1831, 8,389; in 1841, 
1I,U33. Houses 1,468. Families employed chiefly 
in agriculture, 638 ; in manufactures and trade, 341 ; 
in other purAiits, 754. Families dependent chiefly 
on property and professions, 63 ; on the directing of 
labour, 640 ; on their own manual labour, 933 ; on 
means not specified, 97. Males at and above 5 years 
ot age who could read and write, 1,646 ; who could 
read but not write, 694 ; who could neither read nor 
write, 1,566. Females at and above 5 years of age 
who could read and write, 1,108; who could read 
but not write, 1,033 ; who could neither read nor 
Wiite, 1,927. — West Narragh and Rheban lies wholly 
witiiin the Poor-law union of Athy. T\^e total 
number of tenements valued is 1,582 ; and of these, 
1,015 were valued under £5,-202, under £10,— 1 12, 
under £15,-60, under £20,-40, under £-25,-27, 
under £30,-28, under £40,-24, under £50,— and 
74, at and above £50. 

NARRAGHMORE, a hamlet in the parish of 
Davidstown, barony of East Narragh and Rheban, 
CO. Kildare, Leinster. It has a police barrack ; and 
stands 2) miles north-north-west of Ballytore, and 
the same distance sou th-south- west of Calverstown. 
Pop. returned with the parish. 

NARRAGHMORE, a parish, partly in the bar. 
onies of West Narragh and Rheban and Kilkea and 
Moone, but chiefly in the barony of East Narragh 
and Rheban, 2 miles north-north-west of Ballytore, 
CO. Kildare, Leinster. Length, westward, 7i miles ; 
extreme breadth, 2}. Area of the West Narragh 
and Rheban section, 1,921 acres, 34 perches; of the 
Kilkea and Moone section, 2,114 acres, 1 rood, 5 
ptrrcben ; of the Ea<it Narragh and Rheban section, 
tk,-£34 acres, 2 roods, 25 perches. Pop. of the whole, 
in 1831, according to the Census, 3,191, but accord- 
ing to the Ecclesiastical Authorities, 3, 125; in 1841, 
Xc*y5. Houses 457. Pop. of the West Narragh 
a^Hl Rbeban section, in 1831, 305; in 1841, 442. 
Hoa^ieH 69. Pop. of the Kilkea and Moone section, 
IB lti;il, 307; in 1841, 333. Houses 51. Pop. of 

the East Narragh and Rheban section, in 1831, 2,579; 
in 1841, 2.120. Houses 337. The old forts of Car- 
men or Mullamast, whose loftiest summit has an 
altitude of 563 feet above sea-level, are situated in 
the south : see Carmen. Part of the extreme west 
is a portion of the bog of Monavullagh ; and a small 
portion of the northern border also is unreclaimed 
bog. Excepting these districts and some moor 
and cut-out bog, jointly amounting to about one- 
fourth of the whole area, the parochial sur&ce 
consists wholly of good, flat, arable land. The old 
demesne of Narraghmore, on the nort& border, and 
in the vicinity of the church, is now part of the 
estate of Robert Latouche, Esq. The other seats 
are Skerries-house, Youngstown-house, Kilmead- , 
house, Ghassely-house, Ballindrum-house, Mulla- 
mast-house, Boakefield-house, Prospect, Treepark, 
Willowbrook, Battlemount-house, Oakfield, Popler- 
hall, and Blackrath- house. The chief antiquity 
additional to the forts of Mullamast, is Blackra^ 

castle This parish is a rectory, and a separata 

benefice, in the dio. of Dublin. Tithe composition, 
£646 3s. Id. ; glebe, £24. Gross income, £670 3s. 
Id. ; nett, £525 16s. 6d. Patron, the diocesan. The 
incumbent holds also the archdeaconry of Dub- 
lin, and the united benefices which constitute its 
corps ; and he is resident, during half the year, in 
Narraghmore. A curate receives a salary of £75. 
The church is of unknown date ; and was not long 
ago repaired and put into excellent order by means 
of parochial assessment. Sittings 160; attendance 
70. The Roman Catholic chapels at Crookstown 
and Kilmead have an attendance of respectively 
1,000 and 500; and, in the Roman Catholic par- 
ochial arrangement, are mutually united. In 1834* 
the parishioners consisted of 246 Churchmen, 9 Pro- 
testant dissenters, and 2,938 Roman Catholics ; and 
two daily schools — one of which was aided with an 
unreported sum from subscription — were usuallv at- 
tended by about 102 children. In 1842, a National 
school at Old Grange had on its books 42 boys and 
19 girls. 

NARROW. WATER (The), a river, partly of 
Leinster, but chiefly of Ulster. It is only 5^ miles 
in length; consists of the lower portion of the 
Newry river; runs south-south-eastward from the 
town of Newry to the head of Lough Carlingford 
at Warrenpoint; and flows wholly on the boundary 
between tlie county of Down on the left and the 
counties of Armagh and Louth on the right. It is 
all tidal, comprises a considerable area of tidewav, 
and connects the Newry Canal navigation with the 
Irish sea. A rapid about 1| mile above Warren- 
point obstructed the navigation of Narrow- water 
and injured the trade of Newry for centuries; but 
this was completelv removed in 1831. 

NARROW-WATER, a seat and an old castle, 
in the parish of Warrenpoint, 1^ mile north-west 
of the village of Warrenpoint^ and on the banks of 
the Narrow- Water river, barony of Upper Iveagh, 
CO. Down, Ulster. The mansion is the residence 
of the Hall family, and is a large modern edifice. 
The attached demesne comprises nearly 400 acres, 
extends into the parii^h of Clonallan, and is rich in 
wood, general decoration, and both home and distant 
scenery. The castle overhangs the river at a point 
where the stream is contracted b^ a projecting rock ; 
it is supposed to have been built, in the 17th cen- 
tury, by the Duke of Ormond ; it consists principally 
of a massive, square, battlemented tower ; and, 
though converted to the inglorious uses of succes- 
sively a salt- work and a dog- kennel, it forms a pic- 
turesque feature in the vale of the river, and com- 
mands a noble view of the gorgeous basin of Lough 
Carlingford, overhung by the mountains of Car ling- 



ford and Mourne. A regular ferry exists at Narrow- 
Water, and connects Dundalk, Carlingford, and 
Flurry- Bridge with Warrenpoint, Rostrevor, and 
the road leacUng to Castlewellan and Downpatrick. 

NASH, a village in the parish of Owenduff, bar- 
ony of Shelboume, co. Wexford, Leinster. It 
stands 4^ miles south-south-east of New- Ross, on 
the road thence to Tintehi. Fairs are held on June 
24, Aug. 15, and Nov. 20. Pop. not specially re- 

NATENANE, or Nantenane, a hamlet in the 
parish of Kilcoleman, barony of Trughenackmy, co. 
Kerry, Munster. Post-town, Milltown. Fairs are 
held on Whit- Tuesday and Wednesday. Pop^ not 
specially returned. 

NATHLASH (St.), or Nicholas (St.), a par- 
ish in the baron v of Fermoy, 1^ mile south of Kil- 
dorrery, co. CorK, Munster. It contains the village 
of RocKMiLLS: which see. Length and breadth, 
each I mile ; area, 1,024 acres. Pop., in 1831, 869 ; 
in 1841. 899. Houses 151. Pop. of the rural dis- 
tricts, in 1841, 438. Houses 68. The surface con- 
sists of good land ; and is drained by the river Pun- 
cheon, and traversed by the route of the projected 
railway from Dublin to Cork. — This parish is a rec- 
tory, m the dio. of Cloyne. Tithe composition, 
£120. The rectory of Nathlash and the vicarage of 
KiLDORREBT [sec that article], constitute the bene- 
fice of Nathlash. Length, 5 miles ; breadth, 1^. 
Pop., in 1831, 2,848. Gross income, £279 Us. ; 
nett, £253 2s. ^d. Patron, the diocesan. The in- 
cumbent holds also the benefice of Ahem, in the dio. 
of Cloyne ; and is non-resident in Nathlash. A 
curate receives a salary of £69 4s. 7id., and an 
allowance of £13 68. lid. for a house. The church 
was built in 1812, by means of a gift of £738 9». 
2}d. from the late Board of First Fruits, and was 
interiorly fitted up at the private expense of the late 
Richard Aldworth, Esq. Sittings 100; attendance 
50. There is a Roman Catholic chapel in Kildorrery. 
In 1834, the Protestants of the parish amounted to 
62, and the Roman Catholics to 831 ; the Protes- 
tants of the union to 90, and the Roman Catholics 
to 2,880 ; a Protestant Sunday school in the parish 
was usually attended by about 27 children ; and 2 
daily schools in the parish — one of which was sal- 
aried with an unreported sum from subscription — 
had on their books 44 boys and 1 1 girls. 

NAUGHAVAL. See Nodghaval. 

NAULE, a parish, containing a village of the 
same name, on the north border of the barony of 
West Balrothery, and of the county of Dublin, 
Leinster. Length, southward, 3 miles ; extreme 
breadth, 2 ; area, i2,627 acres, 2 roods, 21 perches. 
Pop., in 1831, 758; in 1841, 756. Houses 126. 
Pop. of the rural districts, in 1831, 542; in 1841, 
539. Houses 89. The surface consists of middle- 
rate land. A height, whose western declivity is 
within the eastern boundary, has an altitude of 586 
feet above sea-level. The Delvin river divides the 
parish from co. Meath. The seats are Westown 
and Reynoldstown. See Westown. The road 
from Drogheda to Dublin, by way of Nagg's-Head 
and Ballyboghill, passes through the interior. The 
village of Naule stands on this road, on the river 
Delvin, and on the road from Garristown to Bal- 
briggan, 3| miles east-north-east of Garristown, and 
4 west-south-west of Balbriggan. Area, 16 acres. 
Pop., in 1831, 216; in 1841, 217. Houses 37. 
Fairs are held on March 16, April 26, May 21, Oct. 
2, and Sept. 8. At the village are the parish-church, 
a Roman Catholic chapel, an old castle, and a police 
barrack. The adjacent country is beautiful and 
romantic in its scenery, and rich and sylvan in its 
dress. The vale of Naule or the Roches, traversed 

by the limpid waters of the Delvin river, is a pictur- 
esque glen, screened by a chain of expressively-fea- 
tured hills, overhung at the height of about 150 feet 
by the Castle of Naule, enlivened with the cascade 
of the Roches, and enriched in scenic power and 
romance, with the intersection of rocks, and the 
perforation of numerous cavities and caverns, the 
constant resort of the fox and the hare. The Castle 
of Naule boldly crowns a rocky and precipitous 
height, and forms a striking feature in the landscape. 
This pile was probably erected by the Anglo-Noruian 
family of De GenneviUe, who obtained from Hugh 
De Lacy, Lord of Meath, large grants of land within 
his ample principality ; it pasi^ed by marriage, in the 
14th century, to Sir Robert Cruise of Grallagh and 
Tyrrelstown, the descendant of a Danish family ; it 
was forfeited, in 1641, by Christopher Cruise, Esq., 
the descendant of Sir Robert ; and the manor con- 
nected with it afterwards became the property partly 
of the Hussey family of Westown, and partly of the 
Tennison family of Castle- Tennison, in co. Roscom- 
mon This parish is a vicarage, and part of the 

benefice of Hollywood [which see], in the dio. of 
Dublin. The vicarial tithes are compounded for 
£16 8s. 2d., and the rectorial for £130 15s. ; and 
the latter are impropriate in William Dutton Pol- 
lard, Esq. The church is of unknown date and 
cost. Sittings 100; attendance 20. The Roman 
Catholic chHpel has an attendance of 500 ; and, in 
the Roman Catholic parochial arrangement, is united 
to the chapels of Hollywood and Clonmethan. In 
1834, the Protestants amounted to 14, and the Ro- 
man Catholics to 744 ; and a pay daily school had on 
its books 20 boys and 25 girls. 

NAV AN (Lower), a barony of the county of 
Meath, Leinster. It is bounded, on the north, by 
Upper Kells and Morgallion ; on the north-east, by 
Upper Slane ; on the east and south-east, by Skreen ; 
on the south, by Upper Navan ; and, on the west, by 
Lune and Upper Kells. Length, south- east wara, 
8} miles ; extreme breadth, 6 ; area, 25,835 acre^, 
1 rood, 38 perches, — of which 82 acres, 1 rood, 
17 perches are in the river Boyne. The surface 
is a low, flat, and prevailingly fertile portion of 
the great plain of Meath. The Boyne flows along 
the eastern boundary. — This barony contains part 
of the parishes of Balrath - Boyne and Donagh. 
Patrick, and the whole of the parishes of Ard- 
braccan, Ardsallagh, Churchtown, Donaghmore, 
Dunmoe, Liscarton, Martry, Navan, and Rataine. 
The only town is the chief part of Navan ; and the 
principal village is Bohermeen. Pop., in 1831, 
16,234; in 1841, 15,873.^ Houses 2,572. Families 
employed chiefly in agriculture, 1,708; in manufac- 
tures and trade, 763 ; in other pursuits, 365. Fam- 
ilies dependent chiefly on property and professions, 
60; on the directing of labour, 1,055; on their own 
manual labour, 1,567; on means not specified, 154. 
Males at and above 5 years of age who could read and 
write, 2,670 ; who could read but not write, 1,312 ; 
who could neither read nor write, 3, 166. Females at 
and above 5 years of age who could read and write, 
1,264; who could read but not write, 1,537; who 
could neither read nor write, 4,162. — Lower Navan 
lies partly within the Poor-law union of Navan, and 
partly within that of Kells. The total number of 
tenements valued is 2,743 ; and of these, 1 ,844 were 
valued under £5, — 323, under £10, — 146, under 
£15,-91, under £20,-90, under £25,-45, under 
£30,-68, under £40,-25, under £50,— and 111, 
at and above £50. The annual value of the pro- 
perty rated is £28,734 Us. 3d. ; and the sum levied 
under the grand warrant of summer, 1841, was £943 


NAVAN (Uppbr), b barony of the county of 


Bfeath, Leinster. It is bounded, on the north, by 
Lower Navan; on the east, by Lower Deece; on 
the south, by Lower Moyfenragh ; and, on the west 
and north-west, by Imne. Length, eastward, 7h 
miles ; extreme breadth, 5 ; area, 17>651 acres, 3 
roods, 29 perches, — of which 92 acres, 2 roods, 33 
perches are in the river Boyne. The surface is low 
and flat, but fertile and ornate. The Boyne traces 
most of the southern boundary, and all the eastern 
boundary. The prevailing soil of the land is a rich 
earth of various depths, on a substratum of lime- 
stone gravel, limestone rock, and in some places 
ferruginous clay and gravel. But the lands along 
most of the immediate banks of the Boyne, down- 
ward from Trim, consist chiefly of a cold clay ; and 
though they might be greatly and very facilely im- 
proved by intermixture with the immediately subja- 
cent stratum of limestone gravel, they are allowed 

to remain in too cold and retentive a condition 

This barony contains part of the parish of Trim, 
and the whole of the parishes of Bective, Clonmac- 
duff, Kilcooley, Moymet, Newtownclonnun, and 
Tuliaghanoge. The only town is part of Trim. 
Pop., in 1831, 4.857 ; in 1841, 4,860. Houses 836. 
Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 599; in 
manufactures and trade, 170 ; in other pursuits, 90. 
Families dependent chiefly on property and profes- 
aoDS, 28 ; on the directing of labour, 243 ; on their 
own manual labour, 583 ; on means not specified, 5. 
Males at and above 5 years of age who could read 
and write, 725; who could read but not write, 418 ; 
who could neither read nor write, 1,021. Females 
at and above 5 years of age who could read and 
write, 364 ; who could read but not write, 517 ; who 
could neither read nor write, 1,243. — Upper Navan 
lies partly within the Poor-law union of Trim, and 
partly within that of Navan. The total number of 
tenements valued is 836; and of these, 516 were 
valued under £5,— 104, under £10,.— 37, under £15, 
—30, under £20,-16, under £25,-12, under £30, 
—22, under £40,-13, under £50,— and 86, at and 
above £50. The annual value of the property rated 
is £16,763 2s. 6d. ; and the sum levied under the 
grand warrant of summer, 1841, was £567 7s. 6d. 

NAVAN, a parish in the barony of Lower Navan, 
eo. Meath« Leinster. It contains the greater part 
€€ the town of Navan : S€re next article. Length, 
north-westward, 3^ miles ; breadth, from } to2^ ; area, 
3,544 acres, 3 roods, — of which 20 acres, 2 roods, I 
perch are in the river Boyne. Pop.', in 1831, 5,292;* 
m 1841, 6,834. Houses 1,174. Pop. of the rural dis- 
tricts, in 1831, 876; in 1841, 1,847. Houses352. The 
Boyne traces the whole of the eastern boundary. The 
land is, for the most part, low, flat, and of medium 
quality. The principal rural seats are Belmount, Fair- 
view, Leighsbrook, Brady's • Building, Millbrook, 
Blackcastle-house, and Petersville. The mail-road 
from Dublin to Enniskillen, and the routes of the rail- 
ways projected by the Public Commissioners from 
Ihiblin to Enniskillen and Armagh, pass through the 

interior This parish is nominally a vicarage, but 

practically a rectory, in the dio. of Meath. Tithe 
cofD position, £275; glebe, £6 5s. The nominal vicar- 
ages, but practical rectories of Navan, Donaghmore, 
and .A.ROSALLA [see these articles], constitute the 
benefice of Navan. Length, 6| miles ; breadth, 5}. 
Pop., in 1831.7.713. Gross income, £728 15s.; 
nett, £657 5s. 6d. Patron, the Crown. A curate 
rereircH a saUry of £75. The church was built in 
1818. bv means of a gift of £553 16s. lid. and a 
loan of i:i,015 7s. 5^d. from the late Board of First 
Fruits. Sittings 300; attendance ISO, exclusive of 
military. The Roman Catholic chapel has an at- 
tendance of 3,000 ; and, in the Roman Catholic paro- 
chial arrangement, is united to the chapel of Robins- 

town in Bective. •In 1834, the inhabitants of the par- 
ish consisted of 192 Churchmen, 6 Presbyterians, and 
5, 163 Roman Catholics ; the inhabitants of the union 
consisted of 270 Churchmen, 6 Presbvterians, and 
7,585 Roman Catholics ; 12 daily schools in the par- 
ish had on their books 423 boys and 251 girls ; and 
16 daily schools in the union had on their books 506 
boys and 317 girls. One of the schools in the parish 
was partly supported by an estate in Queen's co., 
worth £600 per annum, and bequeathed by Alderman 
Preston, for the support of this school, and of one at 
Bally roan ; each of two was salaried with £15 a-year 
from the National Board, and one of these two with 
£15 from collections in the Roman Catholic chapel; 
one was a Roman Catholic boarding and daily school ; 
and -one was attached to a convent, and taught by 
the nuns. In 1842, the Navan National male school 
was salaried with £23 from the Board, and had on 
its books 305 boys ; the Navan National female school 
was salaried with £21 from the Board, and had on 
its books 256 girls ; the Navan Commons National 
school was salaried with £14 from the Board, and 
had on its books 113 boys and 97 girls; and the 
Navan Workhouse National school h^d on its books 
20 boys and 26 girls. There is also a Roman Catho- 
lic diocesan seminary at Navan. 


A post and market town, one of the chief towns of 
Meath, and formerly a parliamentary borough, partly 
in the parish of Athlumney, barony of Skreen, and 
partly in the parish of Donaghmore, barony of Lower 
Navan, but chiefly in the parish of Navan, barony of 
Lower Navan, co. Meath, Leinster. It stands on 
the rivers Boyne and Blackwater, on the road from 
MuUingar to Drogheda, and on the mail-road from 
Dublin to Enniskillen, 6 miles south-west of Slane, 
6k north-north-west of Trim, 9 south-east by east of 
Kells, 9 north-north-west of Dunshaughlin, 9 east- 
north-east of Athboy, 9^ south by east of Nobber, 10 
north by west of Summerhill, 12| west-south-west 
of Drogheda, and 22 north-west by north of Dublin. 
General Description.'] — The surrounding country 
is an expanse of low and fertile land, considerably 
beautified by georgical improvements and demesne 
decorations. In the vicinity of the town are the 
seats of Athlumney, Peter P. Metge, Esq., — 
Greenmount, the Rev. Robert Thomson, — the villa 
of John Metge, Esq., — Blackcastle, Richard Ruxton 
Fitzherbert, Esq., — the well- wooded demesne of 
Swinartin, — Ardmulchan, Robert Taafe, Esq.,— 
and various agreeable villas and minor mansions; 
and several press quite close upon the town, while 
others stretch out such sheets of wood, as to render 
the environs pleasing. The town stands at the con- 
fluence of the Blackwater with the Boyne ; and hat 
a small section on the right bank of the Boyne, a 
Urger section on the left bank of the Boyne and 
left bank of the Blackwater, and its principal section 
on the left bank of the Boyne and right bank of the 
Blackwater. The three sections of the town may 
be designated, in reference to their mutual position, 
respectively the eastern, the north-western, and the 
south-western divisions; and they are conveniently 
connected by bridges across both of the rivers. The 
eastern division consists of a very small but regu- 
larly aligned cluster of lanes, along the terminational 
part of the canal which completes to Navan the navi- 
gation of the Boyne. The north-western section con- 

I sists principally of one street, extending 450 yards 
north- north-east ward from the bridge across the 
Blackwater, and another extending 180 yards west- 

• north-westward from the middle of the preceding. 

' The south-western division, or nmin body, consists 



principally of a central, triangular, open area, — a street 
extending 210 yards north^east^vard from the central 
area to the bridge across the Blackwater, — a street 
extending 60 yards eastward from the central area 
to the bridge across the Boyne, — a street extending 
500 yards south-south-eastward from the central 
area, in a line near the margin of the Boyne, and par- 
rallel with its course, — a street extending 900 yards 
south-westward from the central area, along the 
road to Trim, and forking, near its end, into the 
road also to Athboy, — a street extending north* 
westward and south-eastward, intersecting the mid- 
dle of the preceding street at right angles, and lead* 
ing out north-westward along the road to Kells, — 
and two irregular clust«rs of houses, the one lead* 
ing out to the barrack, and the other straddling 
round the church and the Roman Catholic chapel. 
The eastern section of the town is the Athlunmey 
division, and is often called Athlumney ; the north- 
western section is quite modem, constitutes the 
Donaghmore division, and frequently bears the name 
of Polbwee ; and the south-western section consti* 
tutes Na van- Proper, in the parish of Navan, and 
contains all the town's distinctive features. The 
houses of the principal streets are very irregiilarly 
built; those of the subordinate streets are very 
poor dwellings; and those in the town's outskirts are 
miserable huts. 

Public Buildings,'] — An abbey for regiilar canons 
was founded at Navan, in the 12th century, by the 
family of Nangle ; and in the 31 st year of Henry V III., 
it was surrendered to the Crown. In 1488, Richard 
Nangle or D'Angulo, the abbot of this establish- 
ment, took part with other ecclesiastics in the re- 
bellious attempt to place Lambert Simnel on the 
throne ; and he received from Henry VII. a pardon 
for his offence. A thlumnev- castle, in the south- 
eastern outskirts of the Athlunmey suburb, exhibits 
the extensive and picturesque ruins of a spacious 
mansion, in the style of domestic architecture which 

Prevailed in the 17th century, combined uith the 
arsher vestiges of a fortified building. A mound 
and the ruins of Athlumney church are situated ia 
the vicinity of the castle. A remarkably high and 
extensive moat occurs in the western vicinity of 
Navan, | of a mile west of the confluence of the 
Blackwater with the Bovne, and commands a good 
view of the town, and of the circunqjacent expanse 
of rich and beautiful country. The parish-church 
is a commodious structure, situated on the west side 
of the street which extends near the Boyne, and 
parallel with its course. The Roman Catholic 
chapel is a very spacious Grecian structure, 170 yards 
west of the parish- church. • The barrack occupies 
the site of the quondam ^bbey, on the right bank of 
the Blackwater. The bridewell possesses the usual 
accommodation, and is kept in a clean and orderly 
condition ; and its keeper receives a salary of £40. 
The court-house and the market-house present no 
particular feature. The infirmary for the county 
of Meath is situated at Navan ; and, in 1839-^, it 
received £3 3s. from subscription, £642 18s. 9d. 
from public grants, and £14 18s. from other sources, 
expended £221 16s. lOd. in salaries to medical of- 
ficers, £177 Os. 7d. for medicines, and £707 58. 4d. 
for contingencies, and admitted 337 patients. The 
Navan fever hospital serves principally for Navan 
Poor-law union, and, in 1839-49, it received £500 
from public grants, expended £100 in salaries to j 
medical officers, £40 for medicines, and £360 for 
contingencies, and admitted 542 patients. The 
Navan dispensary serves for a district of 33,033 
acres, with a pop. of 16,440 ; and, in 1839-40, it re- 
ceived £164 16s., expended £164 168., and admin- 
istered to 2,724 patients. 

Trade,"] — Navan, in consequence of the opemng 
of the Boyne navigation hence to Drogheda, has be- 
come a place of considerable trade, and mav be con- 
sidered as in a steadily prosperous condi^on. Ita 
advantageous situation in the centre of a great and 
rich agricultural country, commands for it a very ex- 
tensive trade in farm produce ; and its abundant sup- 
ply of fresh water, and profusion of available water- 
power, cause it to figure largely in the flour trade. 
Among the mills and maniuacturea either in the 
town itself or in its immediate vicinity, are five 
corn-mills, two paper-mills, two distiUeries, one 
tannery, and various appliances for brewing, for 
spinning, for frieze-making, and for sacking manu- 
facture. Weekly markets are held on Wednesday 
and Saturday ; and fairs are held on the third Monday 
of Jan., Easter-Monday, Trinitv-Monday, the fourth 
Monday of July, the second Monday of Sept., 
the fourth Monday of Oct., and the first Monday of 
Dec. Navan is the diverging point of the lines of 
proposed railway from Dublin toward respectively 
EnniskiUen and Armagh ; and it possesses an abun- 
dance of public conveyances. In 1841, the Navan 
Loan Fund, had a capital of £1,504, circulated 
£7,795 in 1,854 loans, cleared a nett profit of £28 
Ss, lOd., and expended for charitable purposes £10. 

Poor-law Union.] — The Navan Poor-law union 
ranks as the 50th, and was dedared on June 25, 
1839. It lies wholly in co. Meath, and compre- 
hends an area of 93,327 acres, which contained, in 
1831, a pop. of 34,482. Its electoral divisions, to* 
gether with their respective pop. in 1831, are Navan, 
9,799; Ardbraccan, 4,744; Bective, 1,041; Tara, 
1,550; Ardmulcan, 1,459; Kentstown, 1,475; 
Painestown, 2,170; Donaghpatrick, 2,8&2; Castle- 
town, 3,042; Rathkenny, 1,995; Stockallen, 1,825; 
and Slane, 2,500. The number of elected guardians 
is 21, and of ex-officio guardians is 7i and of the 
former, 5 are chosen by the division of Navan, 3 by 
Ardbraccan, 2 each by Painestown, Donaghpatrick, 
and Castletown, and 1 by each of the other divisions. 
The following are the baronies whole or part of 
which lie within the union, together with the num- 
ber of valued tenements in each : Lower Deece, 
16 ; Lower Duleek, 586 ; Upper Kells, 93 ; Morgal- 
lion, 978; Lower Navan, 2,668; Upper Navan, 106; 
Skreen, 967; and Upper Slane, 1,178. The total 
number of tenements valued is 6,5^ ; and of these, 
4,262 were valued under £5,-690, under £10,— 
380, under £15.-222, under £20.-186, under £25, 
—98, under £30,-172, under 40,-85, under £50, 
— and 494, at and above £50. The total nett annual 
value of the property rated is £111,157 8s. 4d. ; the 
total number of persons rated is 6,592 ; and of these, 
3,168 were rated at a valuation not exceedin^^ £1, — 
1,164, not exceeding £2,-506, not exceeding £3» 
— 272, not 'exceeding £4, — and 207, not exceeding 
£5. The workhouse was contracted for on July 30, 
1840, — to be completed in Nov. 1841, — to cost 
£5,700 for building and completion, and £1,061 9s. 
2d. for fittings and contingencies, — to occupy a site 
of 6 acres, 2 roods, 22 perches, obtained for £438 
10s. lOd. of purchase-money, and £80 of compensa- 
tion to occupying tenant, — and to contain accommo- 
dation for 5(X) paupers. The date of the first ad- 
mission of paupers was May 4, 1842; the total ex- 
penditure thence till Feb. 6, 1843, was £2,133 3s. 
lOd. ; and the total previous expenditure was £734 
9s. lOd. The total expenditure in 1843 was £1,701 
4s. 3Jd. The number of pauper inmates on Jan. 1, 
1844, was 284. The medical charities within the 
union are the infirmary and the fever hospital at 
Navan, and dispensaries at Castletown, Kentstown, 
Navan, and Slane; and, in 1839-40, they received 
£286 5s. from subscription, £1,381 4s. 9d. from 



public granti, and £14 18s. from other sources, ex- 
pended £685 IGs. lOd. in salaries to medical officers, 
^323 7s. lid. for medicines, and £1,123 IBs. 4d. for 
contingencies, and administered to 879 intern and 
5,080 extern patients. 

Mtoucipdt ^/^irs.]— Navan was incorporated by 
charter of 9 Edward IV. ; and it also possesses 
charters of 9 Hennr YII., 21 James I., 13 Charles 
II., and 4 James II. The limits defined by charter 
exclude a portion of the town on the side toward 
Drogbeda, and extaid about half-a-mile beyond it 
on the side toward Dublin, and nearly two miles 
beyood it on the side toward Trim. The corpora- 
tion, according to charter, was called ** The Por- 
treeve. Burgesses, and Freemen of the Town or 
Borough of Navan ;*' and had as its officers one port* 
reeve, and sometimes a deputy-portreeve, 12 bur- 
gessesv one town-clerk, and two seijeants-at-mace. 
The borgesses were elected for life from among the 
freemen; and, in 1833, they amounted to nine, — 
three of whom were brothers of Lord Tara, and two 
were Lord Ludlow and his land-agent, while only 
one was resident within the boroujg;h. No Pro> 
testaot dissenter or Roman Catholic waa ever ad- 
mitted to the freedom. The corporation possessed 
DO exclusive jurisdiction *, and a borough court, 
which was presided over by the portreeve or his 
deputy, became extinct in 1820. Landed property, 
to the extent of about 1,200 acres, formerly belonged 
to the corporation, and was called the Commons of 
Navan ; but it was from time to time encroached 
upon and enclosed by tenants of the neighbouring 
landlords, and its various portions passed, at the ex- 
piry of the leases of these tenants, into the landlords* 
own possession. A court of quarter-sessions is held 
in the town twice a-year ; and a court of petty-ses- 
sions on every Monday. The public peace is pre- 
served by a party of the county constabulary. The 
streets are neither lighted nor watched ; the princi- 
pal ones are treated as part of the county roads, and 
kept in repair by grand-jury presentment ; but the 
smaller streets and the cross thoroughfares are not 
regarded as part of the county roads, and both they 
ai^ the bridges are usually in a wretched condition. 
Navan sent two members to the Irish parliament 
from the second year of Elizabeth till the Legisla- 
tive union ; but Lords Tara and Ludlow practically 
possessed sU its franchise, and they received, in 
equal portions, the whole of the £15,000 of compen- 
satioo for disfranchisement, 

Siatistict.'] — Area of the Athlumney section of 
the town, 20 acres. Pop., in 1841, 33. Houses d. 
Arem of the Donaghmore section, 15 acres. Pop., 
in 184 1 , d08« Houses 99. Families employed chiefly 
in agriculture, 36 ; in aanufisctures and trade, 45 ; 
in other pursuits, 29. Families dependent chiefly 
on property and professions, 8 ; on the directing of 
labour, 51 ; on their own manual labour, 40 ; on 
memos not specified, 11. Area of the Navan-parish 
gection, 132 acres. Pop., in 1831, 4,416; in 1841, 
4,987. Houses 822. Families employed chiefly in 
agriculture, 347; in manufactures and trade, 448; 
in other pursuits, 210. Families dependent chiefly 
on property and professions, 16 ; on the directing of 
labour, 439 ; on their own manual labour, 437 ; on 
memns not specified, 113. Males at and above 5 
years of age who could read and write, 1,026; who 
could read but not write, 370; who could neither 
read nor write, 917. Females at and above 5 years 
of age who could reafl and write, 532 ; who could 
rtrad but not write, 467 ; who could neither read nor 
write. 1.208. 

Hisiofy,! — Navan is said to have been one of the 
towns which were walled and rendered defensible by 
Uugfa De Lacy, immediately after the Anglo-Nor- 

man conquest ; and it was, during many subsequent 
ages, a place of considerable importance. An act 
of the 34th year of Henry VIII. directs that " every 

Sloughed-land within the county of Methe and West- 
lethe, used to be charged with subsidie, and not 
free from imposition, shall be, during the term of 4 
years, charged with the sum of 3 shillings and 4 
pence, towards building the walls of the town of 
Navan." The Nangle familv, at the sub-partition 
of Meath, obtained a grant of Navan, with attached 
palatinate privileges ; and they took from this estate 
the title ot baron. Dr. Beaufort, the author of the 
Ecclesiastical Map of Irehmd, and of the Memoir 
explanatory of that map, held for some time the 
benefice of Navan, but resided within the county of 

NAVAN, a large rath or very ancient earthwork, 
in the parish of E^lish, barony and county of Ar- 
magh, Ulster. It is situated 2 miles west of the 
city of Armagh, on the north side of the road thence 
to Caledon and Tyman. *.* In its general character," 
say Mr. and Mrs. Hall, ** it resembles the hill of 
Tara^ and is more picturesque, though less exten- 
sive. It is said to have been the site of the palace 
of Eamhain, erected a.m. 3603 ; adjoining to it was 
a * House of the Red-branch Knights,' and to this 
day every place in the neighbourhood retains a name 
similar to that which it might have borne before the 
Christian era ; thus, for example, • a townland dose 
beside the hill is still denominated Creeve Roe, — 
a name which in English letters expresses the very 
sound designated in the Irish characters by the words 
Craobh Ruadh^the Red-Branch.' It is impossible 
to examine this rath without being fully convinced 
that, huge as it is, it was the produce of human la- 
bour. Various relics of antiquity are dug up from 
time to time in its vicinity ; so numerously, indeed, 
that a cottager seldom occupies a day in delving a 
field without striking his spade against some record 
of long past ages, — arrow-heads, continually ; some- 
times a spear head, or a skeine, and now and then 
a brooch or ring of costly workmanship.** 

NEAGU (Lough), a great lake, an inland sea, 
in the centre of the eastern half of the province of 
Ulster. It is very nearly as large as the lake of 
Geneva ; and is second in size to no other lake in 
Europe, except Lake Ladoga in Russia, and Lake 
Vener in Sweden. It extends from north to south 
between the county of Antrim in the east, and the 
counties of Tyrone and Londonderry on the west ; 
and its foot belongs to Antrim, its head to Armagh, 
and a tiny portion of its south-east comer to Down. 
The baromes among which it is politically distri- 
buted are Upper Toome, Lower Massarene, and 
Upper Massarene, in Antrim ; Lower Iveagh, in 
Down; East O'Neilland and West O'Neilland, in 
Armagh ; Dungannon, in Tyrone ; and Loughinsho- 
lin, in Londonderry. Its length, from south to north, 
is 14 miles; its length, in diagonal lines from south- 
east to north-west, and from south-west to north- 
east, is respectively 15 and 16; and its breadth, from 
east to west, but exclusive of a contracted portion 
at its northern extremity, is from 6 to 8|. Its area, 
in the parochial portions in which the Ordnance 
Survey exhibits it, are, within the barony of Upper 
Toome and county of Antrim, 1,682 acres, 1 rood, 
11 perches in the parish of Duneane, 11,471 acres, 
2 roods, 23 perches in Drummaul, 2,691 acres, 2 
roods in Cranfield, and 523 acres, 27 perches in An- 
trim ; within the barony of Lower Massarene and 
county of Antrim, 1,518 acres, 3 roods, 21 perches 
in the grange of Muckamore, and 19,794 acres, 2 
roods, 30 perches in the parish of Killead ; within 
the barony of Upper Massarene and county of An- 
trim, 706 acres, 1 rood, 4 perches in the parish of 




Camlin, 9,219 acres, 1 rood, 23 perches in Glenavy, 
and 2,415 acres, 21 perches in Aghagallon ; within 
the barony of Lower Iveagh and count? oiF Down, 
138 acres, 23 perches in the parish of Shankill ; 
within the barony of East O'Neilland and county of 
Armagh, 223 acres, 3 roods, 36 perches in Shankill, 
1,236 acres, 1 rood, 21 perches in Seagoe, and 12,178 
acres, 2 roods, 36 perches in Montiaghs; within the 
barony of West O'Neilland and county of Armagh, 
1,917 acres, 2 roods, 34 perches in Tartaraghan ; 
within the barony of Dungannon and county of Ty- 
rone, 2,940 acres, 2 roods, 38 perches in Clonee, 
3,092 acres, 1 rood, 9 perches in Ballyclog, 21,000 
acres, 39 perches in Arboe, and 322 acres, 22 perches 
in Ballinderry ; and within the barony of Loughin- 
aholin and county of Londonderry, 2,978 acres, 1 
rood, 25 perches in Ballinderry, and 2,181 acres, 2 
roods, 32 perches in Artrea. The surface-elevation 
of the lake above low- water sea-level is 48 feet. The 
principal bays are Antrim bay at the north-east cor- 
ner, Sandy bay and Bartin's bay in the east, and 
Washing bay in the south-west. The principal 
headlands are Grove Point at the west side of the 
entrance of Antrim bay ; Ardmore Point, Gartree 
Point, Hog Park, and Tolan's Point, in the east ; 
Ardmore Point in the south ; Rooskey Point in the 
south-west; Black Point, Kiltagh Point, Arboe 
Point, Anneeter Point, and Mullan Point, in the 
west; and Tryad Point and Knockasurf Point in 
respectively the west side and the east side of the 
commencement of a bay which leads out on the 
north-west, to the exit northward of the lake's super- 
fluent waters. The islands are few, very small, and 
all situated near the shores ; and the chief are Ram's 
Island, crowned by a pillar-tower, in Sandy bay, — 
Bird's Isknd at the south-east corner, — Coney 
Island in the south-west, near the influx of the 
BlackMrater river, — and Skady Island, and the Three 
Islands, in the north. The principal streams which 
flow into Lough Neagh are the Maine river, and the 
Six- Mile- Water into Antrim bay, the Crumlin and 
the Glenav^ rivulets into Sandy bay, the Upper 
Bann river into nearly the middle of the south, the 
Blackwater river into the south-west, the Ballin- 
derry rivulet into the west, and the Moyola rivulet 
into the north-west ; and the whole of the super- 
fluent waters are discharged northward from the 
north-west comer, and form there the Lower Bann 
river, which flows between Antrim and London- 
derry, and across the north-east comer of the latter 
county to the northern Atlantic ocean. The depth 
of Lough Neagh in nearly all its central and its 
southern parts varies from 39 to 42 feet; its ex- 
treme depth occurs a little south of Skady island, 
and is 102 feet; its depth over a few ** flats" or 
shoals in the central parts varies from 19 to 32 feet ; 
and its depth over most of the south end, and near 
the eastem and western shores, varies from 2 to 26 
feet. Several good landing-places and ports occur 
in each great sweep of shore, and are more or less 
used by numerous craft which navigate the lake; 
and the Lagan navigation or canal goes oflf from the 
south-east comer to carry vessels down to the sea 
at Belfast, — the Upper Bann river takes craft to the 
Newry canal, along which they are conveyed past 
Newry to the sea at Lough Carlingford, — and the 
Blackwater river communicates with both the short 
navigation to the Tyrone coal-field, and the new and 
long navigation by the Ulster canal to Upper Lough 
Erne. The waters of Lough Neagh usually attain 
a surface-elevation in winter about 7 feet' higher 
than that of summer ; and they, in consequence, 
effect wide-spread inundations every season, — cover- 
ing upwards of 50,000 acres of good land, and a vast 
aggregate of bog-lands and morasses ; while, about 

probably every 15 years, they achieve so great and 
expansive a flood as threatens to render a large por- 
tion of the peopled shores totally uninhabitable. 
Very much of the land on the immediate shores is so 
low and constantly morassy , as to be unimprovable ex- 
cept by considerably draining the lake ; and even if a 
considerable draining could be effected, the reclama- 
tion of land would perhaps be dearly purchased by 
the damaging or destruction of the navigation. The 
shores all round, though occasionally a little bold, 
and somewhat curved and indented, never rise to 
any considerable elevation, and are, for the most 
part, so flat and tame as rarely to depart from almost 
a dead level. They, therefore, possess none of such 
expressive and imposing scenery as distinguishes 
most of the second-rate and many of the small lakes 
and sea-loughs of Ireland ; and yet they boast some 
fine demesnes, and exhibit much of that kind of 
beauty which mere arboriculture and landscape 
gardening can produce upon a ^ood soil, with an 
undiversifled surface. Fish of vanous kinds, particu- 
larly perch, trout, bream, and the dollachan or char, 
are abundant. Medicinal properties were at one 
time ascribed to the waters of the lake ; but, if not 
quite imaginary, seem to have belonged to the influx 
of some mineral springs from the neighbouring land, 
and of course to have been confined to small and 
special localities. A petrifying power was long uni- 
versally believed, and is still occasionally contended, 
to exist in the lake ; but this power, so far as it is 
a reality, resides not in the water of the lake, but in 
the soil of some portions of the shores. 

NEALE, a village in the parish of Kilmolara, 
barony of Kilmain, co. Mayo, Connaught. It stands 
on the road from Ballinrobe to Cong, 3 miles south 
of BaUinrobe, and 3 north-north-east of Cong. It 
is an airy and pleasant place, almost or altogether 
free from the squalidness which prevails in most Irish 
villages of its size. At the south end of it is a good 
schoolhouse ; at the north end of it is the neat, small 
church of the benefice, ornamented with a small 
tower ; and in its immediate vicinity is the demesne 
of Neale, the property but seldom the residence of 
Lord Kilmain, possessing some curious features, but 
presided over by an unim posing and neglected-look- 
ing mansion. The village is a constabulary station. 
Its site commands a fine view of the Plains of Elles- 
trin, the basin and bosom of Lough Mask, and the 
frontier heights as well as prospective summits of 
Joyce-Country. Fairs are held on Feb. 5, May 6, 
Aug. 4, and Nov. 5. The Neale and Cong dispen- 
sary is within the Ballinrobe Poor-law union, and 
serves for a district of 40,308 acres, with a pop. 
of 14,463; and, in 1840-41, it expended £59, and 
administered to 1,200 patients. The pious author 
of a recent popular Commentary on the New Testa, 
ment, " by a Clergyman of the Church of Ireland," 
wrote and published that work while he was curate 
of Neale, and a resident in the village. Area of the 
village, 6 acres. Pop., in 1841, 196. Houses 34. 

NECARN, a demesne in the parish of Derryvul- 
lane, J of a mile south of Irvinestown, barony of 
Lurg, CO. Fermanagh, Ulster. It is a pleasant and 
well- wooded expanse of ground, the property and 
residence of William D'Arcy, Esq. ; and it is pre- 
sided over by a small but handsome castle, of quite 
recent erection. 

NEDDANS, or Neddins, a parish in the barony 
of West Iffa and Offa, 6 miles south-west by west 
of Clonmel, co. Tipperary, Munster. Length and 
breadth, each 2^ miles ; area, 2,384 acres, 3 roods, 
5 perches, — of which 35 acres, 2 roods, 33 perches 
are in the river Suir. Pop., in 1831, 616; in 1841, 
766. Houses 104. The surface consists of excel- 
lent arable land, and is traversed lengthwise or south. 




eastward by the Suir. The seats are Neddans-bouse, 
Monroe-bouse, Lacken-house, and Corabella-house. 
Tbe antiquities are the ruins of a church, and the 
site of a castle. — This parish is a vicarage, and part 
of the benefice of Ardfinnan [which see], in the 
dio. of Lismore. Vicarial tithe composition, £80 ; 
glebe, £4 4s. The rectorial tithes are compounded 
for £105, and are impropriate in Mrs. Emily Cud- 
worth of Clonmel. In 1834, the parishioners were 
all Roman Catholics ; and there was neither church, 
chapel, nor school. 

NEDEEN, a hamlet in the immediate vicinity of 
the small town of Renmare, and on the north bank 
of the Kenmare river, co. Kerry, Munster. 

NEIR, or Slieyeneir, one of the summits of the 
Moume mountains, co. Down, Ulster. 

NEN AGH (The), a river of the county of Tip- 
perary, Munster. It rises in two headstreams among 
tbe western declivities of the Devil- Bit mountains ; 
and runs about 12 miles north-westward, past the 
town of Nenagh, to Lough Derg. 

NENAGH, a parish, containing a post and market 
town of the same name, in the baronies of Lower and 
Upper Ormond, co. Tipperary, Munster. Length, 
■oath by eastward, 3) miles ; extreme breadth, 2. 
Area of the Lower Ormond section, 2,020 acres, 2 
roods, 13 perches; of the Upper Ormond section, 
1,661 acres, 2 perches. Pop. of the whole, in 1831, 
9,159; in 1841. 9,540. Houses 1,477. Pop. of the 
rural districts of the Lower Ormond section, in 
1841, 243. Houses 44. Pop. of the rural districts 
of the Upper Ormond section, in 1831, 693 ; in 1841, 
679. Houses 105. The surface consists, in a gen- 
eral view, of prime land ; it is watered by the Nen- 
agh river, and traversed by the roads fi-om Limerick 
to Birr and Dublin ; and it is all champaign, and lies 
upon a basin of about 160 feet of mean elevation 
above sea-level. The chief rural seats are Monroe- 
house, Brook- Watson-house, Solsborough- house. 
Summer ville, Ballintogher- house, and Castle- Wil- 
lington, — the last the residence of John Willington, 
E^. The ruins of a castle occur in the south-west ; 
and other objects of interest will be noticed in con- 

nection with the town This parish is a rectory, 

in the dio. of KilUloe. Tithe composition, £350 Os. 
lid.; glebe, £10. The rectories of Nenagh, and 
RsncH [see that article], constitute the benefice of 
Nenagh. Length, 4^ miles; breadth, 2^. Pop., 
in 1831, 10,606. Gross income, £666 16s. 6d. ; 
nett, £606 18s. 8d. Patron, the diocesan. A curate 
receives a salary of £75. The church was built in 
1810, by means of a loan of £1,200 from the late 
Board of First Fruits, and the sum of £276 18s. 5^d. 
raised bv subscription. Sittings 500; attendance 
400. Toe Roman Catholic chapel has 4 officiates, 
and an attendance of 2,000. In 1834, the inhabitants 
of the parish consisted of 615 Churchmen, 32 Pro- 
testant dissenters, and 8,084 Roman Catholics ; the 
inhabitants of the union consisted of 667 Church- 
men, 33 Protestant dissenters, and 9,505 Roman 
Catholics; and 8 daily- schools in the parish and 
union — one of which was connected with the Na- 
tional Board, and one salaried with £20 a-year from 
tbe Board of Erasmus Smith — had on their books 
450 boys and 122 girls. In 1842, the National Board 
had two schools in Nenagh, and one in Nenugh 


A post and market town, and the capital of the 
north riding of the county of Tipperary, in the par- 
Hb of Nenagh, baronies of Lower and Upper Or- 
Bood, CO. Tipperary, Munster. It stands near the 
Kenag^h river, and on the joint road from Limerick 

to Birr and Dublin, 3} miles south-east of Youghal 
bay in Lough Derg, 5^ west gf Toomavara, 8 south 
by west of Borris-o'-kane, 9 east-north-east of Kil- 
laloe, 15 south by east of Portunma, 15| west- 
south-west of Roscrea, 19 south-west by south of 
Birr, ]9| north-east of Limerick, and 74| south-west 
of Dublin. 

General Description.'] — "Perhaps in the whole 
south of Ireland," says a graphic writer in the Dub- 
lin Penny Journal, " there is not a more beautiful 
or valuable district than the baronies of Ormond, in 
the centre of which Nenagh stands, surrounded on all 
sides by mountains of grand and varied forms — some 
of which are highly metalliferous — bounded on the 
west by a broad and truly picturesque part of the 
Shannon, a most productive territory, equally good 
for tillage or pasture, abounding in woods, waters, 
and game. Never did foot of hound or hoof of 
horse sweep over a finer sporting country than what 
its dry and healthy champaign affords. Well might 
the Aulesian O'Kennedys, and the O'Mearas, and the 
M'Egans, sigh when they surrendered to the Norman 
Butlers and Graces and Morrises, these fine fields ; 
and well might they, in their turn, according to the 
fate of war, retire in sorrow before its present Crom- 
wellian possessors." Numerous handsome villas and 
cottages om<^es decorate the immediate vicinity of 
the town, and the district thence to the margin of 
Lough Derg. The town itself has a comparatively 
airy, clean, and comfortable appearance ; it boasts 
regular alignment and tolerable edificing in its prin- 
cipal streets; it possesses less meanness, filth, and 
penury, than mat:y other second-rate towns of Ire- 
land ; and it makes, on the whole, a decidedly fii- 
vourable impression upon the mind of a general 
tourist through the kingdom. 

TTie Castle.'] — Nenagh Castle— or as it is popularly 
called, Nenagn Round^is a conspicuous feature of 
the town, and, in spite of having been much dilapi- 
dated by some of the townspeople, continues to be 
a very fine monument of Norman military architec- 
ture. " Tradition," says the writer already quoted, 
** assigns the erection of the fortress to Kin^ John ; 
and it certainly bears all the characteristics of a 
structure of that period, when circular fortifications 
were almost exclusively used. And the commanding 
height and massive solidity of its donjon or keep, 
the wide circuit of its ballium, its well built curtain 
walls, strengthened by four other circular towers, 
its lofty and portcullised gate, approachable by a high 
and well flanked causeway; all prove that rmral 
power and royal wealth were required to erect a for- 
tress, which, were it now standing in the fulness of 
its original design, might stand a comparison with 
some of the finest border castles of Scotland or 
Wales." * * •* Nenagh Castle, though admirably 
contrived by engineers who knew no other arms of 
attack than the arrow, the arbalist, or the battering 
ram, ceased, when gunpowder changed the art of 
war, to be the stronghold that the Norman power 
intended it to be ; for, placed on tbe slope of a hill 
for the sake of securing a supply of water within the 
fort, it has been obliged to surrender to every com- 
mander who could drag ordnance to the heights 
above it. In the war of 1641, it \vm seized by the 
Irish under Owen Roe O'Neil, and again it was torn 
from his grasp by Lord Inchiquin. The terrible 
Ireton, when Cromwell lefl him as his deputy in 
Ireland, on his way to the siege of Limerick in 1651, 
battered it from the high ground to the east, and 
the garrison, finding it untenable, surrendered at 
discretion, when, as local tradition has it, Ireton 
caused its governor to be hung out of the topmost 
window of the keep. Though greatly dismantled, 
it remained garrisoned, as one of the Duke of Or* 



mond's castles, until the war of 1688, when it fell 
into the hands of Long Anthony Carrol, the de- 
scendant of that ancient sept, that once ruled over 
the district north of Orinond, called Ely Carrol." 
• • ** Nenagh Castle was the centre of Carrol's 
operations ; and though the curtain walls were bat- 
'tered down, the inferior towers almost levelled, and 
the keep unroofed, still he held it, to the great 
annoyance of the English, until it was found neces- 
sary to detach a brigade against it, under General 
Leveson, upon whose approach Carrol evacuated it 
after burning down the town. There is reason to 
believe that, after the war of the revolution was 
over, Nenagh Castle was still retained as a place of 
arms; and tradition speaks of a Sir William Ham- 
ilton, who, as its last seneschal, held it under the 
Ormond family. Like every monument of eccle- 
siasticid or military antiquity in Ireland, this exten- 
sive ruin has suffered more from the work of man 
than the impression of ages. Indeed, the tower, 
from the raassiveness of its structure and the dura- 
bility of its material, seems almost to defy the tooth 
of time. But certainly the townsmen have done 
their worst in dilapidatmg, disfiguring, and rendering 
the present approaches to it as disagreeable as they 
are difficult." 

Other Public Buildinps,"] — In the year 1200, an 
hospital was founded at Nenagh for the sick and the 
infirm, and was placed under the care of canons re- 
gular of the order of St. Augustine. This institu- 
tion was called Teach- Ion, or St. John's House ; it 
was largely endowed by Theobald Walter, the f rst 
Butler of Ireland; and it furnished to each sick per- 
son, who was admitted to its hospitality, a daily 
allowance of a good loaf, a plentiful bowl of ale from 
the cellar, and a dish of meat from the kitchen. — A 
monastery for Franciscans was founded at Nenagh, 
some say by one of the Butlers, others say by one 
of the O'Kennedys; it is reported to have been the 
richest house belonging to the Franciscans in Ireland ; 
it was, in 1344, the meeting-place of a provincial 
chapter of the Franciscan order ; and one of its friars 
wrote a historical work, which has acquired some 
note among antiquaries, and is often quoted under 
the name of the Annals of Nenagh. Some ruins of 
this monastery are still standing The modem pub- 
lic buildings, consisting of the parish-church, the 
Roman Catholic chapel, a large infantry barrack, a 
gaol, a court-house, a poor-law workhouse, and 
other public structures suitable to a large provincial 
town, the seat of a poor-law union, and the assize 
town of the moiety of a great county, have aggre- 
gately a somewhat imposing effect, but individually 
possess no remarkable feature. —The Nenagh gaol, 
or gaol for the north riding of the county of Tip- 
perary, is a quite new structure, occupied for the 
first time in 1842; it possesses sufficient accommo- 
dation for all the purposes of classification and dis- 
cipline, ^ort of the system of total separation ; it 
even contains i2 cells large . enough for the practice 
of that system, but not yet treated as the law re- 
quires; and it contains, in toto^ 192 cells, 20 day or 
work rooms, 1 1 vards, a chapel, good separate hos- 
pitals, a tread-wheel, a public kitchen, laundry, and 
officers* apartments. During the vear 184^, the 
average number of prisoners confined was 126^ ; the 
highest number was 172 ; the total number, inclu- 
sive of debtors, was i,109; the number of re-com- 
mittals was 44; and the total expenditure was 
£2,268 8s. lid. 

Trade, frc] — Nenagh probably enjoys the pre- 
sence of a larger portion of resident gentry than any 
other inland town of its size in Ireland, and is as 
prosperous as any Irish town of its population can 
be, without the aid of any manufacture, or of con- 

siderable trade. Dromineer, one of the Lough Derg 
stations of the Shannon Navigation Company, is 
situated 44^ miles north-west of Nenagh, and may be 
considered as its port. No projected railway, how- 
ever, approaches nearer the town than the valley of 
the Upper Suir, or the east base of the Devii's-Bit 
mountains. In 1838, the public conveyances were a car 
to Borris-o'-kane, a coach to Limerick, a car to Ros- 
crea, and a coach and a mail-coach in transit between 
Limerick and Dublin. Fairs are held on April 24, May 
29, July 4, Aug. I, Sept. 4, and Oct. 10. Nenagh has 
4i savings' bank, a loan fund, and public branch-offices 
of the National Bank of Ireland and the Tipperary 
Joint Stock Bank ; and it is the residence of two sti- 
pendiary magistrates, die head-quarters of the con- 
stabulary force for the north riding of Tipperary, and 
the seat of the assize-court for that riding, of a court 
of quarter-sessions, and of a weekly court oi petty- 
sessions. A newspaper, called the Nenagh Guardian, 
is published in Nenagh on Wednesdays and Satur- 
days. In 1841, the Nenagh Loan Fund had a capital 
of £901 ; circubted £4,019 in 1,553 loans, and re- 
alized a nett profit of £1 1 lis. 7d. 

Poor-law Union.'] — The Nenagh Poor-law union 
ranks as the 15th, and was declared on Feb. 9, 1839. 
It lies whoUy within co. Tipperary, or in the baro- 
nies of Owney and Arra, Upper Ormond and Lower 
Ormond; and comprehends an areaof I84,7l2 acres, 
which contained, m 1831, a pop. of 89,891. The 
number of elected guardians is 34; and that of 
ex-officio guardians is H. The electoral divisions, 
together with the number of valued tenements in 
each, is, in the barony of Ownev and Arra, Castle- 
town, 514; TemplekcUy, 570; Voi^hal,407; Kil- 
mastulla, 204 ; Burgessbeg, 341 ; Kucomenty, 354 ; 
RilloscuUy, 276; Killenerath, 360; and Newport, 
462 ; — in the barony of Upper Ormond, Kilmore,696 ; 
Dolla, 257 ; Annameadle, 709 ; Templederry, 244 ; 
Ballymackey, 434 ; Lisbowey, 547 ; and Kilruane, 
200 : — and in the barony of Lower Ormond, Nenagh, 
1,589; Knigh, 241; Cloghprior, 276; Ardcronejr, 
396; Kilbarron, 311; Torryglass, 307; Borris- 
o'-kane, 580; and Clogbjordan, 805. The number of 
valued tenements in the Owney and Arra divisions 
is 3,488 ; in the Upper Ormond divisions 3,089, in 
the Lower Ormond divisions 4,505, in the whole 
union 11.062; and of this total, 5,773 were valued 

under £5,-2,212, under £10.-958, under £15 

585, under £20,-375, under £25,-227, under £30, 
—308, under £40,-155, under £50,— and 489, at 
and above £50. The total nett annual value of the 
property rated is £136,655 14s. 8d. The workhouse 
was contracted for to cost £8,320 for building and 
completion, and £1,580 for fittings and contingen- 
cies, — to occupy a site of 7 acres, obtained for an 
annual rent of £50, — and to contain abcomnsodation 
for 1,000 paupers. The date of the first admission of 
paupers was April 28, 1842 ; the total expenditure 
thence till Feb. 6, 1843, was £1,333 9s. ll|d., and 
the total previous expenditure was £2,302 193. 5d. 
The expenditure for the year 1843 was £2,827 Os. 6d. 
The number of pauper inmates on Dec. 2, 1843, was 
436; on Jan. 1, 1844, 457. The medical charities 
within the union are fever hospitals at Borris-o'-kane, 
Clogbjordan, and Nenagh ; and dispensaries at Bird- 
hill, Borris-oMame, Clogbjordan, Nenagh, Newport, 
Portroe, Silvermines, and Tooma vara; and, in 1839~ 
40, they received £687 Us. 6d. from sulwcription, 
£991 33. from public grants, and £38 13s. 6d. from 
other sources, expended £759 lOs. 6d. in salaries to 
medical officers, £228 13s. 6d. for medicines, and 
£903 15s. 5d. for contingencies, and administered to 
1,265 intern and 15,251 extern patients. The Nenagh 
fever hospital contains 86 beds; it serves for a dis- 
trict containing a pop. of 20,690, yet admits all cases 




of fever wbich oflfer, no matter whence they come ; 
and, in I8dd-4Q» it expended £723 Is., and admitted 
955 patients. The Nena^h dispensary serves for a 
distnct containing a pop. of 20,690 ; and» in 1839-40, 
it expended £187 1&.> and administered to 4,033 

SiaiUtiet.'] — Area of the Upper Ormond section 
of the town, 22 acres. Pop., in 1831, 833; in 1841, 
857. Houses 144. Families dependent chiefly on 
agriculture, 95 ; on manufactures and trade, 56 ; on 
other pursuits, 31. Families dependent chiefly in 
property and profe-^sions, 5; on the directing of 
labour, 74; on their own manual labour, 103. — 
Area of the Lower Ormond section of the town, 157 
acres. Pop., in 1831. 7,633; in 1841, 7,761. Houses 
1,184. Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 
507 ; in manufactures and trade, 766 ; in other pur- 
suits, 383. Families dependent chiefly on property 
and professions, 1 12 ; on the directing of labour, 
780; on their own manual labour, 632; on means 
not specified, 132. Males at and above 5 years of 
age who could read and write, 1,555; who could 
read but not write, 465; who could neither read nor 
write, 1,141. Femalesat and above 5 years of age who 
could read and write, 894 ; who could read but not 
write, 821 ; who could neither read nor write, 1,941 . 

Ifistorv,'] — On the subject of the history of Nen- 
agh, we have only to state, in addition to the brief 
notices already made in connection unth the castle 
and the monasteries, that, in 1370, Brien Oge Men- 
evj O'Brien, in conjunction with the English under 
the Earl of Desmond, gained a sanguinary victory 
over his uncle Turlough ; and in consequence of this 
event, his name is known among his countrymen 
as Brien Catha-an-Aonig, — * Brien of the battle of 

NEPHIN, a mountain in the parishes of Cross- 
inolina and Addergoole, 5^ miles south by west 
of the town of Crosamolina, barony of Tj^rawley, 
CO. Mayo, Connaught. It soars to an altitude of 
2,646 feet above sea-level, screens much of the west 
side of Liough Conn, contributes a chief and a 
grandly imposing feature to the scenery of that lake, 
and fofms a noble and even sublime background to 
most of the landscapes of the valley of the Moy, 
Glen Nephin extends north-north-eastward, along 
the east base of the mountain, measures about 5 
miles in length, and takes along the conjoint road 
from Newport and Castlebar to CrossmoUna. The 
snramit-ground at the head of this glen, separating 
it from Uie basin of Lough Beltra and the Newport 
river, is onlv about 142 feet above sea^level ; so that 
an artificial navigation might easily be formed to 
connect Lough Conn at the foot of Glen Nephin, 
with Clew bay at the mouth of the Newport river, 
Th« name of Nephin mountains is often given to the 
whole of the north-eastern section of the great con- 
geries of uplands which occupies the larger portion 
of Tvrawley, Erris, and Burrishoole. 

NEPHINBEG, a mountain on the mutual border 
of the baronies of Erris and Burrishoole, 9 miles 
north by west of Newport, co. Mayo, Connaught. 
It soars to an altitude ojf 2,065 feet above sea-level; 
and often gives name to a large section of the north- 
western highlands of Mayo, The eastern or moun- 
tain road from Newport to Belmullet, passes close 
to its west base. 

NETHERCROSS, a barony in the middle of the 
northern divijqon of the county of Dublin, Leinster. 
It i* bounded, on the north, by the baronies of Bal- 
rotliery ; on the east, by the Irish sea; on the south, 
bv the baronies of Coolock and Castlcknock ; and, on 
tbe wesit, by the county of Meath. Length, eastward, 
8* roiles: extreme breadth, 4^ ; area, 21,818 acres, 1 
rJtxi, 29 perches. Tbe surface of the mainland con- 

sists, for the most part, of excellent arable land ; and 
is all so low that a height of 100 feet above sea-level 
figures in the Ordnance map as the principal elevation. 
The coast consists of tbe Portraine and the Mala- 
hide estuaries, and the intervening peninsula, — the 
latter terminating in a bluff promontory of 35 feet 
in altitude. The Dun rivulet traces the boundary 
with Meath ; and the Broadmeadow river flows east- 
ward through the interior to the head of the Mala- 
hide estuary. Lambay Island, though not included 
in our statement of the barony's length, is included 
in that of its area, and has an altitude above sea- 
level of 418 feet. The Act 5 and 6 Victoria, cap. 
96, transferred the townlands of Ballymaeuire, Bal- 
loch, Bishopland, West Baleally, Beau, Bettyville, 
Broomtield, Causestown, Collinstown, part of Cor- 
duff, CordufT Commons, Dunganstown, Dungans- 
town Common, Great Common, Johnstown, Knights- 
town, Lusk, Lou^h Common, New Haggard, New- 
towiicorduflf, Navitt, Parnelstown, Big Rowans, Lit- 
tle Rowans, Rathmooney, Rogeens, Rallekawstown, 
Raheny, Regies, Rogerstown, Racecourse Common, 
Little TyrreUtown, Twoman, Wimbletown, and 
Walshestown, in the parish of Lusk, from Nether- 
cross to East Balrothery, — pop., in 1841, 2,126; 
the whole of the parish of Clonmethan from Nether- 
cross to West Balrothery, — pop. 509; the town- 
lands of Drishoge, Lispopple, and Warblestown, in 
the parish of KiUossory, trom Balrothery to Nether- 
cross, — pop. 112; the whole of the parish of Dona- 
bate, and the townland of Ballymadro^gh in the 
parish of Swords, from Balrothery to Nethercross, 
•^pop. 576 ; the townlands of Swords glebe, in the 
parish of Swords, from Nethercross to Coolock, — 
pop. 5 ; the townlands of Brazil, Balcultry, Boggy- 
heavy, KiUossory, Leas, Mount- Stewart, Rath, 
North Surgalstown, and South Surgalstown, in the 
parish of KiUossory, from Coolock to Nethercross, 
— 4}op. 212 ; tbe whole of the parish of Killisk from 
Coolock to Nethercross, — pop. 185; the whole of 
tbe parish of Kilsulagban trom Castleknock to 
Nethercross, — pop. 548; and the townlands of Bal- 
seskin. North Ballyboggan, South Ballyboggan, 
Ballygall, Bishopswood, Broghan, Cabragh, Car- 
diff s-Bridge, Cardiif' s-Castle, Charlestown, Cold- 
winters, Ea^t Finglass, West Finglass, Finglass- 
Wood, Glassnevin demesne, Glebe, Great James- 
town, Little Jamestown, Johnstown, Kildonan, KiU 
shane, Poppintree, Shallon, Springmount, Stang, 
Stockings, and Tolka, in tbe parish of Finglass, 

from Nethercross to Castleknock, — pop. 1,999 

Nethercross, as now constituted, contains part of 
the parishes of Finglass and Swords, and the whole 
of the parishes of Donabate, KiUossory, Killeck, 
Kilsallaghan, and Portraine. The only town is 
Swords, and the chief village is Donabate. Pop., 
in 1831, 8,597; in 1841, 6,204. Houses 1,061. 
Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 841 ; in 
nuuiufactures and trade, 2K)9 ; in other pursuits, 173. 
FamiUes dependent chiefly on property and profes- 
sions, 43 ; on the directing of labour, 363 ; on their 
own manual labour, 788; on means not specified, 29. 
Males at and above 5 years of age who could read 
and write, 1,082; who could read but not write, 
613; who could neither read nor write, 1,077. 
Females at and above 5 years of age who could read 
and write, 759; who could read but not write, 658; 
who could neither read nor write, 1,291. — This 
barony lies partly >%ithin the Poor-law union of 
Balrothery, and partly within that of North Dublin. 
The total number of tenements valued i* 1,308; 
and of these, 705 were valued under £5, — 183, under 
£10, — 93, under £15, — 53, under £20, — 25, under 
£25,-21, under £30,-36, under £40,-37, under 
£50,— and 155, at and above £50. 




NETHLASH. See Nathlash. 

NEW-ABBEY, a demesne and a monastic ruin, 
on the banks of the river Liffey, | of a mile south- 
east of Kilcullen-Bridge, co. Kildare, Leinster. The 
monastery was founded in 1460, b^ Sir Rowland 
Eustace, for Franciscans of the strict observance ; 
and, in 1582, it was granted to Edmund Spenser, the 
poet, for the yearly rent of £3 Irish. The steeple 
fell to the ground about the year 1764 ; and a lar^e 
portion of the main body of the pile was employed m 
the erection of a Roman Catholic chapel ; so that 
the ruins which remain are comparatively small and 
exceedingly broken. Some vestiges exist, amongst 
the mass of rubbishy architectural and overwhelmed 
monuments, of the effigies of the founder of the mon- 
astery and his lady, — Sir Rowland in armour, and his 
lady in the close pointed cap and girdle which were 
worn in the latter part of the 15th century. 

NEW-ARRAN. See Killeen, co. Galway. 

NEWARTH-B RIDGE, an inn, and a rather dis- 
tinguished retreat of tourists, in the parish of Rath- 
new, barony of Newcastle, co. Wicklow, Leinster. 
It stands on the river Vartrey, I mile north of the 
village of Rathnew, and 2 miles east-south-east of 
the commencement of the Devil's Glen. It stands in 
a tranquil and most beautiful part of the vale of the 
Vartrey, in the midst of the most luxuriant vegeta- 
tion, and close to the late Mrs. Tighe's lovely resi- 
dence of Rosanna. 

NEWBAWN, a parish in the baronies of Bantry 
and West Shelmalier, 6 miles south-east by east of 
New-Ross, CO. Wexford, Leinster. Length, south- 
ward, 4^ miles ; breadth, from f to 2|. Area of the 
Bantry section, 2,657 acres, 8 perches ; of the West 
Shelmalier section, 4,880 acres, 4 perches. Pop. of 
the whole, in 1831. 1,618; in 1841, 1,703. Houses 
281 . Pop. of the West Shelmalier section, in 1841, 
1,063. Houses 187. The surface consists of light, 
sharp soil, suitable for potatoes, oats, and barley, 
but unfavourable for wheat, meadow, or dairy pas- 
ture. The seats are Newbawn-house, Fary-house, 
Scullabogue- house, and Carricklown-lodge. The 
chief antiquities are ruins of two castles, and sites 
of two churches. The hamlets are Newbawn, 
Knockroe, Carnacarrigeen, Courthoyle, High-street, 
and Rochestown. The Newbawn dispensary is 
within the New- Ross Podr-law union, and serves for 
a district containing a pop. of 5,082 ; and, in 1839- 
40, it expended £51 17s. 4d., and administered to 
762 patients. Newbawn figured with frightful pro- 
minence in the rebellion of 1798. and was the scene 
of the horrible tragedy of Scullabogue bam. See 
Scullabogue. The road from New-Ross to Wex- 
ford passes through the interior This parish is a ' 

rectory, and part of the benefice of Adamstown 
[which sefe], in the dio. of Ferns. Tithe composi- 
tion, £3G0 4s. 8d. The Roman Catholic chapel is 
situated at the hamlet of Newbawn, and has an 
attendance of 550; and, in the Roman Catholic paro- 
chial arrangement, is united to the chapels of Adams- 
town and Horetown. In 1834, the Protestants 
amounted to 44, and the Roman Catholics to 1,594 ; 
and 2 hedge-schools bad on their books 35 boys and 
II girls. 

NEWBERRY. See Castle-Carbeht. 

NEW - BIRMINGHAM. See Bibminoham 

NEWBLISS, a small market and post town, in 
the parish of Killeevan, barony of Dartrv, co. Mon- 
aghan. Ulster. It stands on the road from Clones 
to Ballybay. 3 miles north of Drum, 4 east-south- 
east of Clones. 7h south-west of Monaghan, and 7i 
west by north ot Ballybay. It is a neat and plea- 
sant place, and has a comfortable inn, two schools, 
a new church, and a Presbyterian meeiiiig- house. 

The church was quite recently built, wholly at the 
cost of private parties. Contiguous to the town it 
the agreeable demesne of Newoliss-house, the seas 
of Andrew Ker. Esq. ; and in the vicinity are the 
residence of Glinch-lodge. and the small lakes of 
Feagh, Spectacle, Corlougharoe, Radeerpark, and 
Lisalea. Markets are held in the town every week, 
and are well attended ; and fairs are held on the last 
Saturday of every month. The Newbliss dispen- 
sary is within the Clones Poor-law union ; and, in 
1839-40. it expended £138 4s.. and administered to 
3,827 patients. In 1841 , the Newbliss Loan Fund had 
a capital of £1,678. circulated £5,792 in 1,502 loans, 
and expended £3 for charitable purposes. Area of 
the town, 17 acres. Pop., in 1831, 497; in 1841, 
566. Houses 99. Families employed chiefly in 
agriculture, 20 ; in manufactures and trade, 65 ; in 
other pursuits, 25. Families dependent chiefly on 

{property and professions, 8 ; on the directing of 
abour, 70 ; on their own manual labour, 27 ; on 
means not specified, 5. 

NEWBOROUGH. a seat of the Daunt family, on 
the east side of the creek of Oysterhaven, in the 
parish of Kilmonogue, co. Cork, Munster. The 
present possessor is G. A. Daunt, Esq. 

NEWBOROUGH, co. Wexford. See Gobey. 

NEWBRIDGE, a small market and post town, 
in the parishes of Great Connell and Morristown- 
Biller, barony of Connell, co. Kildare, Leinster. It 
stands on the river Liflfey, and on the mail- road 
from Dublin to Limerick, 3^ miles north -north- 
west of Kilcullen-Bridge, 4^ east-north-east of Kil- 
dare, 5j south-west by west of Naas, and 21 south- 
west by west of Dublin. Here are a large cavalry 
barrack, a police station, and a Roman Catholic 
parochial chapel ; and in the near vicinity are the 
ruins of Great Connell abbey, and the seats of Piercc- 
town, Rystown, Great Connell-lodge, Liffey-cottage, 
Great Connell- house, and Moorefield- house, — the 
two last the residences of respectively T. E. Power, 
Esq., and Ponsonby Moore, Esq. Fairs are held at 
the village on Jan. 1, May 2, Aug. 15, and Nov. 1. 
The Newbridge dispensary is within the Naas Poor- 
law union, and serves for a district containing a pop. 
of 5,715 ; and, in 1839-40, it expended £96 10s. 
7id., and administered to 2,159 patients. New- 
bridge derives its name from a bridge which here 
spans the Liffe^ ; and it gives name to a Roman Ca- 
tholic parish, m the dio. of Kildare and Leighlin, 
and having chapels at Newbridge and Two-mile- 
house. Area of the Morristown - Biller section of 
the town, 25 acres. Pop., in 1841, 139. Houses 
19. Area of the Great Connell section, 47 acres. 
Pop., in 1831,577; in 1841,653. Houses 92. Pop. 
of the whole town, in 1841 , 792. Houses HI. Fam- 
ilies employed chiefly in agnculture, 45; in manu- 
factures and trade, 69 ; in other pursuits, 50. Fam- 
ilies dependent chiefly on property and professions, 
4; on the directing of labour, 76; on their own 
manual labour, 67 ; on means not specified, 17. 

NEWBRIDGE, a hamlet, in the parish of Castle- 
Macadam, barony of Arklow, co. Wicklow, Leinster. 
It standi on the river Ovoca, and on the road from 
Rathdrum to Arklow, at the deflexion thence of the 
road to Ballyarthur and Shelton- abbey, 4^ miles 
south by east of Rathdrum, and 4^ north-west by 
north ot Arklow. Its site is in one of the most 
exquisitely lovely portions of the beautiful and splen- 
did valley of the Ovoca ; and in its near neighbour, 
hood are Castle- Macadam church, Ovoca inn, the 
mines of Ballymurtagh and Cronbane, and the seats 
of Bellevue, Tinnahinch, Ballygahan, Millroount, 
Ovoca-lodge, Cherrymount - house, — the last the 
residence of John Oliver, Esq. Newbridge acquires 
its name from a bridge upon the Ovoca; and it gives 




name to a Roman Catholic parish in the dio. of Dub- 
lin, and having chapels at Newbridge, Bahniska, and 
Ardincary. Pop. of the hamlet returned with the 

NEWBRIDGE, a village in the parish of Holly- 
wood, barony of Lower Castlereagh, co. Down, 
Ulster. It stands on the road from Belfast to Don- 
aghadee, 1| mile east of Belfast, and 3| south-west 
of Hollywood. It acquires its name from a bridge 
upon the rivulet called Conn's Water ; and may be 
considered as a sort of extension of the long strag- 
gling, eastward street of Balltmacarret : see that 
article. Area of the village, 9 acres. Pop., in 1841, 
406. Houses 59. 

NEWBRIDGE, a hamlet in the parish of Bally- 
clough, barony of Duhallow, co. Cork, Munster. It 
sUnds on the river Blackwater, at the forking of the 
road from Mallow toward respectively Kanturk and 
Mill-street, 3} miles south-east b^ east of Kanturk, 
and 5} west of Mallow. It acquires its name from 
a bridge upon the Blackwater. Pop. not specially 

NEWBRIDGE, a hamlet in the parish of Rath- 
keale, barony of Lower Connello, co. Limerick, Mun- 
ster. It stands upon the river Deel, at the intersec- 
tion of the road from Askeaton to Rathkeale with 
that from Sbanagolden to Adare, 2 miles south by 
east of Askeaton, 2} north - north - west of Rath- 
keale, and 4| east-south-east of Sbanagolden. In its 
vicinity are the seatii of Athavilla, Scart, Milltown, 
Boville, and Water ville. It acquires its name 
from a bridge upon the Deel. Pop. not specially 

NEWBUILDINGS, a village in the parish of 
Clondermot, barony of Tyrkeeran, co. Londonderry, 
Lister. It stands on the river Foyle, and on the 
mail -road from Londonderry to Dublin, 2^ miles 
aouth-south-west of Londonderry bridge. Area 9 
acres. Pop., in 1841, 96. Houses 21. 

NEWCASTLE, a barony in the south-west of 
the county of Dublin, Leinster. It is bounded, on 
the north, by Castleknock ; on the east, by Castle- 
knock and Uppercross ; on the south, by Upper- 
cross and CO. Wicklow ; and, on the west, by co. 
Kildare. Length, southward, 8^ miles; extreme 
breadth, 4^ ; area, 22,876 acres, i rood, 31 perches, 
— of which 54 acres, 3 roods, 26 perches are in the 
river Liflfev. A district of 3 miles by 2 in the ex- 
treme south is hilly and mountainous, containing the 
Saggart mountains and their neighbouring heights, 
and lifting up summits of 584, 565, 663, 721, 592, 
1,008, 1,049, and 1,308 feet of altitude above sea. 
level. The rest oif the surfince is cut into nearly 
equal parts by the Grand Canal ; consists, in the 
aggregate, of rich and beautiful champaign ground ; 
and is watered across the north end, by the river 
Liffey, — whose whole course, while in the barony, is 
moat lovely and luscious. The Act 5 and 6 Victoria, 
cap. 96, transferred the entire parish of Palmerstown 
from Newcastle to Uppercross, — pop., in 1841, 
1.411 ; the townlands of Coldcut and Rowlagh, in 
the pariiih of Elskcr, from Newcastle to Uppercross, 
— pop. 19; the whole of the parish of Bally fermot, 
from Newcastle to Uppercross, — pop. 346; the 
tovnlands of Butcher's-arms, part of Dolphins- barn. 
East Incbicore, West Inchicore, parts of East Gol- 
denbridge, and West Goldenbridge, Kilmainbain, and 
part of the village of Ulaiidbridge, in the parish of 
^t. James, from Newcastle to Uppercross, — pop. 
3>1'33; a portion of the paris^h of St. James, trom 
NfwrasUe to the City of Dublin,_pop. 3,344 ; the 
wbole of the parish of Crumlin, from Newcastle to 
' Ppfrcross, — pop. 1,024; the whole of the parish 
«f ^"nisgh, from Newcastle to Uppercross, — pop. 
^i QM townland of the parish of Rathfaniham, 

from Newcastle to Uppercross, — pop. 75; the re- 
mainder of the parish of Rathfamnam, from New- 
castle to Rathdown, — pop. 4,394; the whole of the 
parishes of Kilmahuddrick, Kilbride, and Rathcoole, 
from Uppercross to Newcastle, — pop. 1,596 ; and 
the townland of Blundelstown in the parish of Clon- 
dalkin, from Uppercross to Newcastle, — pop. 15. — 
The barony of Newcastle, as now constituted, con- 
tains part of the parishes of Clondalkin, £^ker, and 
Leixlip, and the whole of the parishes of Aderrig, 
Kilbride, KiUnahuddrick, Kilmactalway, Lucau, 
Newcastle, Rathcoole, and Saggart. The towns 
and chief villages are Lucan, Rathcoole, Saggart, and 
Newcastle. Pop., in 1831, 21,594; in 1841, 7,397. 
Houses 1,254. Families employed chiefly in agri- 
culture, 966; in manu&ctures and trade, 203; in 
other pursuits, 200. Families dependent chiefly on 
property and professions, 51 ; on the directing of 
labour, 348 ; on their own manual labour, 928 ; on 
means not specified, 42. Males at and above 5 years 
of age who could read and write, 1,295; who could 
read but not writ«, 797 ; who could neither read nor 
write, 1,298. Females at and above 5 years of age 
who could read and write, 843 ; who could read but 
not write, 937 ; who could neither read nor write, 
1,357. — This barony — measured, however, according 
to its limits in 1831, and including a portion of 
population within the parliamentary representation 
boundary of the City of Dublin — ^is distributed among 
the Poor-law unions of Baltinglass, Celbridge, North 
Dublin, and South Dublin. The total number of 
tenements valued is 3,025; and of these, 1,460 were 
valued under £5, — 451, under £10,--212, under 
£15,-158, under £-20.— 97. under £25,-^1, under 
£30,-134, under £40,-^, under £50,— and 377, 
at and above £50. 

NEWCASTLE, a barony on the coast of the 
county of Wicklow, Leinster. It is bounded, on 
the north, by Rathdown ; on the east, by the Irish 
sea ; on the south, by Arklow ; and, on the west, by 
North Ballinacor. Length, south-south-westward, 
1 1 J miles ; extreme breadth, 6| ; area, 52,296 acres, 
39 perches, — of which 207 acres, 3 roods are in the 
Broad Lough. The surfkce is a beautiful portion 
of the county, aggregately rich in charming and 
romantic scenery ; but much less mountainous, grand, 
or wild, than almost any other district of Wicklow. 
The Glen of the Downs is on the northern boundarv, 
the Devil's Glen in the centre, and part of the vale 
of the Avonmore on the southern portion of the 
western bomidary. The principal heights, together 
with their respective altitudes above sea-level, are 
Carrick mountain, 1,252 feet ; a height in the south- 
west comer, 925 feet ; Moneystown hill, 1 ,272 feet ; 
a height 1| mile west -south -west of Newtown- 
Mount- Kennedy, 1,193 feet; Dunran hill, 1,122 
feet; and a height on the northern border, 1,232 
feet. — This barony contains part of the parishes of 
Calary, Derrylossorv, Drumkay, Glenealy, and Kil- 
common, and the whole of the parishes of Kilcoole, 
Killisky, Lower Newcastle, Upper Newcastle, and 
Rathnew. The only town is part of Wicklow; and 
the chief villages are Neu'town-Mouiit-Kemiedy, 
Glenealy, Downs, Newcastle, Kilcoole, Killisky, 
Ballinalee, and Rathnew. Pop., in 1631, 15,770; 
in 1841, 16,444. Houses 2,474. Families employed 
chiefly in agriculture, 1,775; in manufactures and 
trade, 539 ; in other pursuiu, 375. Families de- 
pendent chiefly on property and professions, 108; on 
the directing of labour, 838; on their own manual 
labour, 1,660; on means not specified, 83. Males at 
and above 5 ycan« of age who could read and write, 
2,981 ; who could read but not write, 1,365; who 
could neither read nor write, 2,835. Females at 
and above 5 years of age who could read and write. 




2,358; who could read but not write, 1,8S2; wbo 

could neither read nor write, 3,039 Newcastle 

barony lies wholly within the Rathdrum Poor-law 
union. The total number of tenements valued is 
2,642; and of these, 1.363 were valued under £5, 
—346, under £10,-198. under £15,-119, under 
£20,-90, under £25,-75, under £30,-98, under 
"£40,^76, under £50,— and 280, at and above £50. 
NEWCASTLE, or Newcastle-Lyons, a parish, 
containing a village of the same name, on the west- 
em border of the barony of Newcastle, and county 
of Dublin, Leinster. Length, southward, 4^ miles ; 
extreme breadth, 2 ; area, 4,282 acres, 1 rood, 32 
perches. Pop., in 1831, 1,098; in 1841, 1,108. 
Houses 193. The surface consists, for the roost 

Sart, of excellent land. A hill in Athgoe demesne 
as an altitude of 584 feet above sea-level; and 
another, on the southern border, has an altitude of 
721 feet. The seats are Athgoe-park, Newcastle- 
house, Skeagh-house, Colganstown-house, Hazel- 
thatch -house, and Peamont. The Grand Canal 
passes across the northern district; and the mail- 
road from Dublin to Limerick passes across the 
southern district This parish is a rectory, a se- 
parate benefice, and the corps of the archdeaconry 
of Glandelough, in the dio. of Dublin. Tithe com- 
position, £250 ; glebe, £80. Gross income, £330 ; 
nett, £289 Is. 4^d. ; — ^but these sums are exclusive 
of respectively £18 9s. 2d. and £15 13s. lOd. pecu- 
liarly belonging to the archdeaconry. Patron, the 
diocesan. The incumbent holds also the benefice 
of Killishin, in the dio. of Leighlin, but is resident 
in Newcastle. The church in use in 1837, was a 
very old building. Sittings 100 ; attendance 25. A 
new church was recently built at the cost of private 
parties. The Roman Catholic chapel has an attend, 
ance of 850 ; and, in the Roman Catholic parochial 
arrangement, is united to the chapel of Saggart. In 
1834, the Protestants amounted to 41, and the Ro- 
man Catholics to 1,067 ; and a daily school was sal- 
aried %vith £20 from subscription, inclusive of £5 
from Lord Cloncurry, and £5 from Mr. Bagot, and 
had on its books 80 boys and 60 girls. 

NEWCASTLE, or Newcastle- Lyons, a vil- 
lage, and formerly a parliamentary borough, in the 
parish and barony of Newcastle, co. Dublin, Lein- 
ster. It stands on the road from Lucan to Naas, 
and on that from Oughterard to Dublin, 1^ mile 
from the transit of the Grand Canal, 2 from the 
transit of the proposed Grand-Trunk railway, 2 
north-west of Kathcoole, 4 south - south - west of 
Lucan, and 8 west-south-west of Dublin. A charter 
of 11 James I. erected this place into a borough, 
created a corporation by the name of •* The Port^ 
reeve. Free Burgesses, and Commonalty of the 
Town of Newcastle," and conferred upon the Port- 
reeve and free burgesses the right of sending two 
members to parliament. The corporation was the 
sheer tool of the Right Honourable David Latouche, 
and served no purpose but to seat two of his nomi- 
nees in parliament; and he, accordingly, received 
the whole of the £15,000 of compensation for dis- 
franchisement at the Legislative Union. A royal 
manor of Newcastle at one time existed ; but, since 
the dissolution of monasteries in the reign of Henry 
VIII., this has formed part of the manor of Saggart. 
Grants of weekly markets were made for Mondays 
and Thursdays ; and for fairs on St. Swithin's day, 
All- Saints day. May 9, and Oct. 8. The Newcastle 
dispensary is within the Celbridge Poor-law union, 
and serves for a district of 6,089 acres, with a pop. 
of 1,098 ; and, in 1839^40, it expended £40, and ad- 
ministered to 450 patients. The ruins of a * * castle " 
no longer **new" exist at the village. The alti- 
tude of the village's site is 307 feet above sea-level. 

Area of the village, 27 acres. Pop., in 1831, 395; 
in 1841, 281. Houses 61. 

NEWCASTLE, a small sea-port town, m the 
parish of Kilcoo, barony of Upper Iveagh, co. Down, 
Ulster. It stands at the heaid of the most westerly 
sweep of Dundnim bay, at the base of the north- 
eastern extremity of the Moume mountains, and on 
the road from Kilkeel to Dbwnpatrick and Ardglass, 
2 miles south-east of Bryansfbrd, 3| south-south- 
east of Castle wellan, 5 south by west of Clough, 9i^ 
east by south of Rathfryland, 9} north-north-east of 
Kilkeel, 10 south-west by south of Downpatrick, 
and 11^ west-south- west of Ardglass. "Those 
who have visited Newcastle," says a powerfiil writer 
in a defunct Irish periodical, '* must have felt their 
attention attracted to the wild grandeur of l^e 
scenery which presents itself to the eye a little way 
beyond the southern extremity of the village. To 
the right rise the mountains of Moume, at the foot 
of which lie an immense number of large blocks of 
granite, thrown together in such confusion, and in 
such quantities, that a fanciful person might suppose 
they had been collected for the purpose of building 
another link to the chain of mountains, but which 
nature, being too busy with the more animated por- 
tion of her works, had never found time to begin 
to. Here, far away from the haunts of man, and 
surrounded by wildness and desolation, * the bitch 
fox hides her helpless brood,' rears them in safety, 
and steals out in the darkness of night to plunder 
the neighbouring hen-roosts, or rabbit-warrens; 
while higher up, among the cliffs or the mountains, 
amid the silence and solitude of nature, which is 
never broken save by the bark of her neighbour the 
fox, or by her own wild scream, the eagle buUds 
her eyry, reigns undisturbed, and produces her roval 
birds securely ; while t-o the left of the road, stretches 
out the broad expanse of the Irish sea, where, as 
far as the eye can reach, until the sight is bounded 
by the horizon, extends one livid plain of dark blue 
waters, the monotonous appearance of which is only 
broken by the reflection of the sun upon the sails of 
some distant vessel as she glides across the bay, or 
by the white top of some Sstant billow, as it curls 
into foam, and sparkles in the light when descend- 
ing from its momentary elevation to join its kin- 
dred waters. Such is the scene whidi presents 
itself after leaving Newcastle, now a thriving vil- 
lage, but which not very long since, with the ex- 
ception of the castle which gives name to it, con- 
sisted of a few fishermen's huts scattered at random 
along the beach, wherever the convenience or fiemcy 
of the o^vner suggested. At this place, the shore, 
which has hitherto been a beautiful level sandy 
beach several miles in length, rises perpendicularly 
up to the height of more than 100 feet, in the shape 
of a rocky precipice, in whose rugged fkll are several 
natural caves or excavations, one of which is said, 
by the fishermen, to run fkr into the mountains, and 
to stop directly under the highest point of Slieve 
Donard, and is therefore called ' Donard's Cave ; ' 
while another, called Armor's Hole, is a perpendicular 
gap, about 30 feet wide, and running from 30 to 40 
feet deep, into the fall of the rock, thereby forming 
a chasm into the basin of which the tide beats with 
a roar sufficient to deaden the sense of hearing in 
any person who is hardy enough to approach the 
brink of the precipice, a task requiring both a stout 
heart and a steady head." Donard-lodge, the bath- 
ing villa of the Countess of Annesley, adjoins the 
to^vn ; a spa house and various villas are in the vicin- 
ity ; and Tollymore-park, the magnificent seat of the 
Earl of Roden, is situated about 1^ mile to the north- 
west. The to^^n has gradually and somewhat rapidly 
increased in importance since 1822 ; it has acquired 




midi celebrity, and certainly possetses exquisite 
beauty and powerful attractions, as a watering-place ; 
and it ii now nearly a mile in lenfjfth, and contains 
several places of worship, some schools, a comfort- 
able inn» numerous pleasant and respectable bathing- 
lodges, sereral large and handsome private dwellings, 
and ▼arious other appropriate attractions. A castle, 
which gave name to the place, was built, in the 
reign m EKvibetK bv Felix Magennis, one of the 
lords of the barony ot Upper Iveagh ; and this pile 
was, not many years ago, m good preservation, and 
was rented by the Board of Customs for the accom- 
modation of an officer of the revenue ; but it Mras 
taken down, by order of the EarX of Annesley, to 
give pkioe to the nresent commodious inn. A har- 
bour, designed to oe a place of rendezvous for the 
revenue^ cruisers, in the neighbouring coast, was com- 
menced with the aid of a parliamentary grant of 
£^00(^; aad an excellent and useful pier, well-suited 
to promote the local fisheries, and eminently advan^ 
tageoos to the purposes of general trade, has been 
completed at a t«tal cost of about ^£30,000. Con- 
siderable qpantities of granite from the neighbour- 
hood are shipped at the pert; some agricultural 
produce is sent t» the larger towns ; and the general 
trade of both port and market has materially increased. 
In IQSS^ the exports and the imports amounted, in 
estimatea vahie, to respectively £3,681 and £3, 156. 
Fairs are held in July and August. Area of the 
town, 64 acres. Pop., in 1881, 987; in 1841, 1,067. 
Houses 190. FamiKes employed diieAy in agricul- 
ture, '54 ; in manufactures and trade, 87 ; in ether 
pursuits, 631 Families dependent diiefly on pro- 
perty and professions, 17 ; on the directing of labour, 
3d ; on their own manual labour, 106 ; on means not 
spMified» 28. For further notices of the romantic, 
brilliant^ and sublime scenery connected with the 
Cown, see articles Subyb-Donabd, Subvs-Sna- 
^▲w, Shimna, Dian>RirM, and Tolltmore-Park« 
NEWCASTLE, a hamlet in the parish of Slanes, 
3 miles east -north -east of Portaferry, barony of 
.Ardcs, eo. Down, Ulster. It acquires its name 
firoai a castle which stood boldly over the sea on a 
aaeigkbouring neck of land. Pop., not specially re^ 

NEWCASTLE, a parish, partly in the barony of 

ffhanid^ bu(t chiefly in that of Gfenquin, co« Limer« 

idk. Minister. The Glenquin section contains the 

iril^ge of CBracHTOWN, and the greater part of the 

town of NBwcastub ^ see these articles. Length, 

3 Biles ; bccadth, 2. Area of the Shanid section, 

166 acKs; q£ the Glenquin section, 5,257 acres. 

Pop. ol the wholes in 1831, 4,434; in 1841, 4,191. 

Houses 5dO^ Pop.» in 1841, of the Shanid section, 

15; of the rural districts of the Glenquin section, 

1,790. Houses in these, respectively 2 and 213. 

The surfiiDe is a beautifiil, diversified, and fertile 

portion el* the basin of the Deel, and is watered by 

tW Deei itself and some of its minor affluents. The 

vestem border forms the commencement of the vast 

^Uand region of Limerick, Kerry, and Cork. The 

pnodpal seats are Chesterfield, Knockaderry, Asb- 

KTove, Qwtfeview, Glenvilie, Cahirmoyle, Spring- 

6eld-cwtle, and Courtmay-castlev — the two last the 

rvadences of respecdvely Lord Muskerry and the 

Wl of Devon. Courtmay-castle closely adjoins the 

)o«n, Md seems to have originally given it its name ; 

^ is ptrt ef an old miMtary pile erected and occupied 

by s eomnumity of Knights Templers, but fitted up 

^ i residence by the laie Lord Courtmay ; and the 

^ oU trees which adorn its attached demesne, 

^<Bpvt te the town a pleanngly rural appearance. 

"^ direct road from Lunerick to Tralee, and that 

^ Tsrbert to !bIallow, intersect each other in the 

^'^t'^ — This parish is a rectory, in the dio. of 


Limerick. Tithe composition, £225; glebe, £68. 
The rectories of Newcastle and Monkgat [see 
that article], constitute the benefice of Newcastle. 
Length, 10 miles ; breadth, 7. Pop., in 1831, 9,147. 
Gross income, £899 ISs. 6d.; nett, £827 Os. Ud. 
Patron, the Earl of Devon. The incumbent holds 
also the benefice of Mahoanagh. A curate receives 
a salary of £100. The church is a neat structure, 
situated in the vicinity of Courtmay -castle, and 
built by the late Lord Courtmay, at his private ex- 
pense. Sitting 350; attendance, about 120. The 
Roman Catholic chapel has an attendance of about 
3,000l There are two Roman Catholic chapels also 
in Monegay. In 1834. the Protestants of the parish 
amounted to 200, and the Roman Catholics to 4,328 ; 
the Protestants of the union to 244, and the Roman 
Catholics to 9, 192 ; 12 daily schools in the parish — 
one of which was a free-school, supported by the 
Earl of Devon, one an infant-school, and one a 
mathematical school — had on their books 447 boys 
and 330 girls ; and 20 daily schools in the parish had 
on their books 65J boys and 426 girls In 1842, the 
National Board had a sdiool in the Newcastle work- 

NEWCASTLE, a post and market town, in the 
parishes of Newcastle and Menegay, barony of Glen- 
quin, CO. Limerick, Munster. It stands at the in- 
tersection of the road horn Limerick to Tralee, with 
that from Tarbert to Mallow, 1 mile west of the 
river DeeU 6 south-west of Rathkeale, 7| south by 
east of Shanagolden, K) north-east of Abbevfeale, 
15t north-west by west of Charleville, 20 south-west 
of Limerick, and 114 south-west by west of Dublin. 
It contains a church, a Roman Catholic chapel, a 
market-house, and an infantry barrack ; and it de- 
rives much embellishment fi-om the immediate jux- 
taposition of the mansion and demesne of Castle- 
Courtmay. ** The Knights Templars," says Arch- 
dall, ** erected a castle here, hence its present name, 
adjoining which a walled town insensibly sprung up, 
anid at length became a corporation ; but in process 
of time it fell to decay, and is now in ruins." The 
town stands in the centre of the richest part of a 
very fertile and beautiful tract of country ; and is 
watered by a pleasant and rippling little affluent of 
the Deel. Fairs are held on Apnl 1, May 3, July 
12, August 20. Oct. 1, and Dee. 16.—The New- 
castle Poor-law union ranks as the 4th, and was de- 
clared on Dec. 28, 1838. It lies wholly within the 
baronies of Glenquin, Shanid, and Upper Connello, 
in the county of Limerick, and comprehends an area 
of 132,895 acres, which contained, in 1831, a pop. 
of 51,650. The number of elected guardians is 
22, and of ex-offido guardians is 7. The electoral 
divisions, together with the number of valued tene- 
ments in each' are, in the barony of Glenquin, Ab- 
beyfeale, 570 ; Monegay, 733 ; Killougholehane, 
262; Killeady, 508; and Mahoonah, 482;— in the 
baronies of Glenquin and Shanid, Newcastle, 709; 
— in the baronies of Glenquin and Upper Connello, 
Clouncah, 358 ; — in the barony of Shanid, Ardagh, 
353 ; and Rathronan, 240 ; — and in the barony of 
Upper Connello, Castletown, 801; DrumcoUoher, 
406 ; BalUngarry, 1,082 ; and Kilmeedy, 530. The 
totiil number of valued tenements in the Glenquin 
divisions, and parts of divi:»ions, is 3,413 ; — in the 
Shanid divisions, 638, — in the Upper Connello divi- 
sions, 2,983, — in the whole union, 7,034 ; and of 
this total, 3,348 were valued under £5, — 813, under 
£10,-607, under £15,-408, under £20,-358. 

under £25 254, under £30,-459. under £40.— 

232, under £50.— and 555. at and above £50. The 
total nett aimual value of the property rated is 
£113,218 10s. ; the total number of persons rated 
is 7,037 ; and of these, 1,371 were rated for a valu»- 




tiorj not cnef?p^inff £K^^l,OlTi. not (?%<*c(>*Jiiii3: £3, — 
fi*)9, not (!3c(^^e1(liTiff 'i3,1^^3^, not tJtcoc^iriKr £4^^ 
and 210, nbt cxctedirig )£5. The ^voi-kbodse ^yaa 
confi^etPif % on Oct. 28, liBafl,— to lu-, coniT>l'!-M 
in Deo, )e40,^tt> cost £G»^J fd^ building imdco re- 
pletion, and £920 for ^ttitigT* mra rdntingVnrieE^^^-tn 
ooctipj^ a fite i}f 5, iffi^s, ^uifh'u^M fqt £^,—And 
to coir tain at^ramipotfiitton for 550 p4npcr&'. The 
date of the ftrst kiclnjiaisfibn of paupers \Vm ^rai;<fh Ife, 
IS41 ■ tlip total cvpt^ntiitOrc tbt^nep fill Ft^.KJ^ lf^5, 
wig £5,0(^5,0^* 7 id,; unt! flie tittaV pr^fioiifi ex- 
penditure was £1,:>50ll^i. LM, Tb* numl^er of 
pauper inniafe? ori Be**. % lr*J3, « As 347/ T^fl 
inedical charities w^lTiin ttit^ lii/iibh srp'i'feF^r^Ti^ 
pitnl at Newcaiitlp', arid disp<!riss(ries ut ^^ewtri^i^e. 
Abbevf^ale, Asbfofd, BftTlinfmfK% f 'looTinb, And 
Fecnaph ; and, in Jfti^-'IO, they reCpfvod £4fM] 1?^, 
6d. from siibseripttmt, md £5*2(1 Rs, from putnie 
grants, expended £705 for saiaHi f(, £500 fis. 4d. for 
medidne!^; Wtid' £ 1 ^\ iSs. 2d. fbr rntitingpoHes., and 
irdtiiiiiist«rtd te S^'ittt^fiBfidflJ^l fTrtem patierifci, 
exclusive bf tb^ extcrfi nflt)etil?i E^dtfiiin^tpred tit ^y 
two of tho di-'petti^nnet. Tbe Scwi^^tlt? ft-vpr bofi. 
pital Ia capubk ofne'ctolnnf^odRlitig' 24 |NatTf*nt*v, utnl 
»crveg for ii diatficC eoittdmitp a pojj. of ll,W6i 
■nd, in 1839-40* it eipt'^ided £ST^5'2^., BTTd adT^itted 
333 patient*. The Nen*fastle di^pi.>tni;ih'^#rt6* for 
the *anie (Jiatfict'ds fbt ft'ver hoepitwl ; (irttl/'irt 
J B39-40, 1 1 ek pen ded dE9 ^ *2s ; , an d adimn Htereri \ o 
U83 patictitfl.^-Area of the MonegJ!fyi?ection oFt^ie 
tov%^l» 17 arrea : of tTie parish of Newtfist!** ^frrtimi, 
a I acrps . Pop . of tB e ^1i olp^ i» t I?t3 1 , 'i : !KW< ; in 
1641, 2.017. Ho!J4«y 416^. Pop. 4f the !>[onef*y 
»eetion, in lS4r, 651 J HdUttetHfe." ' l**mriili^ Sim 
ployed ohipfiy in a||fricUlt«fi&,^^L iitiWRmifdrtiUrei 
fcnd trade, 4\ v \n oth^t pafmitti ti.^' Piimiltt* tfe* 
pendent chiefly on |fropmif ami';t^f*?^^"^^T"^" 
the directing of labout*; ^7 ;'»>*» 'th^V *frn rtitttrwii 
labour^ 9fl ; on mOJtns m)t>perH^ed; fL P«p. of't^* 
pttrifib of Ncwenstle aeeii^n, iri I84l, %W^. "^n\i^$ 
3 1 K Fa mi 1 i efl em ployed th le fl y ■ i w lit^ c^iHnj*T&» i 1 10 j 
an manufrtcttife* Mid frad*,'3J3 ? m olbek* ^iirflttits, '! 
V2B. Famille* depend^ ni driefly ton 'prdperlytfid 
p rofe sniont, 37 ; ort the iStreet i] \^ 6f bibottir, 'MS t Un 
their own manual labtmK ifllj W nwttiranot speei* 

fied, 37. ■' ' '^■' -^ l'N.--ri.r;h . 1 ■.,,:. I . 

NEWCASTLE, i fHknih,' ' c^om^niiitt irviHs^ebf 
the BftTn e turfm c, in th e bAton y^ 6l ■ Wc*t W^i «n d O flh , 
64 milts fomh-weMt erf" ClotntiM/^co. TJpferftt^', 
Munster. Lenprtb, southward; 4 nii!e« ;" *xtrerne 
breadth, 3^ ; arett, 10,854 aeres, ft rtwds; 37 perches, 
— of which 21 acr*s, 2 rtioih^ 2t pfefchts tife 5ri the 
river Saip. Pop., in 1S3U 2,455; iti IW!^ %^5B. 
Houses 44T . Fo p. of the hi r*l rt i atr ie* s, i n i 8+1 , 
2;700. House* 400.' TheSoir tmetfi thefiort^jim 
boundary eastward ; and several affluents of it, indi- 
genoua to the parish, deseend from' elevatKjiia bf 528 
and 783 feet above sea-love L The north ern diftrict, 
or that immediately upon the finir; is pice^lleiit ar«ble 
land- hut the central ^d ioutbetn dUtrict« are 
wholly upland, and eoTist^t of part of tbe en^t «nd bf 
tbe Knoekmeledown ratige of mou^taiDi. ? Tbfeprin* 
cipal Bumraitg, together wirlt tb'eff rewi^cinvfe alti. 
tudea above seft-level, are Weit-Croj^ian^ on the 
western boundoFr, 1,718 ffeet;-^» height in the 
•outh-weat corner^ l,ft46 feet, --^uitt three bci^ht^ b 
the interior, 961, 8?J; and 540 f5^et. The seats fcre 
KewcftBtle-bous^e, PagtomllCt ahd A ftimmtain sHoot- 
ing-lodge. The humlets are Pa*itorville, Corra^b- 
donej^. Bobermjtjaul, and Skedghatdoreen. The 
principal antiquiries are the ruins of a chtireh kt 
jWweaatie, and the ruins of aeastle at Cofraj^hclonej, 
The villaj^e of XewcaJtk *!t*mds on tbe Suir. Area, 
Slaeres. Pop., ir> 1841,253, Hou*m»M7. Afatti*held 
on Feb. 12, AdUpen&aryhereis witbmtbe Clc^een 

Poor-law urn on, aijcl ^rve^ for i district containing 
a pop, pf t*,S7 : and, in \?^^40. itet^e^ded :£7^, 
BJjd mjide *1.7^¥) di^pi^krf ion* of Tnedfrjne'.^--niJi 
nuri $h i 4 n vi raf ft^; in i h e d lo, o f 1 j-rittiori? I Vifflirml 
Itthe eompOBitfon, £fh2 6^. id. i ^4ebe, £3 8*. The 
reet^ci^ tithes nre i^nmpqunded for £120 Ts. lOdI ; 
iinfl ^ i^ppropriiffi?d to the treasJrtVli?bfp df tfif^orfi 
(*irtb e f bill , The V i rri rape erf !^ e w cft^t le , nrtd t)i «' pur- 
Tiel^ of MrLi.ocir [^re ihnt article], const itttte tile 
ben eflee of N (* w t%^ t It* . Len {ftb / 6 J inil e* ; bfVu dt fa * 
3^ . Pop., inl^M, a,2fil. Gro^ii* thrOme,- £05 P«i, 2t*, ; 
pc n , A*IJ5 5f . lp(^ . Pi^tron , t h e dioc^e san . Th^ t»j- 
' bdinbe'nt hmd $ idme Xh^/ *ti pfliTdlACy en m^v o^ T4I- 
loghmeelan ; and isattet^ded fb^re «ytbe ^^t^^liit 
Ttih ah 1 1 airt < of Ne w ea*t?e tiition * T!ie Bb rrtni^ t'^t ho- 
lic ell ape I f*^ pitTrotetl at Ne\Ve«^tle >'lllA(*e, wnd has 
an attieiidanee of titiO'; and, in ^hr RoinfiVt Citthtriie 
parocbitil Birmitfi*inFnt, iar united to the clirtjx'l «f 
Derry^raTh. In lKfl4, the Protestants of the parikh 
and' of the urfion amoimtJ^ to 8, the Iktonati C^thb- 
lirn of the prt^ftib ti^-^,i75; '«*il *he Rynnin Oafllolitrs 
oi' tbe iniibn tn 3,SfiO^ and' 5 pay daily ttrbOoU i^ file 
pari lib and mnorr had on tb4?ir boolfi I4t bojiaftd 

ISPWCASTLE, a pari^, 4tTrilei efli?t by tmih 
(Jf Kllmfte^bottta.-*, rmd plurtl* in tlie bftro*iy of 'B*eU»- 

■wltl>o<at*DmMi, but- t*bieny in that of MlddletbUd, 

'WrWa^erTorll Minister] ■ Len^tb, #oatb-*outh- 
eteitward, K mWmi b^Adth; fi-firti fta:3. Art*«- of 
%bB Dee!o# iter Hon* Stlft ttrres. 1 roiid, S4 pertb«* ; 
wt the Middlethird fi«Ttitm,'3,55fi 'Arre*inl ftiorti 5 
pe rrbe-i; ; Pop. of th* ^*4toTe^ In 1 RH ; I ^ 124 i - in 
1841. 1.3S7. HouJtRfl W. ^ ^p. 0ftbeiMrdd>etliird 
serti<>n,ln lft3lvK€87^ in I*H*, ii^t:i HoU^eftlSL 
Tbe Deeres «e ettwn wnawti of t h e ttt i'nland > <>f ■ I ^1 «* 
«abJ^ne^ J amJ prevfoirfs to-i ^trMsftfenee tindeK the 
Aot 6 and 7 Wiiliam n^,vle^K84, it belonged to rhe 
bMony of Uppertbifdil ! Pop,, In IBSI'. ^7 ; in^-18^1, 
80.' hroj«H lili' ' A ^^i*niderabl« portion of* ^ tbe 
par^t^inl nvrfaee it bbg ; but Iberermalvtd^rr^H^Nsi 
for tb« moi^t part, of g««d tand: ^In? prlneipiil Mbt 

■h KntHrka^erry. The iaii4il-ro*d frohi Avaf erfcwUto 
CtTrk'traver,')ea tbe inter Jor,^Tbis parii^h Ja a vft^- 

'ri^i and part of tb^ benetiec of Deitmn^i. [whdoh 
flee}; in tbe dJOv of Lismore. Vjiifirlnl tithe cOmfKK 
■ititrn^ :£0O^i j^lebe, XI 2^ Tbe reetdrisi til be b are 
eomp<Minded< ^ £SM; and Br« impropriate in tbe 
no rp^Tfatton o# t be d*y of WateWord In 1 834 v tbe 
parishioners W« re' all floranw CotboUeft; And a pky 
dailv ^rhuol liul on its book&49 boy^'and £5 jritlv,^ 

KEWCASTl^E, a villejRfp m Ibe^parisb of Lowbr 
Newcastle* liwony of ^ewcnfltlwi co* Wiektow, 
Ijeiniter, It irtandt on the road from Braf to Wiefc* 
low> 24 milfi south oi^ Kiieoole, and 24 ftoatb-ea^tof 
Kevvtown+Mauntf-Jleiiiiedyj- It iatbe a^e of the 
pafi*ib-i?hiirebi'«Tid of an tJd Sortie,' f roan tbe latter 
of B^rb the- vSHage* the pari ab, and' th* baF^ay 
acquired tbdr rmear. Fairft arc held on April' i|» 
hiW K>t Sept. I, lad Dee. «,■ Ahea of. the ¥illa|^, 
36 at^rei. Pop., iff 1841^19^. HoUies m. Tbe 
CePTiitia of i*i3l (stbibiU'tb* villoifE iatwo Beetiom^ 
1 J nder . t be naioe« r w f . li War Xrwcas tie : ard ■ 1 fpjier 

Uewowtfe. Pofi-' oC' LowteP .KeweaatJe, .in 4831, 
130. Hoitew IB. P(*p . wf r ppor Newcastle; in 
183 L 80, H-oui!«*ia. - ' 

\ E VT C A B TUj K , a banilei in th e pari ab of Forirr ey , 
berony of Abbeysbruei, 00. Lonjjrford^ Leinater, At 
ptand* Oft tbe river Ituiyi M niile ea^t of BallTmabOTt* 
Itt Jt« immediatesyieiivity utfloda the mantdon of Olodh- 
e«Uow. Pop. Jiot specially returned. 

NEVVCASTLK, a vill|i|Hre in tbe pariih «f Ennfe- 
keen* baroiiy of :Mor|cnillion, '3^ utiles nortb^tortlii- 
W4^t of ■Slobber, «>» Meath, Leinater. In itr* itnme* 
diftte vidTiity ar&' Newoaatle lake, and Sewi'astle 
house «r fliantioDL 'Tbe lake Ue» on tb« mutaal 




.border of the barony of Morgallion, and the barony 
of Lower Kells. Area withm Morgallion, 18 acres, 
1 rood, perches ; within Lower Kells, 27 acres, 1 
rood, 14 perchea. Pop. of the village not specially 

NEWCASTLE, a village in the parish of Rahoon, 
barony and county of Gal way, Connaught. It stands 
oo the Corrib river, and on the road from Galway 
to Oughterard, I mile north b^ west of Galway. 
Here is a large distillery ; and m the vicinity are 
Belmount, Newcastle - bouse, Newcastle -cottage. 
Rock-lodge, Ashley-park, and Villa- Abbanagh. 
Pop. not specially returned. 

NEWCASTLE (Lower), a parish on the coast 
of the barony of Newcastle, 2^ miles south-east of 
Newtown-Mount- Kennedy, co. Wicklow, Leinster. 
It ooDtains the village of Newcastle : which see. 
Length, south-south-westward, 3^ miles; extreme 
breadth, 2}; area, 4,750 acres, 4 perches. Pop., 
in 1831, 1,399; in 1841, 1,226. Houses 165. A 
belt along the shore is unprofitable strand ; and the 
rest of the surface is all low, and varies in yearly 
valae from 10s. to 60s. per plantation acre. The 
hamlets are Leabeg, Middle Leabeg, Warblebank, 
Leamore, Cooldross, Bally philip, and Killadrunan. 
The aeata are Bally donaria-house, Bloomfield, Kil- 
nuUin, and Woodstock, — the last the handsome re- 
aidence of Lord Robert Tottenham. The chief an- 
tiquities are the ruins of a church at Killadrunan, 

and the ruins of a castle at Newcastle This parish, 

and that of Uppek Newcastle [see next article], 
are a part-rectory and a vicarage in the dio. of Dub- 
Ka. The part-rectory is a separate but sinecure 
benefice. Tithe composition and gross income, 
£287 lOs. ; nett, £270 12s. Patron, the Rev. Rose- 
ingrave Macklin and his heirs. Such of the rectorial 
tithea aa do not belong to the part-rectory and sine- 
eve benefice, are valued at £150; and are impro- 
priate in Earl Fitzwilliam. The vicarage is a separ- 
ate benefice, with cure. Vicarial tithe composition, 
£276 18a. 5id. ; glebe, £28. Gross income. £309 
18s. 5^.; nett, £i6278. lid. Patron, the diocesan. 
A portioa of the territory of the benefice is included 
Uk the perpetual curacy of Calart : which see. 
Pop., in 1831, of the remaining portions of the bene- 
fice, 3,870. The church is of unknown date ; and 
waa eolar|ped about 57 years ago by means of volun- 
tary eootnbutiona. Sittings 350 ; attendance, from 
to to 900. A chapel-of-ease was commenced a num- 
ber of years ago at Newtown- Mount- Kennedy, 
aiovnd which moat of the popuUtion resides; but it 
was discontinued for want of funds ; and, in 1837, 
a adioolhouse in that village was used as a parochial 
dbee oC worship. Sittings 120 ; attendance 150. 
The Roman Catholic chapel has an attendance of 
shout 1,000 ; and, in the Roman Catholic parochial 
armtgement, is united to a chapel in the benefice of 
Delgany. In 1831 , the Protestants of Lower Ne wcas- 
tie amounted to 439, and the Roman Catholics to 949 ; 
the Protestants of the whole district under the care 
rf the vicar to 984, and the Roman Catholics to 
^,886; 2 Sunday schools in that district were usually 
•ttwded by about 96 children ; and 6 daily schools 
in tbe district — one of which was salaried with £8 
ujnt from the A^ociation for Discountenancing 
Vice, and aided with the proceeds of a collection 
«ts charity sermon, while another at Newtown- 
*owt-Kemiedy was supported chiefly by subscrip- 
^ mhI the proceeds of a public collection — had on 
««r books 149 boys and 120 girls. 

NEWCASTLE (Upper), a parish in the barony 
« 'evctttle, CO. Wicklow, Leinster. It contains 
™p««alltown of Newtown -MoiTNT- Kennedy: 
™4 Ke. I^ength. south-west by southward, 4 J 
■»«; hreadth, from 4 to 3J; area, 7,025 acres. 2 

roods, 7 perches. Pop., in 1831, according to the 
Census, 3,118, but according to the Ecclesiastical 
Authorities, 3,106; in 1841, 2,766. Houses 405. 
Pop. of the rural districts, in 1831, 2,293 ; in 1841, 
1,943. Houses 292. The surface consists variously 
of mountain, moor, bog, arable land, and demesne 
ground; and possesses a cousideraMe aggregate of 
picturesqueness and beauty. The highest grounds 
are Dunran-hill on the southern boundary, and a 
height on the western border, whose summits have 
altitudes of respectively 1^122 and 1,193 feet above 
sea-level. The seats are Prospect-house, Monalin* 
house, Springmount, East-hill, Mount- Kennedy- 
house, Glendarragh - cottage, Glendarragh - house. 
Hermitage, and Mountjohn-house, — the last the re- 
sidence of Graves Archer, Esq. The hamlet of 
Monalin, within the limits, had in 1831 a pop. of 36. 
— This parish is ecclesiastically consolidated with 
that of Lower Newcastle [see preceding article] ; 
yet a portion of it is included also in the quoad 
sacra parish of Calart : which see. In 1831, the 
inhabitants of the Calary portion consisted of 59 
Protestants and 565 Roman Catholics ; and the in- 
habitants of the other portions consisted of 545 Pro- 
testants and 1,937 Roman Catholics. 

NEWCESTON, or Nucetown, a village in the 
parish of Moragh, barony of Kinnalmeaky, about 5 
miles west bv north of Bandon, co. Cork, Munster. 
Fairs are held on Jan. 8, Whit- Tuesday, Oct. 15, 
and Dec. 14. Pop. not specially returned. 

NEWCHAPEL, or Mulloghnono, a parish in 
the barony of East Iffa and Ofia, 3 j miles north-west 
of Clonmel, co. Tipperary, Munster. Length, west- 
ward, 4 miles ; extreme breadth, 2^ ; area, 4,873 
acres, I rood, 17 perches. Pop., in 1831, 1,544; in 
1841,1,419. Houses 190. Tbe surface consists, in 
general, of good land. The seats are Springmount, 
Jamestown, Chaneellorstown-bouse, Bawn-house, 
Orchardstown-house, and Knockee van-house. The 
hamlet of Clerihan, within the limits, had in 1831 a 

pop. of 230 This parish is a rectory, a prebend, 

and a separate benefice, in the dio. of Cashel. Tithe 
composition, £162 3s. 4d. ; glebe, £43 3s. 5id. 
Gross income, £505 6s. Q^d. ; nett, £450 5s. 5id. 
Patron, the diocesan. The church was built in 1819 
by means of a loan of £738 9s. 2id. from the late 
Board of First Fruits. Sittings 60 ; attendance 10. 
In 1834, the Protestants amounted to 31, and the 
Roman Catholics to ],593,~and a pay daily school 
had on its books 50 boys and 20 girls. 

NEWCHURCH, a village in the parish of Ardea, 
barony of Portnehinch, Queen's co., Leinster. It 
stands 2A miles east by south of Mountmellick, on 
the road thence to Emo. Pop. not specially re- 

NEWFERRY, a hamlet in the parish of Bally- 
scullion, barony of Loughinsholin, co. Londonderry, 
Ulster. It is situated on the river Bann, a little 
below Lough Beg, and 2| miles north-east of Bel- 
laghy. Pop. not specially returned. 

NEW-GENEVA. See Geneta (New). 

NEW-GLANMIRE, a village in the parish of 
Cahirlag, barony of Barrymore, co. Cork, Munster. 
It stands in the glen of the Glanmire rivulet, and in 
the vicinity of the village o( Glannue : which see. 
Area, 3 acres. Pop., m 1841. 200. Houses 24. 

NEW-GRANGE, an unique and wonderful anti- 
quity in the parish of Monknewton, barony of Upper 
Slane, co. Meath, Leinster. It is situated on tbe 
banks of the Boyne, 2^ miles south-east of the village 
of Slane ; and has been the topic of several long and 
conflicting dissertations on the part of antiquaries, 
and some magniloquent but second-rate descriptions 
on the part of topographists. * * If England, " sayi^ a f u- 
gitive writer, whose anonymous paper places the ob-- 




jeet far more sucdiictlj arid powerftiU; Ke fore the nuDt) 
than the imposing elabor^tici^a of aam^ wklUkj^owi} 
authors-^'* If Engl and may jdstly' 6oaat of hor Stone- 
henge as the nol:ili3Et monument of itE kmd. now ex* 
istin^, Ireland can, witb eqoal rcAion^ f&(s\ proud of 
the sepulchral tumulus of Ncw-Granj^e — a tnotiitment 
of human labodTr only extzeeded in grandeur bv ihi 
tomb of Agamemnon, at Myc0h», or the pyrain{(U of 
the Egyptian kiiiga, to both of whveh it is fio nearly 
allied in many of its gen oral fetdiire»r and which, Iti 
point of antiouity ^ it probabSy rivals, or even poadbly 
exceeds ! Tne tu nan I u» o f ^ &\v~Q range la arte of the 
four great sepulchral mounds sittiateuon the hiuilca 
of the BoynCf between Dro^heda aiid Sla:ne, iJi the 
county of Meath, and whbh, vi'C will not hesitate to 
say, may be justly termed tti* Pyramids of Ireland, 
It is the only one of the four whose interior i% notv 
exposed to hqnian eiiriositv. The eonteftts of the 
others are still unknown ; but there h everj teisan 
to believe that, if explored, they would he (bund lioi- 
ilar in their nature, and not Inferior in rude ma^ifi-. 
cence to that of v^ hioh we axe ilbout to give a deacKp- 
tion. This extraordinary motmment or pyrauiidp' 
which is now, as the learned antiquary, Op^'ernor 
Pownall, truly observed, but a ruin of what it orlpl* 
nally'was, cover* 2 acres of ground^ aiid ha^ an ele* 
vation of about 70 feet; but iu original heig^ht wa« 
not less than IGO feet, as it ba!^ been ui^ed lor age?^ 
a» a stone-quarry, for the making: and ri^ pairing of 
roads, and the erectioji of buildings, kc.^, in the 
neighbourhood. It is forme d of fimal 1 ^t on e^ 'fH> v^tQA 
over with earth ; and at its base was encircled by a Tine 
of stones of enornmus ma^iitude, phw^ In erec^ 
position&, and varying in hei|^Tit from 4 10' f| feet 
above the gnomid, and supposed to wipgh from 10 t6 
12 tons each. Of these ttonest t®fi oTily rt^mained 
aboFut fifty year4 ba<rk; and oiie has ginee b«en re- 
moved. About a Ce'ritury agOi there was also a large 
pillar-stone, or tide, on the sunmu^ of tt^e ii^aupt^ 
noMT , also destroyed. These sboneF^, b^ well as 
thosie 'of which the ^rand trii erf or' chamber U builtf 
are not found in the ntsightiourhood of the pyrajnid^ 
but have h^ih bf ought htther froiii thti nioiitb. ol 
the river Boynes a ofetiince of T or 6' miles. The 
interior of the tuinttlus was first explored ol^out 
the vea^ 1099, when a >rr. Campbell, ^ho i'e-iided 
in the neighboiirinit rilluf^ of ?Je\V-t;ung*f, in cm^ 
rying away s^ofitj? t& repjjr a totwl, discovered the 
entrancij to the 'gallery, or pi^^fage leading into, 
the chamber,^ This eiitr^nc^ vtm ^t*o^t^ ^ f^t 
from 'the original ^d<^ of the pyr^mi^t ahd 'is pl^r^^d 
due south and rim^ nor^hvi'ftra^ The lengtli of tiiia 
passa^ to the t^n trance of the chamber h about ^ 
feet ;'itft breadth at the openiiTg^ 3 ft^et ; and lis height, 
1 foot 6 inches* At fht dititaJic^ of ahdui tbrtt?et 
from the entrance^ the jias^age gradually narrows, 
till it reaches a stone which ia laid across in an in* 
clined position, and which seems to forbid further 
progress. At this point the passage U nurrowed tg 
1^ foot in height and breadth, persons of moderate 
size, however, can overcome this ohstjM;^ by Coming 
on their side^, and edging their ^gdie^ round by the 
asisistance of their elbow and foot. Thit difKcnlty 
passed, the gallery pre^ntd no frirther obstajcle, ss it 
immediately expanou again to the \^'idiK of 3 feet, 
and to a height of G feet, whieh gradually increan^s 
to 1 feet 6 ipch es at the ent raneo & f the dome , The 
chamber is an irregular circle, about 2^ feet m dia^ 
meter, covered with a dome of a be(>^hive furm, €oti-^ 
structed of massive st^ne^, laidhDrizontaUy, ana pro- 
jecting one beyond the other^ till they approidmat^ 
and are fiiudlv capped with a mgle one ; the height of 
the dome is aoout^O feet ; the chamber had three quad- 
rangular recesses, forming a cro^i^, one facing the en- 
trance -gallery, and one on each «ido. In each uf these 

I I ., t . ,1 ■ . . , • • • • «■• 1 . : 

recesses was placed a. stpne iim, or aaj^phifgmh oft 
simple bowl form, two of which remain s.of .t|ieicr«* 
cesses, the east and the w^e^t are .about 8 feetrapvc(. 
the nortl^ i^ somewhat deeper. Thei «ntire kag^ 
of the cavern, from, |^e entrancje of .the; .gallery t«||» 
end of tne recess,' is St fi-et 6 inrhe.'iH The 6tcak*A 
of which th*f i'Htire structure eonoi^tii arf of gl^Mt 
size ; thu^r nhii h fcfriii the hnttl^ or fopf ,^' th* g*l* 
Icry arc hut ^i.\ iTv nundi| r ; E^t^ of .these,,. the tinit ^f- 
i'^ feet 4 inchen^af^ tb(^ third l^ feet, a^ tbe.tift^ 
about l^feet; the Wii^Hh gf djesestwii^ is not If^ 
than feet. The.ti^Ile^V^Clhe upright ttone^i ^orwifig 
(hje entrance to the recjefs^ if 7 feet iyches in hyij^ti 
afid its companion tfept. Tl^e va^ or ui^n wU|^ 
thiti chamlter U 3 f^eiB inf?hea,Jn diaimeter^ 
the opjioi^itje ebanfiber i^ displaced from it» supporter i 
the^ urnit ^re of gn^nite, > ,4 ^^^ nt^iiib^ Oif ikj^^ 
ston^ wUhin €he chWoWr^ §s we^^ aj^ in the galU^ji 
are darved \v^th spiraU ^ozeiigei^Khapt^d^ ij^ruS x^rifg 
lines • and in the w^^t chajji^er tWrei ■are uuurpi 
which have (been supposed to, be an *lpWtwtip. in- 
scription, biit, a^ we are^ persua4ed, ,,\,yithout rean 
son. To thi^ genf ral de^cr^tion, we Lave miy ^ 
a^d, that on tbe.^rst ejtawi^ij^tjQfi of . t^ pait4$rijW'.fl| 
the gepolchref a pyr*tmidal or obeli^kal ston«, , 6^, pf .JC 
feet in height, is said to have stKWfl i^ ^^e.-ceiiiire, 
near which the skeletons of twio human l)odiea wm 
found, aiid that about the aame perVod.twp.goM 
Roman coins were discovered on t^e^ top of . fhf! 
mount, the oi^e of the elcler y^d^'^tiniai), ^n4 this otbAjr 
of Theodosiiis. This most ancient|, And^ .thpiigk 
i;ude, njp^t nvig^^ent mofuim.eut, }^m br^fi.d^crihcd 
di>d,'iUi^^trati.'d i>y Molynetiuxt Itiirri^* Pp^jt-nall^ a»4 
Ledwk'li, ^i of wliLTTj, un\Vilimf% uppnreiitly, to al- 
]p>^ the apcie^t Iri^rthf Ltinour pf. er<cti|i^a wgirk 
of &uidi va.^t labour t^idgriindeur, concur in aiicrihing; 
It tp th^ pLratical bimei), who hiJbL>t4d thv i^laud. ia 
tjie9lh ^id UHh ceijturieB., VVo »re \wdl, aware tlwl^ 
thet>iuies, &6 well aT> ull tbe oth^rbranche^of tbff g7f^ 
Scyti^iun s^toek, rtil^etl hir^e senulchmi mf>utiids ; hul^ 
whci^e ill thi* north *;f Eurnjx; does there fliist joi, m9* 
nnmeht of the ki^id to rtvul tJu-j ^jid .it^ cojnpanioLita 
on thp Btiyny? And is it hkely tbF»t Dimish vnfli^ 
nie^T in n country in which tliey had ntrver a Bccunij 
settlement I would riii>^e monuments ejEct'^ed^ig ^iA 
grandeur any which existed in th^ir own qountqrj^ 
Or if they miglit, is ij to be belie v^d thwt traditibbv^ 
Avpiild he i>ileTtt^ or timt our annals, w:hich are ;f o^ 
minute ii\ rccort^ing thi2 \jiorks as. well j^s .deed* pf 
thoa^ lawle.'is roliTjers, wpulfi'pi;<ffttpvoj«oiuemflTifli 
of s^o vast a Tab our? JSq^l it h to t|ie wjcwntly civ^T- 
lized ^outh oflt^uTope^ liot i\p bftr^rouA north, (kat 
we must look for t1^ prototypes- of t|io*e grand tag^ 
ntimept^of tho tkad; which, tijualiy with (hubra^n 
vv capons aj id u'>avi>, ihc (\vdv>paJtn forts, and of her 
rpinain^, identity, thg tiiuJent inJuibiLant^ of Ire kmd 
^dth the mo^t anient, J^yp tion V tuid the Qceelu of 
the heroic tnnc)4. The ar^up:|^t$ of tbo^e It^arnf^d 
nM^n above alluded to, In support of thdrhyp«|ih«tilA^ 
ai^e puerile, uihI r^imrci^ly de^^rve serious uotice; we; 
are not uithout lii^toric ev^enpie to pro^e that thfii 
Dane^. ^o far frgm beipg th^e erect ois ^f i^ monu^ 
tnt^Tifs 4irt I hi' Tl^A'he, \i'ei'^'- ii:i iiiiubt bi'r morn r&-> 

tionaily expected, their destroying plundecera/'. 

NEW-HARBOUR, or.jfUwvTL^ a marine, iole^ 

and a harbour in. the parish of OrnnQnore, barony .of 

Dunkelliny oo.. Gaiway, Comiaiight, . . It. is situatiHi 

at the head of Gal way bay, 2 miles south-weat.of 

the town of Qranipore ; it ooeasurea a mile in kesgih. 

and i of a mile in breadth j it has a clean bottocn, tl»€i 

inner port of which is mud, skirted with fine lime* 

stoiW9 gravel; and it forms a beautiful and safehar- 

j hour for anoall vessels, and is frequently resorted to 

; in westerly winds and in winter by vessels from Gal* 

j way roads. A pier was, not very many years agu» 




built in a completely landlocked bight on the north 
tide of the liarbouH it is 150 feet ui length, with a 
return df 80 fept for hbat«, with a j^tty and stair at 
the bead, i^ feet iit higfh wntei', and fkced with hewn ; 
Bniettoiie; and this work has been of much use for , 
Tetsels, rnxtmnff for shelter^ gnd especially for qu'een- 
ing and wiiitenng. 

N£ W.TNN, a villace in the gu^sh of Rnoc^kgraf. 
loii^ bftroftyof Clanwiiliam, co.'Tipperarv, Munster. 
It standu on the road {h>m Cahfr to Cajshel, 4 miles 
liorth by ttat of Cahir, ind 4.^ rotith of Cashel, U 
contains a chiireh, 4 iLomxn ibatholic ^hapel, and k 
barrack ; ithtf the site ofiti church has an altitude of 
88B feet above sea-liivpl. Iii the vicinity are the 
•eataof Lou^-Keht-bouse, Outaragh-houie) Wood* 
instown^faoose, and MarUHill-house. A Roman Ca- 1 
tholie parish' in the did^ of Cashel and fimly takes ; 
name from NteW-Imit snd hiiB chapels here and at 
Knoekfraflbn. A'fiur is held at the village on March ; 
17. Attea o# the vilhge, 19 acres. Pop,; in 1831, 
820; in 1841. 242. Hbuses 44. 

NEW-INN, abaiiilM-in the jparish of.tava, barony 
of L>per' Lought^, c6. Cavan, Ulster. , It stands 
oh the mldl-road from Thiblhi to Enniskiflen, 5 m\les 
iiortb.w«tt by; ncfrih of Virginia. Pop. not specially 

NBW.INN, t himlet in the barony of iCilconnel, ; 
4 inHet West by south of the village of Kilconnel, " 
eo. Gal way, Connatight. A tU>maii Catholic parish \ 
in the dio. of Clonfert takes name f|-om this hamlet, | 
and has ehapeli here and at BuUane. Pop, not »pe- ! 
ciallr retnmed. j 

NfeW-INjr, the quonibun nao^ of th6 village of 
Imfield or Enfield, in the barony of Lower Moyien« 
nirb, counfT Meath, Leiiister. See Ekitield. 

NE^IfARRET, a pott and market town in the 
Darith of Clonftrt, barony of DuhalTow, co. Cork, 
N uitffter. ' tt ttands on the river Dallua, and 4t the 
i n tersectio n of the nkd from Mallow to Listawel 
with tbat ftom Charleville to Killarney, 4 mile) 

»orth.'w«st of Kanturk, d^east-north-^as^ of King. 
Wtlliania'Town, 12 nclrtb % east of Mill-Atreet, I2f 
sottth-nmt of Charleville, 13} west-north.west of* 

Mrilow, and 190 south-west of Dublin. Three 

glent wbieh adjoin the town, or are situated in its 

imiMdaCe Vicinity, -possess a large aggregate of 

woodland, recbumed ground, and cultivated terri- 

toiy ; and tbey boast a comparatively crowded popu- 

ktion, and * larte amount of artiiiciai embellishment. 

Tbe lar^ mansion and extensively planted demesne 

of Riehiird O. AJd worth, Esq., in particular, stand 

in dof^ Tttztapositidn with the town, and very greatly 

cnrieh ita entirons. But imm^ately above the 

town tmmucim ss that v4st tract of wud, m<^orish, 

iMoitaimnis, Unimproved country, which extends 

totttbward over all tbe wesiem frontier of Cork, and 

vettwiird and northward far into Kerry and Lim- 

crkkf vmK though nearly 1«000 square miles in area, 

Qsntains only two smalt villa^, an^ the mansions 

of only two resident proorietors. The Aldworth 

baily are proprietor^ of Newmarket, and have of 

lite rear4 eonnderably improved it ; and they arc a 

oesrvndant-branch from the Aid worths, formerly of 

Manlake, in Berkshire. The toH'n possesses one 

rcfular and pretty good street, some good-looking 

private dwelling!*, A dispensary, a fever hospital, a 

<^arch. and a Romah Catholic chapel ; and to the 

ve^ of it, on the left hand of the road leading to 

HUHcwater-bridge, stands Castle- Mac A ulifTe, for- 

, Qieriy the chief seat of the sept of Mar AuHtfe. The 

' itftT hospital is within the Kanturk Poor-law union, 

I tod contains 10 beds, but is capable of arcommodat- 

incS) patients; and, in l8,19-40, it expended £178 

i4#. 5}d.. and admitted 192 patients. The dispen- 

isTT serves for a district containing a pop. of 9,000 ; 

and, in 1839^40, it received £25 IQs., ana enended 
£18 15s. 1 Hd. Fairs are held on April 21. June 8, 
July 16, Sept. 8, Oct. 10, and Nov. 2K A Roman 
Catholic parish in the dio. of Cloyne takes name 
from Newmarket, and has cbapels here and at Milon 
and Rockhill. The celebsatea forensic orator, John 
Philpot Curran, spent his early years at Newmarket, 
received at a small school here his first instruction, 
rambled about the streets of the town *'a little 
ragged apprentice to every kind of idleness and mis* 
chief," and while y9t young, was, throi^ the bene- 
volent patronage of th^ Hev. Mr. Boyse, rector of 
Clonfert, removed hence to the school of Middleton. 
Curran's father filled the humble office pf seneschal 
in the manor-court of Newinarket. In l&tl* was 
born at; Newmarkets William Clark, who has been 
extensively kno^-n as "the ossified man." In in- 
fancy, he was never qbserved to turn bis head round 
or to bend his body ; in boyhood, he could not put his 
hands behind his back, or lift them higher than the 
level of his elbow ; in mature life he received all his 
food through a fissure,, caused by the accidental 
friLcture of his front teeth ; in old age— ibr he lived 
to the ag^ of G7 — he nearly lost all power of locomo- 
tion ; and when his body was dissected af^r death, 
it was found to be one mass of bone from the top of 
his head to his knees, ^io exhibit only one bone from 
end to end of the dorsal vertebriB,-..and to display 
prevailing ossification in the verv cartilages of the 
breast which served to maintain the play of respira- 
tion. An engraving of hi/i skeleton is given in Dr. 
Smith *8 History of Cork, Area of the town, 75 
acres. Pop., in 1831, 1,437; in 1841, 1,899. 
Houses 311. Families employed diiefiy in agricul- 
ture,; ll9 ; in manufactures and trade* 110 ; in other 
pursuits, 1 13. Families dependent chiefly on property 
and professions, 14 ; on the directing of labour, 153 ; 
on their own manual labour, 169; on means not 
specified, 6. 

NEWMARKET, a village in the parish of Agha- 
viller, barony of Knocktopher, co. Kilkenny, Lein- 
ster. It stands at the intersection of the road from 
Higginstown to Kells, with that from Knocktopher 
to Pilltown, 1 \ mile north by west of Higginstown, 
and 3i south-west of Knocktopher. In the southern 
vicinity are the pillar-tower and the ruined castle of 
Aghaviller, and the noble demesne of Castle-Morris. 
Fairs are held on Easter^Monday and Nov. 7. The 
village has a Roman Catholic chapel. Pop., in 1831, 
110. Houses 18. 

NEtVMARKET-ON-FERGUS, a post and mar- 
ket town, in tho parish of Tomfinlough, barony of 
Lower Bunratty, co. Clare, Munster. It stands on 
the south-west or lower road from Ennis to Limer- 
ick, 2 miles east of the nearest point of the Fergus, 
39 south by west of Quin, 4^ west-north-west of 
Six-mile-Bridge, 4^ south-east by south of Clare- 
s' south-east by south of Ennis, ll^ north-west by 
west of Limerick, and 105^ south-west by west oiF 
Dublin. In its vicinity are Carrigoran-house, the 

fine seat of Sir Fitzgerald, Bart. ; Ballycar, Mr. 

Colpoys; Dromoland, the magnificent seat of Sir 
Lucius 0*Brien, Bart. ; Joy-lodge ; Rathlaheen- 
cottage ; Rathlaheen- house ; and Shepherdficld- 
bouse. Various interesting antiquities of both the 
feudal and the Druidical time^ exist in the neigh- 
bourhood. The town is a constabulary station. 
Fairs are held on Eajtter Monday and Nov. 7. A 
dispensary here is within the Ennis Poor-law union, 
and serves for a district containing a pop. of 7,534; 
and, in l8;J9-40, it received £119 1 2s.. and expended 
£102 lOs. 9<1. Area of the town, 44 acres. Pop., 
in 1831, 1,118; in 1841, 1,526. Houses 244. 
Families einployeil chiefly in agriculture, 161 ; in 
maimfact tires and trade, 104 ; in other pursuits, 72. 




Families dependent chiefly on property and profes- 
sions, 12; on the directing of labour, 95; on their 
own manual labour, 206 ; on means not specified, 24. 

NEWMILLS, a hamlet in the parish of Ross, 
western division of the barony of East Carbery, co. 
Cork, Munster. In its vicinity are part of a Druid- 
ical circle, a cromlech, and a standing- stone. .The 
circle has no central stone, and has lost all the stones 
of its periphery except five. The cromlech consists 
of a covering stone and three supporters. The 
standing-stone is situated about 100 yards from the 
circle; and is similar in relative situation to the 
standing-stones of Stonehenge and RoUrich« m Eng- 
land, rop. of the hamlet not specially Betwned. 

NEWMILLS, a village in the parish of Tullan- 
isken, barony of Dungannon, co. TyTone, Ulster. 
It stands 1 j mile north-west < of .Coal-Islartd, and 3 
north-north-east of Dungannon. Pop., m 1831,*. 105. 
Houses 20. • • » • 

NEWPARK, one of five denorainationa of a bog 
on the north-west border of the barony- of dVliddle- 
third, nearly midway between Cashel and Littleton, 
CO. Tipperary, Munster. The other denominations 
are Erry, Coolea, Coolkip, isnd Bally tarsna. • The 
bog is bounded on the north, by Aghnagummane ; 
on the east, by Gralla ; on the squth, by Coolea and 
Newpark; and on the west, by BAllytarsna ^ and 
Erry. Area, 2,073 acres; maximum- and minimum 
elevation above sea-level, 384 and 354 feet;, average 
depth, 18 feet ; greatest depth, 28 feet ;• least deptfl, 
2 teet; estimated cost of reclamation, £3, 145 'Us. 
2d. The bog is traversed across the north end by 
the road from Cashel to Littleton ;> find it has, for a 
very long period^ serv-ed-aa a chief torbaryffpr Caah#l. 

NEWPIER, the quondam jsme/ of the village of 
Liscanor, parish of Kilnacrehy, #)orth shore of il^is- 
caiior bay, 3^ miles west lof Limietymon, barOny of 
Corcomroe, co. Clare, Munster* 

NEWPORT (The), a river of the «oun1)v..of 
Mayo, Connaught. It issues from Losgh Beltra, 
carrving off all the wateira which rise «ithin the large 
catchment basin of that lake.; and. it rUns 5^ miles 
west-south-westward, chiefly through the {uirishof 
Burrishoole, and past the town of NewportrFcfttt, 
to the north-east comer of Clew^btty,at^r rather,. to 
the head of a small arm of .tha^ibayi«iCian'/e«ll^d 
Newport bay. Though the ri^er is ti4al<0Yer 4«ily 
:| of a mile, and is navigable lOver pvenithat iiistaitce 
only by boats, yet it fells onlV'6I feet from.Loi^h 
Beltra, and less than 150 feet from the summit >lQiiel 
of the country between Clew b»y and KiUfiUa bay ; 
io that it cuts the way for an easily iqons(tru«tible 
artificial navigation through the very centre (.of> the 
north-western highknds of Mayo, from Clawibay<to 
Lough Conn and the river Moy. The chief afl'Hiiwts 
of the Newport river are the Slneedagh, 4he>Baoka- 
doon, and the Glenisland. The.. right of fishiag< in 
the river is the property of Sir.Kichard.A*. 0'J>qii- 
nell, Bart. > .. < i . ; •», 

NEWPORT, or NEWPORT-FRATj,.a«maU pott, 
market, and sea-port town, in the4>ari«h.aiMl barony 
of Burrishoole, co. Mayo,.Connauaht, - It stands on 
the Newport river, on the roadu-om Oastlebnf to 
Achill and Belmullet, and on that from Wesjtport to 
Crossmolina, 5^ miles north of Westpprt, 8 west* 
Qorth-west of Castlebar, 14 southifoutJb^west : of 
Crossmolina, 29^ south-east of . Belmullet, and 134 
west-north-west half-west of Dublin. . Both the 
site and the environs of the town. are beautifully 
picturesque ; and both the immediate and the remote 
views from vantage-grounds on the outskirts and in 
the near vicinity are full of character, romance, and 
power. The vale of the Newport river clo«e to the 
town's skirts is very varied in surface, and quite 
bosky with wood; and it boasts, on the one side, 

the handsome and sylvan parsonage of Burrishoole, 
and on the other, the pleasant and beautiful seat of 
Sir Richard O'Donnell, Bart., the proprietor of an 
-enormous extent of thetbigblands ot Mayo, away to 
the extremity of AchilL The Newport river itself 
is playful and merry while . trotting past the town; 
the shores of its small estuary are beacby and clean ; 
the adjacent iexpanso of Clew bay is a perfect la- 
"byrinth of land and water, — the land. all verdant and 
fertile ; the neighbounnf high-grouada arise frown, 
ingly aloft ^as the> frostier ramparts of a vast region of 
wild uplands ; the far-awmy viejMrs of Cioaghpatrick, 
Clare-Island, the Burrishoole* {mountains^ and the 
alpine massea of MoaatfNephin^ form a sublime and 
impressive. perspective; i ) aild Melcomb- Hill, in the 
-near vicinity 'Ot the itown, Koommanda a panoramic 
prospect of these objects^and: landscapes, so ridi, so 
varied) and so extensive— dnduding tne whole basin 
ofi Clew bay —!be unsorpasaedby any other great 
iscemc viewtn the kingdpm. The^attraetions of the 
t^wn to at once <the- tourist, the sportsman,, and the 
aea«-hather,. are bdth -great and manyw Yet, with all 
their advantages «f soil and Mtuation, and in spite of 
'Very valuable and) extensive -recent improvements, 
the town and its environs present' to the eye very 
broad appearancas of poverty and of comparative in- 
ertiooL and neglect. The< hotel, howerer, is neat 
and comfortable ; the oars for the acoemmodation of 
4»«veller» are good; several goodi private houses 
have .been built along the. quay ;* and aome large 
storehouses have been erected or were«recently in 
progress. The church of Burrishoole in the town 
la a>neat structure; and. the -Roman Catholic chapel 
is commodious (I and two or three schoolfaouses are 
remarkable for < their neatness, their siae, «md espc- 
ciallyi their moral achievements.) The main body of 
the town,' consisting of a principal street andi several 
deflecting rlanea^. hak a squalid appearance. .The 
quays -are excellent and ejftensive ; and the harbour 
is spacious, and of direet^and easy entrance, and can 
bving tpttontfae qnaysi vesseb of <MX) or 400 tons 
httfdenl ..Conaid^rdbie shipments of com were for- 
<neiiy<made at 'Newport, but they do not now ex- 
I ceedi i^OOQ^tons a-iiear,<^^most of'^the trade having 
I beenifemmvedto Wcstporti j Fairs are held on June 
|8t/Aug. ^1, J^oy^ 11, and Dee. 20; A dispensary 
hese Isi within the Wcstport Poor-law union, and 
; 8«nvieaibr'«idtBtriot .of 86,553 acres, with a pop. of 
i Dd,383rimd,.iina84a-41t, it expended X127 Bs. 5d., 
' tand administered • to 7,609 > patients. Area of the 
{'town, 27 ncresj <Po^„ in 1881, l,2a5;» in >IB41, 
j 1,091. Houses 180. Families employed chiefly in 
I Jigriculture, 68 ; injmanu&ctures and trade, 104 ; in 
' iQther pursuita, -dd.- Families dependent chiefly on 
' jyopflrtyand'profinsions, 12; on the directing of 
! labour^ 180; oni thein^own numual li^MHir, 69; on 
meanti notiB{^ieeified//5. -i«^i - : » 
.MH£M.F^3RTMl}lB.,ior St. Jori«*«of Newport, 
a benefice I or pavdchial tnion,. in the dio. of Cashel, 
and<iuth£ baronjrof/Owney and Aira, co. Tdppcrary, 
Munster. It talnea name from the town-of Newport* 
Tip. [see next article] $ ds identical with the southern 
half <of .the barony- of Owney and Arra; and ooosista 
o£ the parishes and rectories of Rilvolane, Killoecidly, 
Kilnerath, and -Kilcomenty. Length, 8 milea ; 
breadth, 7. P«p.» in 1831r, 11,878. Gross income, 
£1,^L23 Js. 8d. ; nett, £1,269 4s. 6kd. Patron, the 
diocesan.) . A curate for Killoscully receives a salary 
of £75; and one feir the other parts of the benefice 
cecedves £^5 10s. 2|d. The church in the town of 
Newport-Tip., was built about 77 years ago^ by 
means of a gift of £415 7a. 8id. from the late Board 
of First Fruits; and that in Killoscully was built 
about the year 1828, by means of a gift of £830 15a. 
4^d. from the Board. Sittings in the two churches,- 



fl(IO'>ibiai|fl)^<mtfn^MHW| MOi |iiiatiaboiit'40i:il Ite 
9l<MMni'tCiilhalici>ohafi«Afi^l Rill»iMbty;>ttf iKilFfW. 

^k(ittt^i00fp<^iiM^^o£f1IUUoUdB]^ iBd.iB«»itiidibich 
» «iliie^thilpf«iMeht aaiid«teinlHMie()of; lib^ilfTOQi; 

«dck>of!«}|eK'Setr.df«kk^el»is>ma^ull)K(UMt^. ^rfti 

innUhamm, e^Wtntt^fiHani #tBeiitiiii»itn<h]{l,93arttd- 
^M»i€Mltaftic9;l<uidi(i^i4iiily}Mlibolli ImdtiiAi 4ibMr 

ni?MfiWFORfB4AMP4«ii»Bi]iiftu-Ut aiidjpbArtwi^, i 

^dbrmvi diiifldjiperkiV, Iiiiui«lvrJ'>>|t^«<aiMh>on<]tte! 
iirik iiiiiiiitt mi fiTimirnitl 'ft#id<>Sii)^erannes'40' 

— iWig'Oe ^Kaofleto >BmiiitBinv'2^tBakB/ie49liif>iine 
tiniDtsiofiTtkcttDiiilh aMbitLiiaefidc(inMalwroaMtio4 
itetti ky «Mt<rf(4irdliflU4$Mttkib;>iiieBt Ho6 tAbin^ 

tweil(|tf (£iluniiiiiMwiH {inHb*citft>^bjn^attW iiiiil. 
«tickv>«nAf^| MiddB.wsst(iby/wdiliofiI]]Nibli]i. / ■ its > 
iil9M«t 'tfe (BOUtb^veft-bese/oB the Ksepeviiouto. 
-iaiBf^/Mfiiithei(iiArtheiii'>T6igk> a£-)tbci-<'jmat^irhsh' 
fkmif rtdnob «stiuuUtadr<iBi'Lthe coiintfi otfiiiioRrick 
ItonitmlBbmmooti ui^iita-.imadty: aMi;tiii»i«eatiiii«f 
amyOoflibji^^iMieyBUep^B. WaUBrpfis^s^itftoiritf. 
Joli-kaaKi) wOi^diaipptdB-^boite,HMff. iiAjiieraoni; 
tBfri<ici»AadgeT^/ FortnaiiiJ (DiioleMk0^se>ti<M«uitt.i 
(FkAlipiiiWattuiuniii^, fi8^>9 lOregglkousei > Anuh 
tUitu^tbm&w-houlUi joBlooriifialdfi'^Bkraukmsei;! 
«^i-.MHUiiKBraipdct,><>Tlieitoviri;hBst ai^ikird^;)!! 
rBniMii GatkoUd chinci|id^)iirida<iekUp«nA4iitdiii^ 
im^pMiMiLithm^mii^4^tike^mmaslaBmitm^iB 20S Mt 
^TMltitiiiftakfMr^iM^ev^. ATk«J8aku7;6f«h0biUk.> 
WftbMJU^iimi^ ikiiici]Mi^6imaintiiflaB9 tkc4i|«d^ 
.mlL(duni«i;ia4B mm i£k6i9a3adl > IfPke^dupoifahr! 
!■* wiMiip ith€w Jf rtiigk x-Poor^bwr^) uaionp %nil 9^mJs 
fK»dstrktcDittaaiiVA<pdp. iriTOvOOfrraad, in 188eL 
4Qi it) expflndkd/i£M^'iaMd<fl|AiBidi8tereai to 4^000 
■iwritn'HIf'ifTtr teetbrid-oni.MarckidS/HjftpHiaT, 
CB#M€iBirtit]^4' f ulyrfti^tOcV. <28^ml(Dtoli97. 
dkmmjtfiihfftoyn^ '2A*itodmL Fbp^oih .1831^^65^, 
lai»1841i^ J,«|<ift>ineBUi7^ iaimlitft/cnplvysti' 
tfcii|tj^iai||riciikaBa> 774.ift( inunifiu!tir0Biul(Hrwli, 
9H bt^n^J^^br^utiqj^: r FiodliM dspdndeirt^aydy 
•# pi«p0H/. anck^ prMfiaiug . T(X9 1 ohr J Ite idirabttn^ 1^ 
l*kttkr^f9QiJiM t)Mr{oian.ipaMual4almi^ ai^/^ah 
■ riiJBiilnT^iirifinili IflJimL-l X)^A r-i^uoll .I^M),! 
. i NBW.^Attvoft'fiikiaiuKakge a«i a^tniUi'^hv. 
kMi; iiri Jtkfl kioipfy oEite'kilUife ^ia«rqeivitid 
ki Jkt'i wnithiiiBDt oCltbeicbar«l»<p6)fiuiren^{«MU 
<aara»jM—l1ri. isfiflftiBcrmBENv^tTlK i^yikjr «f*tiiafe 
tke Tillage acquires its nameCwks iarinuw -cafled 
iwaMQkafci ^^auldk 4r:tompittAtfv€l/ltMiek Uilec. 
liiiL i< iti jf ifhrnrftiifirf i1 iwiirW liainitTinn: itattii^ 
i^^^s&ek-aimgf^.ihmi fkaiei>ifHt^i«i>vbtuhi'^f 79 
fMa-^R- lifoiltsi «od>ii>etty fnv>dieaa^i70 f<!eti iatMy 
iftiwt 4a^^i«BrtdadiiiyhoraoW)lwataf/with-a^^add 
pwipH, fend tdnaitifcycaartirig-»tafeU;»; Mitch bUMil 
BfipM-ddxife .kat^ ih /Shipping tooniv>ixrktfidifl|f*liiliC 
Mi; SB the.iftiheries; aripadc^i/isafli' re#ilUu4y m 
tem^ OiOW^^U^to'Galf^y; tb« wharf 
Ay fiBcdwilh«te^ and sooir^godd k^i^ 
^brnttatitkaqitad. i'lAtbavi^ityare tMe 
LD^flUr4ianksia* fikirnol. AlRoiaaiiX^lu 
tkaiie iMrith in tba diaC ibf KiHen^tbt take* mma 
iac9 • lie aM^oay; and 'kaa • a< ^hapal at Ih^ ' viltag^ 
Tkaadiafleaa sea^bodill^wai,^]!^ vteryilon^!ag<o, iiu 
■eaiatibk tohvkaaledlvekidetf; ibut is Mcnrt'onne^M 
kf eatrilani rmKk%vith£Bnia'add^KiimQrnil Fitpi 
«^<ha«fil:^aw<*ipecial^ittuiteL<i ^ ••: ^ 

-"^OfHWjQIi^iilJIfp^.iWeirfbiid. j>iSae ^AUTOBaaT. 
ii'HNBWiH4THi'i*ilSteNBHrA«farmij .•■• .- i .- ». 
^^tmW'iiOOS9,'i^9wBo9Bmiam^irA ..... n: ,..-... 
.^^(ll£l¥B)V'(>Ta^),(ia iviwaviickiel^idliKh^ dotinty 
of Dqtvh/^TlMaiiL iolt'iciBei ntftit.RaOMilknd, mtke 
barttiy^df Upperiilintfagb^'andidunsiTjauito abHtk- 
'iihU'd, 'li(iaila(t«^iMtwardV'& oiBetiiiiartk-DflMi^^ast. 
warH^ tdidftl<^TBaflai#4atwapd]Biiitlia- interior' of the 
i^cmnty di'mtwny^iJbien pMicfea4*^nni«« aou^b^ward, 
atifog tkai >boundar^^<lkiei>'betw«0B theicovitiesKof 
•Itewn >kndiijAu'tM^h>iadiitketitomi>of>uNewi7(' and 
tbleitdb,ii«gtde#r^hi!'qMifaie «fiNavrewi Water, flows 
MfUf bbtmU^eH iSkincmtn^^ BoWn-oo the JcA^ and 
thdooMtitff/^iAYfingkdaiiAiiLiisdf an tkiiingbt,'io 
tii^iiibai|Jof'tk« bd^>dr«adilaugb^d£ieki4iB|;ford. 
S^lNAsaivw'WitVBWjo TThiaiiiVe^ sopptiat several 
Q>lMahlMfMds«aildtn:iiUa,/and has beeonfi^ a^tifidally 
IJAAiij&M with'^'j^eattandijaDfidrknt^BaTigatioa :>aee 
next article. u:. - ,r . . . 

4Hlfi«kI)cannae«]%Hka hakfl|)dMi^oiiafa Carliagfopd 
witkDth^ [Up(ier<'Bdnir' aad Lough' MaighyT Ulster. 
NaMwwnWiAet^iiaf the) lowar-^aaa tidal portion of 
irdwry»R^«fy>Mi k0tUEi4i|^ao bbathwtlid byia de- 
;poBitio0J|toiw a«d idadittbdt^ il(>c6aldbring'up to 
ItbeitelfMibf IfTe^yi^Nily vesseii^of^^mdlbwdanj and 
ttbesa onlv ^Alffh'Watary but? partli^ by aid «£ deep- 
iem]igiioiirafi*it0ivowe»i>portiaiij aid ^fMut}y/by aid of 
aoeanai oUt dl^ itB^MeciportSon,' it^nowhaiugp'vtp 
Jimi>8«a^bbrrl»•^«etfi(ett;M^'f^he'UDeTof iKrtlMalitiavi. 
gitooMricff* tftrkt'iciiiit; i»niiDenbe«iaa>PathonHi 1} 
^|Iiile1 bdlOwiN^trrfi'it imceadB^UyHw^y^hj aid'm 
loaatlookiati Fathoair/lyidiaAothdpdiyikafsailtheni OQt- 
iklr«8bfab«1»Wii^ itttlM:«idst«aOeraM^I^ai8i4tiattes 
tabo«a[(NeW^tbyDakliof>iljii4afki<itit>kddeadij lifaknce 

taltha wdiindiiroeaiieiii-^o^aUa^dimifit^aTeif > 
^di«tel9«do#tl»4if^<]^o^titPaar//bf laid dS fb«r locks; 
it continues on thg >iiwii^t-kv>Bl S> mileii "to'tke 
^ci)iUtf of 9dar^, aifdpatses alailgside^Iidi^gtt Bkark, 
.wtM sMwi-aicwktion^ls M fe^«bove> #ea4e^l; 
4Ridiit<deiotodB 'taitbaiiBanA/id/iidle^iabove PaMa- 
'd^ifwii^tbr aid laf >«krao>lackaiI ' thehuk 9 anles^f 
tttid-dnil'aieodna'liiJnoi^tkiiwebtwafd'Witbin eo'. Ar- 
ftiagU;nb«f'all %ha'pr«vidasJ'piri"af iti^*obur«e^ts 
QlDrtiiirafdv>ak)i|g^^'tke'ibbtaoini af >the ldMg*>vall^w 
Idihgfteiwkleh/aripaviife^ coi AriM«k lirotit doi 'li>owil, 
iM iiwrehi<<ba ^featar pkArtiaf itUs stri^f «n tlie 
iMvadiry^liiia between 4h«ia'i!0Utttlaai 'The dver- 
iivenbteadtk Of^l^)wfaole'^kial<is'49fedt<«i HHe^Utp; 
lMditbr<bniad«li^(ff(«ke^4ddteiis'il4irfeetlii1l>e clear. 
.Tk^ 4i9ifk>i^i«dciiyi«4ad>eiitli«elrl)y(teeanfe of par. 
aidfiMitarf(grao(tar> and wds ^acacP (uidM> tk^ ^!<mtrol« 
digtnaUyijiaf a^boii»d}of)1U<>Mitfnib«Mf itidiidiiig' ike 
<ifelMabiifiiflhd>ntortt(»iUaiiveb ol'ikaleoaAifeV nt Ar. 
4tiagbi'Cib>«rb, 4ykiQ TyydMevbut wik^tffiitintly of Ivoth 
a^ioiiUgiii^ My of^ltetillbnt^NeinyintNMntif, and 
« nivtM% ol^iup^rihll^ndliivigtmeidlktterd'of MTi- 
ga«U>^ aiM^^vantiUtll^^^C^KeiffTt MyMrigatkmcom. 
pany. The navigation was for a long ^period so 
iiimiii^md.tHipddidiak>irttia<d to okii£ba ^e ruin 
of'Che) Uttde'of 'Ne^nVyli b«t i« i¥>w»w in stick a good 
•eait^Hidn ik noCMf (ti> ^otmid^ tk«> gpMand steady 
^progv^sbf of >tha< o^nMnerdal^ inter»sti ^f Ne^wrv, but 
to ttubMtn^ the teMSMd' pttt^osesi Of Kke'gfreat inland 
carryir% trad^ Wftbfai 'UMrliMk' of Lough Neagh, 
knd' tkrot^h'the tiebeai^ 'pailM 'of tke^ eaatem and vres- 
teiin 'Motion of Uft^tetr^ 'The^toli exacted upon the 
tnihaMs'^s. per toi^leiikeftyutiAnsrds or inwards; and 
tbaV^ecdptsamoiMit^d in 1880« to £9,309 Is. 7d.,~ 
and in 1882, to £8^0^ lis. M. The company is now 
•ngtiged in' obnstnscting locks near Narrow Water, 
knd propOPtionaHy 4eepAening and widening the canal, 
iiHth the view of admitting steamers of 600 tons 
burthen to tke'efaavi* in the centre of the town. 
' iPEWRVv a ioradiip, or peculiar jurisdiction, in 




the counties of Down and Armagh, Ulster. Its 
Down section is identical with the lordship or barony 
of Newry [see next article] ; its Armagh section 
consists of a main body in the barony of Upper 
Orier, and detached districts in the barony of West 
O'Neilland; and the two sections are jointly iden- 
tical with the parish of Newrt : which see. This 
great territory formerly belonged to the Cistercian 
abbey of Newry ; and ^ong with some extraordinary 
privileges and immunities, both ecclesiastical and 
dvil, it passed, through various changes, into the 
possession of the Earl ofKilmorey . The Earl, as supe- 
rior of the lordship, is lay-abbot and ex-officio rector 
of the parish; he has the power of granting marriage 
licences and probates of wills ; he receives the tithes 
with his rents, and pays a salary to a clergyman as 
his vicar; he holds courts baron and leet, and can 
command the sheriff not to carry his rod through 
his territories ; and, in certain circumstances, he has 
the power, by his rescript, of discharging all recog- 
nizances to the Crown, which have been forfeited 
within his jurisdiction. The abbey, out of whose 
constitution and history arose such singular powers, 
will be noticed in our article on the town of Nbwrt. 

NEWRY, a lordship or barony in the counties of 
Down and Armagh, Ulster. It consists of a main body 
on the south-west border of the former county, and 
a small detached district, measuring about a mile in 
length and a mile in breadth, and lying 3^ miles north- 
east of the northern extremity of the mam body. The 
detached district is surrounded by Upper Iveagh ; and 
the main body is bounded on the north, the east, and 
the south by that barony, and on the west by the 
county of Armagh. •Length of the main body, south- 
south-westward, 7i miles ; extreme breadth, 3}: Area 
of the whole barony, 17, 156 acres, 1 rood, 68 perches, 
-r^f which 137 acres, 3 roods are tideway, and 104 
acres, 3 roods, 5 perches are fresh water. The Act 
6 and 7 WiUian lY., transferred the townland of 
Shannaghan from the lordship of the barony of 
Newry to the barony of Upper Iveagh, — pop., in 
1841, 379. The rest of the barony of Newry is 
identical with the eo. Down section of the parish of 
Newry: see next article. — Pop., in 1831, 19,369^; 
in 1841, 18,907. Houses 3,270. Families employed 
chiefly in agriculture, 1,605; in manufinctures and 
trade, 1,714; in other pursuits, 421. Families de- 
pendent chiefly on property and professions, 128; on 
the directing of labour, 1,722 ; on their own manual 
labour, 1,753 ; on means not specified, 137. Males at 
and above 5 years of age who could read and write,' 
3,723 ; who could read but not write, 1,791 ; who 
oonld neither read nor write, 2,312. Females at mjd 
above 5 years of age who could read and Wriu^ 
2,241 ; who could read bdt not write, 2,937; \(rho 
could neither read nor write, 3,705. — Newry barony 
lies within the Poor-law union of Newry. The total 
number of tenements valued in the rural districts is 
1,859; iand of these, 993 were valued under i^,-428, 
mder £10,-866, under £15,-^95, under £20,^:60, 
under £25,-28, under £30,.^^, under £40,-18, 
under £50,— and £26, at and above £50. Annua) 
value of the property rated, £22,843 18s. 8d: Supni 
levied under the grand warrants of spring and sum- 
mer, 1841, £^7 Ss. 6d. tuid £791 Os. 6d. 

NEWRY, or St. Mart'6 0? New^y, a parish, 
containing a borough of the ^ame name, and partly 
identical with the loi^hip of the barony of Newry, 
CO. Down, arfd partly situated in the barony of Upper 
Orier, co. Armagh, tjlster. ' The Upper Oner section, 
in a general view, lies compactly with the main body 
of the barony of Newry section, or is separated from it 
only by the NeWry river and canal ; yet it consists of 
three mutually detached districts, — one containing a 
portion of the borough of Newry, measuring 3| miles 

by 2, and extending from north to south along tha 
Newry river, — one, commencing from 3 to 5 furlongs 
south of the former, measuring 2| miles by 1|, and 
extending along the Narrow Water, — and one lying 
^ a mile west of the first, and measuring 1} mile by 
i. Area of these three districts, or of the whole oif 
the Orier section, 4,501 acres, 3 roods, 16 perches, 
— of which 206 acres, I rood, 8 perches are tideway, 
and 40 acres, 23 perdies are fresh water. Length of 
the main body, south-eastward, 2 miles; extreme 
breadth, l^. Area of the whole section, 968 acres, 
1 rood, 33 perches. Pop. of the whole parish, in 
1831 , according to the Census, 25, 1 17» but according 
to the Ecclesiastical Authorities, 24,557;' in 1841, 
25, 168. Pop. of the rural districts of the co. Down 
section, in 1831, 9,845 ; in 1841, 10,008. Houses 
1,840. Pop. of the rural districts of the Upper 
Orier section, in 1831, 1,304; in 1841, 2,005. 
Houses 360. The whole parish, in a general view, 
is beautiful and ornate in surface, and pleasant and 
prosperous in economical conation; andmboutthree- 
zburths of its area consist of either good or excellent 
arable land. 'Overhanging the town in the west, 
though two miles distantf from it hi their summit- 
line, and situated partly in the parish of Newry and 
partly in that of ^lery, are the Newry mountains, 
formmg a noble feature in the landscape, and attain- 
ing an altitude Of 1,-385 feet above sea-level. In 
the CO. Down section of the parish are frequent 
sheets of park scenery, numerous patches and sprink- 
lings "of villa-decoration, and the seats of 'Mount- 
Kearney, 8heepbridge-house, Ellenvale, Eden, Ash- 
grove, Ivy-lodge, Miryville, Loughome-hoase,Tnie- 
mount, Savanmore-house, Glenvale, Benagh-lodgB^ 
Temple. Gowran- house, Temple-Hill, and Green- 
wood-Park. The Upper Orier section contains the 
seats of Violet-hill, Turner-hill, Ashton, Fathom- 
park, and Derrymore-house This parish is a vicar- 
age, territorially surrounded by the oio. of Dromore, 
but within the exempt jurisdiction belonging to the 
Earl oif KilmOrey. Endowment by the ^irf of Kil- 
morey,£400. Gross income, £406; nett, £146. Pat- 
rort, the Earl of Kilmorey. A chapel-of-ease, called 
St. Patrick's, exists withm the parish and town ; and 
a thii'd chapel has been recently erected on Lord 
Downshire's estate, iti that part of the town called 
Comeyhaugh. Two curates, the one for the par- 
ochial church and the other for the chapel-of-ease» 
receive each a salary of £100. The parochial 
church, or St. Mary's, was built in IdU, at the cost 
of £12,566 15s. 4^d. for building, and £2,409 4s. 
7^d. for site and incidental expenses, — of which 
£3,138 9s. 2|d. was a testiunenta^ bequ^t from 
the late W. ' Needham, Esq.,. lord' of the manor» 
£1,346 15s. 4^d. was a bequest from Sir Trevor 
Corry, £923 Is. 6.4d. was a subscription from the 
Earl of Kilmorey, 3U6\ 10s. 9|d. was a subscriptioa 
from General Needham, £2.520 was raised by the sale 
of pews, and £6,646 Ss. la. was raised b^ parochial 
assessment. Sittings 700 ; attendance, from 200 to 
500. The chapel-of-ease, or St. Patrick's, was 
originally the parish- church, but was converted 
by act of parliament in 1830 into a chapel-of-ease. 
Sittings 700 ; attendance, from 250 to 600. In 1834^ 
one S3mod of Ulster Presbyterian meeting-house 
was attended by from 500 to 700; one Secession 
Presbyterian meeting-house, by 180 ; one Synod of 
Ulster meeting-house in Donaghmore, by 550 ; one 
Scotch Secedmg meeting-house in Ryan, by 70 ; one 
Independent meeting-house, by from 80 to 200 ; one 
Wesleyan Methodist meeting-house, by from 100 to 
300; one Primitive Methodist meeting-house, by 
from 60 to 120 ; one Primitive Wesleyan Methodist 
meeting-house, hy from 35 to 60 ; one Remonstrant 
Synod Presbyterian meeting-house, by 450; the 



9H Roman Catholic cbapel, by 1,350; the Romii 
Catholic chapel at Newtown, by from 800 to 1,650; 
and the Sbeeptovim Romaa Catholic chapel, .by 650. 
In the lame year the parishionera conaiated of 3,139 
Churchmen, 7,213 Preabyteriana, 75 othor Prates- 
taut diaaentcra, and 14^600 Roman Catholics; and 
13 daily achoola. had on Iheoc hooka 03d boys and 
978 firla. . One of the achoola vraa aalacied with £1 
2i. Som the Londfon Hibernian Society, and £20 
from aubschpUonj que, with. £18. ISa. from aabtcrip- 
tion; one, with, m from the X^ondon Hibernian 
Society; ooie, with ^£30 from the National Board, 
and £a from 8obfcription» one, with £10 fixHn the 
London lUbemian Society ; one* with £20 from the 
KatMnal Board, and £15 from a legacy ; .one^ with 
£12 14*. from. the London Hibernian Society; one, 
with i£40 from aabacripiion; one, with £12 from 
the Natiraa), Board; ooe^ with £4 from Dickenson, 
and £4 uom Miss Corry; one, with £S £rom the 
Marqtiiaof Angleaea, and £5 frt>m Mr. Parsons ; and 
ooe» vdik,X4 from Mr. Needham Thompson. In 
1BI2, one National school at Crowreitfh had on its 
b(M^ 81 .ix>ya and 37 girls ; one at Grinan had 88 
boya wd 4tt girls; one at Crowban had 48 boya and 
47 girls; one at Xjoughome had 43 boys and 27 girls; 
one at ^Sheeptowa had 52 boys and 37 girls; one at 
Crowbill had, 83 boya and 75 girla ; one at Bock vale 
had 50 ^9 i. another at BockTale had 54 girls ; one 
in High-atreet of the town had 510 girla ; and one in 
QiapeUtreet of the town had 218 boys. Doctor 
Len«H|n, ..titular bishop of Dromore, bequeathed 
£6Q0 5 Mf oenta. to ^ndow this latter school. At 
YicJfi-hill, the residence of Djr. Blacke, Boman 
Catholic SisWp of Droipore, is a preparatory semi- 
nary lyr.U^ coUfge of Nj^ynooth. 

• ' • NEWRT, 

A pott an4 market town, a sea-port^ and a parlia- 
mentary' borough, part^ in the lordship of Newry, 
eo. I>own, andpa^ly m the barony of Upper Oiier, 
CO. Armi^h, Ulster. It stands on the Newry river 
and canal, and at the finking of the great north road 
from Dublin into the Imes toward respectively Bel- 
&st and Armagh, 2^miles east by south of Cam- 
louj^, 4inorth of Flurry-Bridge, 51 north-north- 
west of Wafrenooint, 6| west by south of Hilltown,. 
7 south- weat of Rathfiiland, 8| south of Louehbrick- 
knd, 9| east by sou^ of Newtown-Hamilton, 10 
north by east ofDundalk, 10 south-iOast by south of 
Markethin* 101 south by west of Banbridge, 12} 
veat-ttorth-west oif Kilkeel, 15| south-east of Ar- 
magh, 17 east by north of Castle-BIayn^, 234 Bouth- 
south-weat of Lisbum, 2^^ north ot Drogh^ia, 30 
eootluiouth-west o^ Belfast, and 50 north of Dublip. 

£jia«r)paj.l — The country immediately around 
Kewrv on tne north, tbe.^east, and the south, ia 
low, Mffiiie, ornate, «^ tluekly studded with villas; 
mid that on the west is boldly and wildly diversified, 
£rtt with the Newry mouiUains, and next immedi- 
ately beyond tl^em, Mrith the massive and soaring 
form of the Sliev^ullion mountain. The gorgeous 
valleT which brings down the river ban the town in 
its centre, is screened in the east with the grand 
mhd romantic masses of the Mourne mountains, and 
nanf^ ofl^ as it approaches the sea, into the surpass- 
mg combination of power and beauty which so 
eminent^ distinguishes the basin of Lough Carling- 
ford. \ arious heights in the vicinity of the town, 
bat particularly the vanta^-grounds of the Gap of 
Bamtfh on the road to Shevcgullion, command ex- 
qoi^te views of the town, the valley, and the ad- 
jacent mountains. 

7W Imierior of the Town.'} — The Down sec- 
tigo of the town is pretty nearly compact, and 

extends southward immediately along the Newry 
river ; and the Armagh section is partly com- 
pact and partlr straggling, and is bounded, along 
the east, partly by the Newry river but chiefly 
by the canal, — the canal only in one place, over a 
distance of 350 yards, so far deviating from close 
juxtaposition with the course of the river as to 
permit the interposition of a number of houses. 
All the principal streets are airy, well-edifieed, and 
<|nite or nearly regular ; and scarcely any of even the 
back streets or the outlets degenerate into mean- 
neas or extreme poverty. One principal street of 
the Down section proceeds at a mean oistance of 85 
yards from the river, and extends first 400 yards to 
the Bouth-south-west, and next 530 to the south. 
Another proceeds parallel to the former, at a dis- 
tance of trom 90 to 180 yards to the east ; and ex- 
tends first 150 yards to the south-south-west, next 
200 to the south, next 100 to the south-west, next 
460 to the south, and next 500 to the south by east. 
Another proceeds 400 yards south-west by south, 
and frdls upon the preceding at the point where it 
deflects to the south-west; another commences at 
the top of the kst, and goes off some distance to the 
east; four come up from the river, intersect the 
first principal street at right angles, and fall at vari- 
ous points upon the second principal street; and 
numecous lanes and secondary streets both connect 
and wing all the principal streets. Four stone- 
bridges noaintain the communication across the river, 
and are inatantly succeeded by bridges across the 
canal. Three principal streets of respectively 560, 
280, and 300 yards in length paes north-westward, 
westward, and west^north- westward from the river 
opposite the northern third of the Down section of 
the town^ and form the main thoroughfrires of the 
compact and chief part of the Armagh section ; and 
two partially edificed streets of 230 and 420 yards in 
length, prooeed westward and south-westward frt>m 
the two southern bridges, to fall upon a long but par- 
tially edificed street which extends somewhat parallel 
with the canal. The older portions of the town 
were irregularly and inconveniently built on the side 
of a ridge ; but the modem streets, on the low 
grounds, are comparatively regular, spacious, and 
well-edifioed. The houses are nearly all built of an 
excellent granite ; and the character of the town, aa 
a whole, whether as to street-alignment, architec- 
ture, or interior appearance, is pleasing to a straneer, 
and displays considerable resemblance to Belfast, 
Londonderry, and the other chief towns of Ulster. 

The Abbey, y-'An abbey for Cistercians was founded 
at Newry in 1153, by Mmirice MacLo^:hlin, monarch 
of Ireland, with the consent of the kings and peers 
of Ulster and Erri^aL The charter d[ institution 
is a curious and uraoue document,— almost the only 
monastic charter hitnerto discovered of a date prior 
to the Awlo-Norman invasion; and it was copied 
by Dr. 0*Conor, frt>m a manuscript in the British 
Museum, into his Berum Hibemicorum Scriptores, 
and has recently been translated and brought with 
abundant prominence before the notice of the public. 
The abbey formed the nucleus of the town of Newry, 
and became an institution of great monastic celebrity ; 
and it was called popularly Nevoracense Monasterium, 
but in the charter Ibar Cyn Tracta, * the flourishing 
head of a yew tree.' Tradition, to account for the 
latter name, says, that a celebrated grove of yew trees 
grew on the abbey's site, and that two remarkable 
yew trees shaded the abbey gates. ** Hence," says 
antiquarian philology, *' the place was called, in the 
plural number, the Newries or the Yews: in the 
Latin of that age, it is translated Monasterium de 
viridi li^o, from the Irish Na Jur," About 80 
years after the founding of the abbey, it received 


from Hug-h de Lncy^ Earl of ..Ulatert (^;^w4^tnatioTi 
of its several c^do ^vmcd^s i ^lid. tlie»C4? lOjtite mgn 
of Ucnry \\ni«» ic A<^uns|^^(l, ^^d «unR^^4 ^Qoci^tU^^^ 
Bbk tri^ftstfres^. In l^y3*. tlje r>P4it(^viftn .iiv»'' tK^i*^ 

chprftljH«jid ip, tb^ SO^ii -^T . of , i Ivfiry ^ V ( U. 4 jit 
recei vedi ii\jf^ ^l£ei;c,4, C<^f^t ^ paiiikp4iNtiion- c£ «I1- lU 

annual rejHiQ»^ur ix^Htk^tiO tbe Crp,vv(i4?[^Hi|iL t«,w 
years la^^r, at tl^e ,frt;iruptian pf £iif1&E)4 from.tb^ 
fttpaJ 9^^,it, »h4Tt;d th^ fi^te. af ^\ ifj^lUf mftitu^ 
tious, And wiM di«*oliVf4. liijtij* ,i^ira <*(> J^^lwiwid 
VI., S^r Jf^choi^ Pw'jA JJ»»T;*lwi^^.oi,.trykuti,fqbt 
twined a grant of the #JjWy, wiw Ju. ^^t. Wa^d 

[losses-sion*, Ufld with. all tlw i^mmuiiw ttiifl. priit> 
eg:^?^ wliifb Ti4^d bi;]QFig4^ tp It 4if upj £T<.it!&i^di;«l 
eiUibUshnit!i!t ; iiml ^e wji^ pjexmi^ted to lue mh'm 
cqurt the aiickut ictij qf ,|I^|^;,L■h^wt^T^ .^^thiiii^iijg n 
mitred, ah 1 JO { in hh albi^ upg,u *iUijiT f*wpj*i>rUd jt^ 
^yfo yew trcc^, with the Ivgeiid, ilSjf^(?}1titu Qix^inptu; 
jurisdi(U.iuTiis \ indi lii^uo. ailiki. rf^wry Jii^t ^Io^r^iM4-i 
Thti ]niir!>hEil.ih]o;.iti?d liis iicu' tu;.d b^i^^UfuJ t,trrit{>ty 
9fi hh rc^idtiiRv, L'uti^tTUd ^bi: a^lM^y.iuU] Uij^ pitliu^^ 
r^><; di £i vd ou d ^ t rc' J igtlu^ u ed t ti^ t u ^vr t, cifl D n i ic ed i L wiUi 
Frot^^.tjjiit ^Itlcrsj, arid huilt !^Qnif^ cu^^hf^^nd itrsoii^ 
iVC«-k#, ibe vt*stigi»,of ^ki^ uf rK;iiuV,I<*f!g r^ywva^y 
diatitict, Xiie jibbef tormty, m. U iiidj^^Md at the 
dla^oliition, and foi;jiied the. j^nii^t t^ tbi^ uiuNhtikti 
included not yiil)' the lonishifk yt' Ntury, bgL u.]m, 
thi' inanor of Mounji.\^tlu-, luttt^f ui*.>rc i^xXcL/i^ivfj 
tbou^^h U^!?^ v^lunUti. tlum. the tWim^ri uud it .U'^afS 
loug enjtjjLHl by ttiis de^iCejidaiiN of 3fr ^ii:]i|LtUb 
IJiifn^tfj^l^iAt at (iiig^K btfCiusiti the Jtyni iprpp*:rty of 
two, ladii^f t^ oni; af wh^^u ou^ri^'U thtv Ui^drih]|> ^ 
Newry to ^h£ fmidly of NuidlM^n^iiiid thv t^tjb^r tl^m 
niAiJor pi r^Iounif tu t!''; iiiiii,:i:Htij'r. of tbt"^ AXiirqfiH of 
Aitgli^iL^y. A !:4jli^briiLi.'d r^itb^ >v'Uh it ,Wf;v (ii4t E Wu) 
formt^d Oil, ii^ summit^ umrki^ the i,nuiLi;il •I^UM.iidjLic.y ^f 
tht' two propi^rtie:} uboiit n inik; fruiu Ni^wry^.^uMii^ 
m44,^^ "^^^ bc'L'n erected u^ iL [jWc! jpf ,,4^if§lv tOuit 
Vatihfttwepn two |iniicej>, vvho u<jre aimptftltiK^: f(W 
a rpyal tt^rrltgry, uE^d hejici: ia popularly ttjru^ed tho 
Qi;owti-Riitli. , The gpnV to Sir KJcbaiiii lia^ii] 
excepts froiii the JMri:»dieiio,P ouovityed t4>hi]ui?¥rt4W> 
te:i«uieijt^ lu tJbc totv^ of] Ke^vty, i^id tb^ vvholij'^ 
th|e tf^AVivkiid iwid i*aU(r-^our^^ tjf CoriiyWi^ili pr^n 
viog^ly griuit^d Ui ft p^EV^^of th^. iW^ Itf Pgti%k 

in i5j&Lt b^ Sir Niohi>k« ^iliiiiffi^L; h \^;^ ui^uo^t 
dest^D^ed }^^ l.04l| by, tht: in^siixgerLU; it reni!iMi^^;4 
^tin till 4iil^. ,tii^ i^e^iQmtiQp n, and ^t wot; .ih^ij 
repi^^d ELiul ropfe^i ^pj^^ ao9^,:»fter r^u^isd higb^r 
tbiji, bj^fofCf. ttju4 ,V»Uwftl ,^wy^h* .#4diti*fli. i*f..« 
gaibry . /jf bijj . %tr wtwe •. ^t Wfl ^pon , ji jgh ^o>ti id * 
ou tjbe ^c^th-L't^*^t outiJoTtEi pf th^' jtawTi^.A^il «4iu(i¥t) 
itT»qce&sib]e tQ ^^Tiil^igm. i3t. ^I^ry ;# (^I^Lirei^ i^^.liandT 
sftuc^ts e^iftj^^e. of ilywaii^retOi, frifiite^nip.ih^ j^i«(|^r«L 
poixi ted $.ty 1 1; , ^ arqbi ^ct i| i:e> 1^^^ ni^MJ^it e tL by 4 to ^Vier 
I QOff^et in Vjghi, *ii^ ^iiwi^dpn |^^ysm^\\^^in\si <y(n^ 
Iral^act gf |tiiar^v»r|it q^.W "g^^ ^W^ of. t^, f4v't|^ 

Mtr)u^<; th^ lyodern r*oijit«idr/t=tylti ; .w^id i^xven 
a.^ tU^; cutli^drf^l ftf tl^e Hitman Cathijlijc dioeesiC of 
firpmocei ; Twotifthfi rrejtbj^rinn ujt?4itijjg^bouisej» 
aj^ e] bg^ t pil CB* rriie ot^er publ 11; b ui Ulirogj^, tbo U|$h 
<:p|npara,tiv'ely tie^^i'^oiii dp fi^t .p04!teA@<>n^>y Q^ 
■iroMf^ featorta , of hidividunl intrrt^:^t; mad ic^iiiiifi,! 
pfificip^rLj of iiva additipi^l PfcsbytejltiU' {uceLii^^ 
hpu^e.HT — r Afi tiidi'puT^dtint niLetinx,- boujiei, — tivo 
IV] c T t] 4 j? I Ij <! f < uiL'ii u 1 1^- 1 1 uii ^'ih^ ^ tbe hi Uojj:iiLij C»t hor 
lie chapd,^ eo|i»'eiit of 81. CUiTt in Hj^h4strt'et, 
f^. ,1B i>MfJ»,,— a nfivt £:uatpn] rlujueef u 44>ad^uA 

mii.i\, -TTtt ^ Of kph^WRe fof It hei Ne ^f ry ■ Pn/o t- ! a w unwi^ 

l¥«JJp, .in rA^por^ii^eiy] the; il^a^vn and ^6bt v^rtiKf^A 
itfpX^oij^ ifff tli^ L t4i^!iif j_^ I lever. iiot#it^t HMd tdispc&* 
ftfl»3* ^ «n,d t-the 'jiMMiy nmi t , to , : t ji t^ , rnomdry < oli 1 Si« 
Tjf e WW ftp r^^ i ftp<i#KJ|? f<it*in pWt b4. i mi' f^mi Hatfi 
iiig , m ' oruum ^^ ital ^tf ivfft Ltrte ^ , T he{ ^d&Mf eU i 1 r , t b^ 
CO- > Bo WTt AP^ t i oa }if«s »t r^Hf 1 y : rvcawi mti) d6d in t h« 
otiici^li ^ritport of 1^4^ ;^Ubi?r ^ ^e'l^filarged^iorifiA 
L>^^lipi>fsi'4ed b>\(i u£uf iitrui^i|rf)> luid th^ iltMi *d 
Dsaintrtiiung ipdurii^g IH^ >va>] Jd^tjK) MFliLii^^.,j/I^bB 

Wi4e«(*jll q£ IiflH V Wt.naf, tb^i ^. ■ Jum^h wnMkif 

, i^&^ritiw IM ton . ].*f, T h» i PwwvJ*w inijon. of Ne vvry 
rwk«^w»; Ibe ^t^ioaid' ihv^>^ di3cl»Ti>d ^^i MftyO, ]1^^ 
It Jwdudftj f oj^tioTiii ^nt tbp.^ountitJ* t*f J3psir|i Aud 
AfJita^b^ aiMtcqt]ipr^1wiiilii.4rt BBi» of Jt¥7,$M ^Et«v 
which. coj^ttM^iqd, in, l^ii'L, e pp^t. qf |B]^l11^I. ^^t» 
elBctOfui divi&ii)t|4ii ^;^btir:)viib -tttm leifi^tivo 
pop., inil^li »re*ii^:tbe ic^iuttyof .Dpjeig .Newrjay 
m,m^i i>uhi^4 %914^^i.€^i)hm^, 3,0UI ; Xhwltb- 
TTta^e^ 2* ^7B ; tlti] m u Of 2, 9B6 1 ^ i>V«rreD pojiH, 4i IttH 
Upper €ioii«liAj), 4X)^; IlatbtVihtbdi 4i4J9; Hmt^ 
gttJth. i^^^i HiU4iOwni 2,4^T i 4ud Chwdiilf^ 3,020 » 
^r^ain^f in: tlwj tfoWi^M^^if AiineKhj iBsHyboU ^^-BiJ^ft 

^'of^w. 3,270ijlit«Uwk, 3vl93j fT^ullyWKiyv 3.133s 
B4»illvinoyt>r^ 'i^r^Hi ; Joiita-^bufuLiirb, 3»S^2 i KjjlJ^vtf^ 
4.19iiE i/auihni^'h, 4,:j7:i; FofkhiJU. 3ji4^1 ; mi4 
LatlnrFCt't, 2»&il,, Jhi^ jiUijiber of iHL-oJjicJo ^iti«w 
d^iii^ 1-= iO» nfld <tf elbieted ,gaur<lianii i^ 3H ft^ii-of 
tb« litlfur^ 4 af a dftfii'd by th« diviii^ii «^ Niew^ysSi 
byieneb, qpf liti^ divUUHifi^<:^t AV^ari't^iipt^ijiti KuthftJK 

by eueh of tii e othtr d i Fir t? i on it- N u iuTy il ji yii^hw 1 i^ 1^ 
thf* .bQr*ii|gh of Xewry,^tln; bttfony w iNcwry, uriil 
thf hwoiij tif Ippw lvje»0liw iiedlyWil di**iwo«iij* i» 
th*'h(orougb of itxiwryv mul tlH>,.burtMik^, ^til^pper 
ftTii J^^vTor Ofier; the divirtmos of Ouky wid C-rijfl 
httDQ^re in tl|e h^roit^^of I^iewry ; tbc, aiviiiitti^i of 
Do^^iy^hirMW&» Q Icn* \\ i*r re n p oi r it\ Ll ppt f Glot)iiHi*l/|j 
lUtihfViWidh Dciuttj^aih.iiUlttiwn, him! CWtjduC Arv 
i^i Ijiie baronj «l Up^t^r Lv4!^^^ Ibe divStiton of 
i?oy 1 1 l-tr JL*fti 'i . is wi J tu w (JT ijtfirir J tk li di> is jo?^ ^ o| 
M^Hi»IEljgJ*«( »rjd. Xuilylio^^t'yp '^f^ "^ rLo.wer Orier 
4Mh1: ilfkpjijr Orieiit' tiie.^diviiiiop* <if Jioui%boron^h». 

tlppWjrO?iersithe<itvisij£>tf,of Btlleek Minlj>|i|^r O^Mrf 
ap4-i>0we|'. l-'eu'4i tho ijisiri^ioi^ td Mouut^>tf}rri$ im 
ill J.oiv'iM Mn0r,bfid, Jia^er ^'ewii; 4nd che diviT^ivn 
of 14id l> i*w> > r i» i Ti Upper Fa sy* i .X bt; h (iroher, pf 
vMiird. t ci*e »)^ oti iu. t^ I kn^ougH m , 2,ttt6f »-4*iiii 
Jii> u ry ,14 1 di*fe*V, , «x ol itrfiik; pf fckie bupou gh^ : t* 7 Wt^ff, 
in itjlw-jl 'ppef. l,v*f^£rh divinion^t 5i-!M3ii--iii Ik* Liwwv 
Fi^wji iJivi^orv^ dCiii^-^ia^^ho I 'PpQrPf ^^ di-viufvi^j 
S^^-^ifj ikii Ltktvi^f Orkr diYivkiM, ^ifLSi^^-^ni tha, 
t^ilf^t OmT.^livi^m^ £ifc«lfitH'e of Ute bor^itk^u 
^,;iopi^-7i-M th^ whole ,tiiiiMh« J£^,5&7^ «ad Mf. tJbi«, 
t<jtftl„J04H4 wer«.A»I*wd«iidkjr.*^4^^»^^i u^id**^ 
Sm^hm* t tt(id«i;' £i>$i^73:itf r ^«Hkf : ,^^..-^7^^^ 

ISa^ iro4e^i;£0i-r^d! 17a,.»t.»nd libove -*:ia, Tb^ 
tot a I (i«tt mmiml v*1ub of . iW, ' pQwparty i^lLfl] i«» 
ill i'^.,8T l> ; ibf t ot^ ri M^ibe r . ©f l>t r^ou a : mteft ; M 
18,,U27:{ oii^l of the ^, ^,^-&V w«r^ t'lfcieilion^jifiiqi^; 
tioj9 wflt epMW&ding Xt^^rr-l^r^, jh*! tf^U'^f dw)« J^^^M"' 
Sga^JLj m^ ^^x^fi^ing ^*^r-^ l^ n^ «x^?(W?di«|f ilfb^ 
— *un d L ^£H)i n^ t <? 4^ t e<t^^ tg 4^ iTbit wprkhoit^, 
u>i4 root r^c teil for . (in 1 De? - ■ .1 7, V&^J »K^t o Im coipi* , 
plated in Ju|i«, tmU.^t«^ G^i i;T,lO» Jgr hiiildiDg 
himI €on(pletiwi, aod ^I J"2J Ifw. I0i4» tbr.fhtlinj^, 
EtJid f:Qtitiog<Tteii>i»|-^t# octujiw B silo i^J^f 7 acreft, 2t ^ 
piifei»eiii ipUaiheilfoiL^Lt^ 1%. 4^d, ot^ pui:f^ii#^, 



tenant,— .and to eontaiti ftccommodation for 1,000 
psapen. The date of the first admission of paupers 
was Dec. 16, 1B41 ; the total expenditure thence till 
Feb. 16, 1843, was £3,655 Is. 9d. ; and the total 
paevious expenditure was £969 12s. 8d. The 
number of pauper inmates on Dec. 2, 1843, was 470. 
The niediosl charities within the union are a fever 
hospital and dispensary at Newry, and dispensaries 
at Porkhill, Meif^h, Mullaghglass, Poyntz-Pass, 
Rathfriland, and Warrenpoint ; and, in 1839, they re- 
ceired £363 9s. 6d. from subscription, and £363 ds. 
6d. from public grants, expended £454 138. in sal- 
aries to medical officers, £286 8s. for medicines, and 
£285 16s. for contingencies, and administered to 224 
intern and 9,846 extern patients. The fever hos- 
pital in Newry is a good and recently established in- 
stitution, contains a department for bad surgical 
cases, aiid serves for a district of 22,489 acres, with 
a pop. of 25;1 17 ; and, in 1839, it and the disrpensary 
received £560 Ids., expended £334 28., and adndn- 
istered to 2M intern and 1,424 extern patients. 

7}rmd^,'] — ^The manufhctories of NeVny and the 
riciidty are cotton-tnilte^ linen-factories, and yam- 
fiictohes, k\ohg th^ tivtfr i the appliances of a very 
extensive linen-trade ; briisii and iron foundries, and 
spade and fboVel'fiu*torieB ; two breweries and a large 
distillery ; tery extensive flour mills and oat-meal 
ndlls; corda^ 'works';' three "coach and car manu- 
fiictories; a tobacco-pipe manuikctory, and a pot- 
tery ; and appliance^ for various departments of 
nam^ietare connected with ship-building. Numer- 
ons stores' sit u«ted along the canal impart to the 
town considerable appearances of a seas-port. The re- 
tail trafle is ^xtensiv^, in at -omce the sweep of courw- 
try 'whieh'H commands, the number of commodities 
with which it deals, the variety of resources it 
brii^ into plav, and the* aggregate annual value of 
its amount. The sales of dairy and agricultural pro- 
daee in the town 'are Very Uirget and command sup- 
pliea from ionie districts of Monaghan and Louth, 
and from all the southeni parts of DOwn and At*. 
■Mfli. The sales of butter exceed those of Belfast, 
and iteoont to upwards of 3,300 tons 'A-yekr. The 
<alefl of agricultural produce, in 1834--5, amounted 
to 7,710 tons of wheat, 3,610 tons of bsrley, and 
S8v850 torn 6f Oats. The ettimhted amreal amount 
of iahoid carriiige to the town consists of 30,000 tons 
far exportation, 10,950 Wm of agricultural produce 
Ibr lo<sl ooAmmptfori as food, 1,700 tons of agricul- 
tural prodoce for the use of breweries and distilleries, 
100 tont of exfdsable article not received by direct 
iaportatadn, ahd 10;960 tons of stone, lime, turf, 
and other heavy and cheap articles ; and the esti- 
mated annual amount of inland carriage from the 
town leooilsts of 31,360 tons of imported goods, 
1,100 toili of produce bf breweries and distilleries, 
and 161,000 tons of coals, manure, and other heavy 
aad ckeap articles. The importation of flax-seed is 
extendve, employs a considerable capital, and htta of 
late yeaft t^ materially increased. In 1835, the 
exports amounted, in estimated value, to £616,836 ; 
and tk^ir diief items were 24,867^ tons of corn, 
med, and flour, l,061f tons bf provisions, 267 tons 
of potatoes, 1,297 tons of flax and tow, 34 cwts. of 
feathers, 76 cwts. of tobacco, 5,300 gallons of spirits, 
3,696,250 yards of linen, 79 tons and 18 cwts. of eggs, 
3,551 cows and oxen, 898 horses, 30 sheep, 15,525 
pi|^ and an aggregate estimated value of £15,500 
c4 miscellaneous articles. In the same year the im- 
ports amounted, in estimated value, to £568,71 1 ; 
■id tbeir chief items were 26,627 tons of coal, culm, 
«id cinders, 2,200 tons of un%vrought iron, 500 tons 
of emit iron, 2,000 tons of other iron, 160 tons of 
onwrought lead, 2,516 tons of stOnes and slates, 
1,168 tons of oak bark for tanners, 35) tons of nuu 

hogany and other wood, 851 1 tons of com, meal, and 
flour, 665^ tons of sugar, 145 tons of British refined 
sugar, 26 tons of hops, 230| tons of tallow, 25 tons 
of hides, 32 tons of ashes, 2\ tons bf tin, 78,000 lbs. 
of cotton yam, 700,000 lbs. of lin^n yam, 100,000 
lbs. of woollen yam, 92,064 lbs. of wool and cotton, 
181,364 lbs. of tea, 9,787 lbs. of coffee, 5,232 lbs. 
of pepper, 139,274 lbs. of tobacco, 4,000 lbs! of in- 
digo, ^,200 barrels of herrings, 86,400 bushels of 
salt, 13,419 bufshels of flax seed, 13,854 gallons of 
wines, 12,800 gallons of British spirits, 1,037 gal- 
lons of rum and other foreign spirits, 1,000 boxes of 
tinned plates, 60 packages of cotton manufactures, 
1 , 100 packages of woollen manufactures, 60 packages 
of haberdashery and apparel, 600 packages of wrought 
iron and hardwares, 350 packages of machinery and 
mill work, 720 packages of glass and earthenware, 
2,735 packages of leather, and an aggregate esti- 
mated value of £21 7,600 of other articles. In 1 836, 
the gross receipts at the Custom-house was upwards 
of Jfi58,606 ; in 1843, £38,577. The chi^f trade of 
the port is with Liverpool and Glasgow ; but a con- 
siderable trade is also conducted with other ports of 
Great Britain, with the United States, with British 
America, with the Mediterranean, with Odessa, 
with the Baltic, and with Archangel. Steam vessels 
are regularly employed in the trade with Great Bri- 
tain, but come no nearer Newry than to Warrenpoint; 
the large class merchant vessels also at present come 
only to Warrenpoint ; smaller sea-borne vessels come 
up Narrow- water, and its canal continuation to 
Newry; and barges ply up the canal to the Lower Bann 
and Lough Neagb. The vessels registered at the port, 
in Dee. 1843, were 159 sailing vestols, each under 
50 tons, and aggregately 5,013 tons ; 47 sailing ves- 
sds, each above 50 tons, and aggregately 6,345 tons, 
and ^ steam vessels of jointly 3^ tons. During the 
year 1843, the number of sailing vessels inwards 
coastwise was 1,265, of agcfregately 63,854 tons; 
the number of sailing vessels outwards coastwise, 
was 1,044, of aggregately 51,565 tons ; the number 
of^team v^sels inwards coastwise, was 155 of 28,074 
tons ; and of steam vessels outn'ards coastwise, was 
158; of aggregately 27,706 tons. During the same 
year the number of sailing vessels ini^nrds from the 
colonies was 43, of aggregately 6,945 tons; the 
number of sailing vessels outwards to the colonies 
was 22, of aggregately 3,262 tons ; the number of 
British vessels inwards from foreign parts was 14, 
of aggregately 1,605 tons; the number of foreign 
vessels inwards from foreign ports was 6, of aggre- 
gately 1,193 tons; and the number of vessels out- 
wards to foreign ports was 1 df 728 tofn^. The list 
of foreign shipping arrived and discharged in Newry 
from 5th October 1843 to 5th October 1844, contains 
45 vessels of aggregately 12,338 tons register. Mar- 
kets are held on Tuesday, Thursday, ahd Saturday ; 
and fairs are held on April 20, and Oct. 29. The 
only' banking oflSce is that of the Bank 6f Ireknd. 
The saving' bank, in 1844, htd 2,726 depositors. 
The chief inns acre the Victoria Hotel, in Hill-street ; 
the Newry Arms, in Hillstreet; the Commercial 
Hotel, in Hill-street ; the Downshire Arms, in Hill- 
street ; and the White Cross, in Margaret-Street. 
The newspapers, at the close of 1844, wfere the 
Newry Commercial Telegraph, published on Tues- 
day, Thursday, and Saturday ; and thd Newry Exa- 
mine, pnblished on Wetlrtesday and Saturday. The 
office of the latter has, we believe, been recently rfc'- 
moved to Dundalk. The public cOnve>'artce», in 1845, 
were a van to Monaghan ; two vans' to Drogh^da, 
and tw6 coac^hes (o meet the train* from Dublin ; k 
van to Dundblk ; two coaches To Portadown, and k 
car to meet the trains ; a van to Lurgan to meet th* 
train in Belfast ; two vans to Armagh, and 'tw6 




coaches to Dungannon.; two coaches to Belfast ; one 
car to Kilkeel, and one to Bownpatrick. A line of 
railway has been surveyed, to connect the northern 
terminus of the Dublin and Drogheda railway, by 
wayof Dundalk and Newry, with tiie Ulster railway 
in the vicinity of Portaiown, A railway is projected 
to EnniskiUen, via Armagh and Monaghan. Both the:^' 
lines have been sanctioned by the Board of Trade. 

Municipal Affairs.'] — Newry claims, ,but potj on 
good grounds, to be a borough liy prescription : it 
appears to have acquired the privilege of sendijig 
members to parliament, only by charter x^f lO.Jami'^ 
I.; and it possesses also a chifrter of 4 James IL 
The borough liinits were at one time in, dispute, bur 
came to be considered as including the townlan^ of^ 
Lisdruraliska, Drumalane, and B.allinlare„and a por. 
tion of Lisdrumgullion, in Armagh, and the town- 
lands of Ballinacraig and Commons, and ^ portion of ' 
Cornyhaugh, in Down ; and these limits — extending 
from about half-fumile to !( niile frqm the centre of 
the town, and comprehending an area of abou^ 2^543 
acres — were adopted by the Boundary Act of 2 aiid 
3 William IV^ cap. 89. A boundary m\ich within 
the limits oif the borougfa was adopted, in 1828, by 
the Commissioners under the. Act for l^gh^ng and 
watching; and even this being found too extensive » 
another was adopted, restricting the taxable distric^t 
to a smaller or more contracted area, nearly identical 
with the strictly compact parts of the town. Tlie 
corporation was designated, by charter, ** The Pro* 
vost. Free Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Bor- 
ough of Newrj^ ;*' but it long ago .became extinct. 
The paving, lighting, and cleansing of the street;^ 
are managed by 21 Commissioners, under the Act oft} 
George IV., cap. 82. Number of houses of the annual 
value of £5 and under £10, rated at 6d. per poui^d, 512; 
of those of £10 and nnder £20, rated at 9d., 344 ; of 
those of £20 and upwards, rated at Is., 458 ; total 
value of property rated, in 1843, £25,917. The 
Down section of the town is a constabulary station 
in the Rathfriland district ; and the Armagn sectiun 
or Ballybot is the head-quarters of one of the four 
districts of the Armagh constabulary. The senes- 
chal of the lord - of- th«- manor of Newry holds a 
court of pleas of debt to £10, and a minor court of 
pleas of debt to £3 6s. 8d. Irish. Quarter-sessioiv^i 
for the divisions of Newry are held in the Down 
lection ; and quarter -sessions for the division of 
Marke thill are held in the Armagh section. Pett}- 
sessions, except in cases of emergency, are held only 
once a-week. The borough sent two members U* 
the ianperial parliament; and it now sends one mem- 
ber to the imperial parliament. Constituency, in 
January 1842, 1,136; of whom 1,034 were £10 
householders, and 102 were £5 householders. 

SiaiifticM,^ — Area of the Down section of the 
town, 285 acres; of the Armagh section, 334 acre^. 
Pop. of the whole, in 1831, 18,065; in 1841, 11,972. 
Houses 1,914. Pop. of the Down section, in 1831, 
9,524; in 1841, 8,899. Houses 1,430. Familieii 
employed chiefly in agriculture, 366 ; in manu. 
iactures and trade, 1,151; in other pursuits, 
366. Families dependent chiefly on property and 
professions, 99 ; on the directing of labour, 1,055 ; 
on their own manual labour, ^6; on means nut 
specified, 113. Males at and above 5 years of age 
who could read and write, 1,937 ; who could read 
but not write, 636; who could neither read nor 
write, 1,005. Females at and above 5 years of age 
who could read and write, 1,436; who could read 
but not write, 1,199; who could neither read nor 
write, 1,754. Pop. of the Armagh section, in 183 L 
3,541 ; in 1841, 3,073. Houses 484. Families em- 
ploved chiefly in agriculture, 150 ; in manufactures 
ana trade, 1^; in other pursuits, 148^. Famili«;« 

dependent chiefly on property ai)d profeeflionis, 40 ^< 
on the directing of labour, 2^ \ on the' if own ai»nuAl , 
labour, %\B; on meofis not specltit-dt 19. Ma^$ at 
aiifl abtfcve 5 years af age who could rend and write, 
733; who eoutd n^Eid but not write, 190 ; wb%{;o|xl4 
neither re^d nor write, 306> Females ^\ m^ abova_ 
6 j^ear^ofa^e who couM, r^d and write,, 6^; ^^o 
could read but not write, $d9 ; wb^ could ncilber^ 
read nor write, 479. Tt^ number. q;( ^^^^v^erits 
within the borough valiied for the poor- rote S», 
2,74o ; nnd of the^e, 1 ^S*i6 are valued At^d^r J^^^^ 
iJSi), ^nder JE 10,^24^, un4ec^l5,^fm under £20., 
—109, under £i5>^5e, un<ler i:'30,~U4» under; 
£441,^&9, und^r XflO,— and ^^ at ajid ftbove i^p. 

Hi&tary.J — An impqrtarit part, of the hUfOry of 
Newry b«u already been tummarlLy noticed in ihe 
flection on ** the Abbey." A castk was erec^ ai 
Newry *pon aft^r the Anglo-Norman conqn^'^t, hf 
De Conrcey; it wasa destroyed by the Scottish \iv^\ 
Tiding lirmy of lildward Bruce \ it was rebuilt^ and 
iigain destroy ed, during the rebellion of Shane O'Neill; : 
imd. In cqaunon witli the town, it was finally I'ebuilt 
by Sir Nit'liolas BagiiaL During the rebel Uoti of 
1641 » the town suifered teverely ; and, \i\ ]G4i, it] 
was so much bnrned and so dreailfuUy diuuiPiged by the ^ 
army of James IL, under the Duke ofBerji^ict, tO 
Be cure their retreat to Dundalk frora the forces of 
William lU., under the Duke of Schoniberg, that 
only the ca&tle and ^x bou<w^ were left iti^nding. 
Newry give* the title of Vispount to ^the Earl^ 
Kilmorey. A presbytery of the General Asaemolj^ 
of th^ Presbyterian church iq. Ireland tl^^its 8^t^ 
Newrj^t exercises inspection over IQcongrteations, 
and meets on the secoTid Tuesn^y of Fepfuary, 
Mfl^% August, and November. Two of the congte^ 
gations under this prei^bytcry arc at Kewry, two are 
at PrunibaTLs^her, and the renmining iifleen are at 
T ull yi*Ue n , M^unt -. N orris , Ne wto vn i • Ham 11 to n, 
KingVMilU, Duiidalk, Crempre^ KiJkeel, Mounie, 
Warren point, Ryan, Poynt^-Pass, Annjdon^^ Don- 
aghmpre^ Castle- Be lljiigb am , and Clark's Bridge, 

NEWTOWN, a village in the pariih of Shandrura, 
barony of Orrery and Kihnore, about 4 milc^ west 
of CharlevUlc^ Co. Cork, Munster* Fairs are held 
on May 13 and Sept. 25. In the vicinity i^i N«vv-; 
towit demesne. Area yf the village, lOacret, Pop., 
in 1881, 175 ; in 1841, 237. Houses 35. 

NEWTOWN, a village in .^e p^h of ^bb^- 
knoekmo^, barony of Tvaquiii, co. Galwiy*' C6n« 
naught. Pop., in 1631, 210. 

NEWTOWN, a quondam parish in the bar6;iyof 
Kilkea and Moone, co. Kild^, and^dw. of 9;i^in; 
Leinster. ' , ' * . 

' NE WTO WI^, a vi%e In the (Arish of )Lusmftgh, 
barony of Garrycistle, Ring'^ CO., Leiiister.. It 
standfl 2| miles iouth by we^ of Bi^ugiier, and 5 
north-west of Birr. The castle of Fed^f an j^bra^rly 
stood here; and, in the vicinity are th^ hamlets ^of 
Lower Newtown and Stf^^. ' Area of the v^lage, 12 
acres. Pop., in 1831^ 348; in 18^1, 197. Houses 35. 

NEWTOWN, a parish in the barony of Lower 
Kells, 2} miles tihfth of the town of EleUs,. co. 
Meath, Leinster. Leogfth, south-eastward, l|n^^e; 
extreme breadth) If; area, 1,103 acres, 7 perches. 
Pop., in 1831, 217; in 1841, 174. Houses 27. The 
surfiatce consists of gooi land; and is traversed bj the, 

road from Navan to Baili^borough ^Tfais parish is 

a.rectofy, in the dio. of Meath. Tithe composition* 
£66. The rectories of Newtown, Robertstowh, 
Emlagh, and Kilbeo [see these articles]^ consti- 
tute the benefice of Newtown. Length, o^ miles ; 
breadth, ^ . Pop., in 1831, 2,379: Gross income, 
£462 10s. ; nett, £355 13s. 4d. Patron, the Crown 
two turns, and the diocesan one turn. The church 
is an old building. Sittings 100 ; attendance 20. 




There is a Koman Catholie cbapel in Kilbeg. In 
1834, the ProieAtants of the pari^l) amotinted to II, 
anfl.tlie Koman Catholic to 212 ;t%e' Protestants of 
tbfli union ainounted to 35, and tb'e Roman^ Catholics 
to 2.420 ; and 3 dally sclipols ' iii "the union had on 
their bookii T21 boys ahd TSmrTs. 

JTE^JV^TOWK; barony rftJ^pcr Meath. 
See Newtown-Clonbdn, 

NEWTOWN,. CO, J)own. ' feec Newtown- 

K5"^r^pWN, a promffhtory' in the parish of 
DruiQcanoon, Wony of Middletmrd, eol waterford, 
Munitfr. ' It screens the west side of the entrance 
of Trambre bay, andf has an altitude of 147 feef 
abpTe 8e»-level. To direct the navigation of the, 
ailjacent dangerous coa^t, three towers' have been 
erected on this promontorv» while two have been 
erected on Brpwnsiown Head, at the east side of. 
thfB entrance of Tramore bay. The coast of the 
perilous bay, alltbi^ wray round between fhese head- 
lands, a distance of about three miles, is sheer beach 
upon a dead level. 9qtween Newtown Head and 
the town of Tramore are Newibwn-house, New- 
towii-lodge» and J^ewtown-hill.oottagc,^the first, 
the seat' of jWiwd O'Neill Ppwer, Esq. 

NEWTOWN^ a headland in the parish of Crook, 
barony of Oualtier, cb. .>Vaterford, Munster. It 
projects on the we:$t side of Waterford Harbour, 2 
niilet south of Passage, and 2 miles north-north-wes^ 
of Creadeii JEIead { ,and It has an altitude of 79 feet 
above wa^level. 

NEWTOWN, a village in the parish of Ros^ 
mire, barony of Dccie^ without- Drum, co. Water- 
ford^ MurUter. It, stands 2 i^iles north-east bv 
east of Kitmactbomas, at the intersection of the roaa 
from Cork to Waterford, with that from Bonmahon 
txi Cifnclcroti-St! 1 it has a loaii fund, a Na- 

fior^Kl M^ooIhcHi^i% ^ biiryir^-ground, and a Roman 
rtthflljc chapt^L r^ 1M1» tpe Lomi Fund had fi 
^pital of -£1,0G0. Firculated £1,327 in 36(1 loans, 
vid clc%r@d a nftt prodt of £3 Is. The village was 
ofipisAlly inknij^u to be a tpwn; its streets were 
luf kfd o^t and payed ; ^^t only, a few bouses were 
rrect^ andf with o^e exception, they all went to 
^cay^ ajQli the^ villisgef. as it now stands, is all of 
4ujte recent tfoiutrwtion. Pop. .not specially re- 

NK WTOWK, a Roman Catholic parisli in the 
county and diocese of Kerry^. Munster. Its post- 
town ia Tarbert ; and it has ^apeb ai ^Mprbir and 
Kuockanu-c. See Newi^^^V^and^, 

NEWTOWN, aliamlet in the parish of Kilmore- 
Erii*, baiony of Erria, co^ Mayo* ^Qnpaoght. It 
stands in tJie peninsula Within^the-Mullet,. 4} miles 
wuih-south-wcat of Bioghamalown. Pop. not spe- 
cially letumed. , . 

NCWTO WN, a quondam curacy, now the eastern 
district of the parish of Monasterboice, barony of 
Frrrard» qq. Lotitlv, Leiiutec. . Its aeat was a ham- 
let, now called Newtonn - Monasterboice, and 
ffitaated 3 miles east by south of CoUon. 

NEWTOWN, a village and a quondam chapelry 
in the barony of Uppercross, co. Dublin, Leinster. 
The village stands on the eastern verge of the barony, 
a&d QD a bead-stream of the Dodder, 2 miles south 
by weAt of Rathfaraham. In its vicinity are a puper- 
inall, two cloth-mills, and the seats of Woodtown, 
.Ainnount, Rockbrook, Delamaiu-cottage, Tibrad- 
den-bouse, Cloragh-house, Cloragh-cottage, Mary- 
mount. Holly-park, Edinoustown, Marley-house, 
CathcriDe-park, Baden-park, Sabine-oottage', Spring- 
field, iiavfield, ikhokrstown, Woodtown-lodge, 
Laurd-hili, Springmount, and Woodtown-hou:ie. 
Pup. iiot hperially retunicd. 

NEWTOWN, a hamlet in the south-west corner 

ot the barony of Loughrea, 5^ miles north.north* 
east of Gort, co. Galway, Connaught. Pop. not 
specially returned. 

NEWTOWN, a hfemlet on the west border of 
the barony of Athlone, co. Roscommon, Connaught. 
It stands 2) miles nOrth-north-west of Athleague, 
on the road thence to Castlerea. Pop. not specudly 

NEWTOWN, a hamlet | of a mile south-east of 
Strokestown, barony and county of Roscommon, 
Connaufi:ht. Pop. not specially returned. 

NEWTOWN, or Newtown - FARTtJLLAOH, a 
parish, piartly in the barony of Fartullagh, but chiefly 
m that of Moycashel, co. Westmeath, Leinster. 
The Fartullagh section contains part of the town of 
Ttrrei/s-Pass, and the Moycashel section contains 
the villages of Ballinagore, Khxavallt, and 
Newtown-Loe : see these articles. length of the 
parish, westward, 5 miles; extreme breadth, 3?. 
Area of the Fartullagh section, 3,399 acres, 1 roodt 
28 perches ; of the Movcashel section, 6,848 acres, 
3 roods, 32 perches. Pop. of the whole, in 1831, 
2,752; in 1841, 3,010. Houses 491. Pop. of the 
rural districts of the Fartullagh section, in 1831, 
635; in 1841, 761. Houses 118. Pop. of the rural 
districts of the Moycashel section, inclusive of New- 
town-Loe, in 1831, 1,388; in 1841, 1,599. Houses 
264. The surface comprises a considerable quantity 
of bog; and elsewhere consists of light land. The 
hiig|hest grounds, together with their respective alti- 
tudes above sea-level, are Knockmore, in the vidnitj 
of Ballinagore, 404 feet ; Gallow's-hill, in the vi- 
cinity of TyrrelVPass, 385 feet ; and a height at 
Newtown-Loe, 368 feet. The river Brosna flows 
along the western boundary. The seats are Cor- 
nahlr, the residence of Archdeacon Vignoles ; New- 
Forest, the residence of H. Daniel, Esq. ; and 
Toor-house, the residence of Mr. Pilkington. The 
mail-road from Dublin to Galway passes through 
the interior. •* The country on either side of the 
road for some miles,** says Mr. Eraser, in reference 
to the central and the western districts of the parish 
of Newtown, '* is agreeably diversified by the vari- 
ous low, detached, gravel ridges or eskers, assuming, 
in many cases, pleasing and fantastic outlines, and 
more or less covered with a bro^^'sed copse of alder, 
oak, hazel, and white-thorn. They are well circum- 
stanced for panting, eqiuilly as regards profit, shel- 
ter, and eflfbct in this denuded country. To the 
right, amongst the most interesting group of these 
eskers, is New-Forest." — This pansh is a rectorv, 
and a separate benefice, in the dio. of Meath. Tithe 
composition,, X237 6s. Ijd. ; glebe, £25 15s. 9d. 
Gross income. £263 Is. lOJd. ; nett, £212 Os. 7id. 
Patron, the diocesan. The incumbent holds also 
some other ecclesiastical situations, but is resident 
in Newtown. A curate receives a salary of £60. 
The church is a quite recent erecticn ; and was built 
bv means of a gift of £fl,000 fr^m the late Board of 
F^irst Fruits, and a donation of £370 from the in- 
cumbent, and was subsequently enlarged by means 
of a rontribution of £66 from the funds of the 
Ecclesiastical Commisrfioners. Sittings, previous to 
the enlargement, 350; attendance 130. The Roman 
Catholic chapel has an attendance of 1,000; and, in 
the Roman Catholic parochial arrangement, is united 
to the chapel uf CSistletown-Kindelan. In 18:14, 
the Protestants amounted to 644, and the Roman 
Catholics to 2,155; and 3 daily schools — one oi 
which was salaried with £12 a-year from the re(*tor 
-^had on their books 72 boys and 47 girls. 

NEWTOWN-ABBEY. See Nkwtow.h-Clo.x. 


NEWTOWN- ANDERSON, a village in the 
parish of Calry, barony of Carbcry, I ^ mile cast oi 



Sligo, CO. SUgo, Connauf^ht. Area, 9 acres. Pop., 
in 1841, 135. Houses 30. 

NEWTOWN- ARDES, a parish in the baronies of 
Afdas and Lower Castlereagh, co. Down, Ulster. 
It contains, on the mutual border of its two sections, 
the town of Newtown-Ardes : see next article. 
Length, east- south - eastward, 7 miles; extreme 
breadth, 3}. Area of the Ardes section, 8,222 acres, 
3 roods, 28 perches ; of the Lower Castter«agh sec- 
tion, 6,580 acres, 3 roods, 32 perches. Pop. of tlie 
whole, in 1831, 9,981; in 1841, 13,886. Houses 
2,578. Pop. of the rural districts of the Ardes sec- 
tion, in 1831, 3,570; in 1841, 4,081. Houses 763. 
Pop. of the rurid districts of the Lower Castlereagh 
section, in 1831, 1,969; in 1841, 2,184. Housesd66. 
The southern boundary, to the extent of Sk miles, 
is identical with the extreme north shore of Lough 
Strangford ; but over all the distance of identity be- 
tween this parish and the lough, the tides recede to 
a comparatively great distance, leaving a very broad 
band of beach ait low water. The surface of the in- 
terior is less tumulated than that of many other parts 
of the country ; yet consists of fertile land, and has 
a rich and beautiful appearance. Scrabo Hill, on 
the south-western boundary, has an altitude of 
534 feet above sea -level, and commands a fine 
view of the surrounding country. The principal 
rural seats are Whiskey -hall and Millcross- lodge. 
The road from Belfiist to Grey- Abbey, and the south 
road from Belfast to Donaghadee, pass through thfe 

interior This parish is a perpetual impropriate 

curacy, and a separate benefice, in the dio. of Down. 
Glebe, £27. Gross income, £91 128. 3d. ; nett, 
£88 78. 7id. Patron, the Marquis of Londonderry. 
The incumbent holds also the chancellorship of Kil- 
fenora cathedral, together with the united benefices 
which constitute its corps; but he is resident in New- 
town-Ardes. The church was built in 1817, b^ 
means of a gift of £830 15s. 4)d. from the late Board 
of First Fruits, a loan of £3,692 6s. Ud. from that 
Board, and a donation of £923 Is. 6jd. from the late 
Marquis of Londonderry. Sittings 250 ; attendance 
1 10. Six Presbyterian meeting-houses have attend- 
ances of respectively 220, 800, 200, 300, 240, and 
150. A Methodist meeting-house of the old connec- 
tion is attended by 280 ; and a Methodist meeting- 
house of the new connection by 60. The Roman, 
Catholic chapel has an attendance of 160. In 1834, 
the parishioners consisted of 560 Churchmen, 9,013 
Presbyterians, 362 other Protestant dissenters, and 
443 Roman Catholics ; 4 Sunday schools were in ope- 
ration ; and 20 daily schools had on their books 707 
boys and 370 girls. Five of the daily schools were 
salaried with respectively £8, £8, £8, £10, and £12, 
from the National Board ; one, with £10 Irish from 
the Marquis of Londonderry, and £20 certain and 
£10 conditionally from the Board of Erasmus Smith; 
one, with £14 from the Board of Erasmus Smith; 
one, with £5 from Lord Dufferin; and two were 
connected with the London Hibernian Society. 
In 1842, the National Board had two schools at 
Ballyblack, two at Newtown-Ardes, one in New- 
town-Ardes workhouse, and eight at respectively 
Drumawley, Ballyrogan, BallycuUen, Cuilysburn, 
Craigantlet, Green-Graves, Killyneather, and Lough- 


A post and market town, and formerly a parlia- 
mentary borough, in the parish of Newtown-Ardes, 
baronies of Ardes and Lower Castlereagh, co. Down, 
Ulster. It stands on the road from Bangor to 
Downpatrick, and on that from Belfast to Donagh- 
adee and Grey- Abbey, 3^ miles north-north>east of 

Comber, 3} south by west of Bangor, 5J north-wett 
of Grey- Abbey, 7 south-west by west of Donagh- 
adee. 8 east of Belfast, and 86 north-norUi-east half- 
north of Dublin. 

Environs.'] — The district around Newtown-Ardes, 
as well as the site of the town itself, is the property 
of the Marquis of Londonderry ; and as to at once 
the condition of its georgy, the appearance of its 
farm-houses, and the artificial ehabellishment of its 
surface, is one of the best managed and mbst flourish- 
ing estates in Ireland, and may bear comparison with 
man^ a landed property iit the richest and moat 
luscious districts of England. "The county of 
Down," say Mr. and Mrs. Hall, "is pre-eminent for 
good landlords, and the Marquis of Londonderry 
ranks among the best of them. We encountered 
only admirably constructed farm-hooaes', well fur- 
nished with barns and byres, corn-fields and pasture- 
lands, the natural riches of which had heisB enhanced 
by industry and well applied science'; every dwelling 
bore numerous tokens of -comfort; every peasant 
looked cheerful and happy; and we found, by after 
inquiry, that these signs of prosperity were not 
merely superficial, but that the noble owner of the 
soil, and his agents, under his directions, invariablj 
act under the principle of *live and let live.* " 

Interior of the 7Wn.]— Newtown-Ardes is one of 
the few first-class towns of the county of Down, as 
to size and importance ; and one of the most attrac- 
tive towns of the north of Ireland, as to neatness, 
regularity, architecture, and convenience. The 
Market-square, in the centre of the town, is a hand- 
somely edificed rectangle, of about 120 yards by 90. 
The principal street is 1 ,500 yards in length, — airy, 
spacious, well-built, and straight ; it extends east- 
ward and westward, passing along the north side of 
Market-square ; and it bears the name of Regent- 
street to the tvest of the square, and that of Fran- 
ces-street to the east. The street next in impor- 
tance begins farther east than the termination of 
Frances -street, — extends 1,150 yards westward, 

through and past the south end of Market-square, 

and then slowly deflects, and proceeds 540 yards to 
the south-west ; and, over most of its extent, but 
especially toward the ends, it is much inferior in 
character to Regent and Frances streets. Two streets 
ramify from the preceding, at a point nearly 200 
yards east of the square, and proceed respectively 
south-eastward and east -north -eastward; but the 
one is only 100 and the other 280 yards in length. 
A street, straight and regular, and 660 yards in 
length, but not very spacious, runs parallel to Re- 
gent and Frances streets, at the distance of about 86 
yards to the north. A street, straight, regular, and 
500 yards in length, intersects all the eastward and 
westward streets at right angles, and extends firom 
north to south through the centre of Iklarket-square, 
or rather is dissevered by the square's great open 
area into a larger portion on the north and a smaUer 
portion on the south. Two other streets, each 360 
yards in length, run northward and southward, par- 
allel to the preceding, the one on the east side, the 
other on the west, and each at a distance of about 
80 yards. Even the remaining portions of the town, 
though consisting only of lanes and short subordinate 
streets, are straight and regular, and run parallel to the 
principal thoroughfiu-es. The late Marquis of Lon- 
donderry took great interest in the improvement of 
the town, and was successful in imparting to it an 
unusually pleasant appearance. The stone of which 
much of the town is constructed, and which figures 
advantageously in the best of the modem public 
buildings, is a sandstone, raised in extensive quarries 
within the pairsh, and possessing a much finer grain 
and closer texture than the most of sandstones. 



f^ Puhti^ Bfiilding$^^—-S,iiiTlyj^ tb^ centra, of the' ofttie Domini cnn ortfetr ; 4t tbe di^sAlution of 
ioiTi) ^a^^tW lofty Ai^d ^umptiif»u;i pcdt'sul of ^an tenrj^, it Wfl.4 p:raj)t«d to Jutnfsji, i\'iwoii[]t Claneboya ; 
»nii^)^,c^rttj^--* Jt^W3(i»f^ QC^^fiaJ itrii^urfi pf ' •nd, HlVr^varU^ passed by assif^m<?nt to Mont- 
fiiv^Ti Btont% decorated ivith cnuupiijd nidje?^, m<^ gom^rVi YwQOuJit A^d^f^ Another, old monastic 
bi)^)jig. ipscn^U<}t^,i,hM ,th£^ir>i^turf; )v;^ ^jceptifd . e^tahU&Hmcnt . ^t<)od in the tjciriitj of the town, at 
'Id lij3^ md Uxt^%,piiti^p,fiiriip(iri»^ iculpt'Mri^ i|pon it« J^qva^l^; wbifb Mf^. The pre^at purkli-cburch 
,1^upp^ii^dtuhav£:W(^u.tb9««.o,ft^rMQiit|fOiuQf7i«iiTii|yt \l% ,a> btndion^ e|ructure;, but, th«. pther pJttees of 
Mvi^ tjirpvvji dotvu^od Oi^fuctil by tiit r^l»eli!in 1653, , svorahit^ are remarkable more for their numbtT than 
— ^.....^:- .1.^.11 „*u„ Hii„.„M..„.„,..i.^^f v^.._*^„.^ for tJa*ir architoctwre* .Thp.marl^^t-bowttc U built 

of Q\[i !itci|)t, and Aurmpunted by a cup^itA* 

J^flflf-W f^iort.J-H-Tbe JiowtowD'Ardes Poor- 
ly w MfWfii Tiim\A aa th« .Gdthhr and iwa^ d<c1ared on 
Sq^L 3» lt^9. t Xi UejP. wlv>l|y in C9. Du%«-i}, arid com- 
prcihi^tb an^nrcvi of, 93^^24 arre^, ^wbich c^outained, 
f Q^ . i 8^ 1 , A [K^), of 4^, 1^3. ' Iti» f 1 ecttrral d i vinoni, 
tOKcUiicr wtb ibfir. respective fnop*, ia l&iU,. are 
:N*«i,>to^vn-Arde*,. -^^G^^ j ^lount- Stewart, 1,963; 
Grev^AbN^y,. *2,8j<S; Kirkcubbip,. 2.9B4; Ballybal- 
bert, X IOl>; Dona^jbade^ 5,03$ j Cfttrowdore, 2,770; 
B4llyvv^t<^r, J,7^; Bmgoi. ^K^^; ^outb New- 
tpviiTi- Atde^ ^ J72 t Conjbcr, 3*^1 1 ; Bally maglaff, 
Ufi^li, Jtfw^yJ-tas-b. 2.2f)6i Haillyffowan, 2,919; 
liibnyod, g,t30[hmid Tu%nakil]. ,1,740, Thenum- 
b<^r <>^ pxrp^^d<? ^u»rdian^ bt 8^ l*nd of elected guar- 
idiajja if 24; land /of i\}^,lntKer4 4 are elected by the 
4J^yis|oji oi ^angor, 2 try each of the division! of 

^# re. Cr J>1 i^t^ d by th c ' lo v aJ b u rtxj^b ' of ^ e vrjto wfv- 

KAi^JWj,* lmhc>udmtyoftbiistri4Ct4rqa»r*tbe 

mMii%^H^'l^ umki^QVi, iat long ago usi^d lUi ^ y&70-niilli 

Oty.cekbrat^ a? il^i^ iil^ee In wbirh thij Lat^e 

^ ot IfifndortJtarr) vtB^ bfM:niu < The,ol4;(^^b- 

jf^n, 4 y^y haaiitifi^l picfp of arc^t^qture» W jt 

Jry fli, fir* t* of the .\ioi%u i Ji e r i e?, b a^ . be«jQ a1 k W4d 

,^o iluii mpi^ly Juto fltoiv ; mid, tl^ougb still e\bUjiting 

»&elalHiriiteIy sculplurikl totjml 4Klied auciisiit do^M*- 

jnatt,,!^ e\pq^ tu cuar^e treatrJientr^ mxd. Ui^^d ai a 

Ijfiliriij ^biijjir . V Tbif old iTburckof KoA'tf^wHf '' is^yss 

iTJcf (;^p>4iNi pt fcjbia pile^ , writi^ji , e3«w;t 1^ tk iseiitury 

J^^^ ^*h abifge,bwl4w*diVideii,bitoai)^leB^ by .four 

bwili^oaiiv^lou^ aJ^^i^ of the t)orio order.. :it yt^s 

'£m^hi'il^ "f at lea^t rti:[;}a|(ii;d, and adorrmd, in lL>i2, 

^ ii^jjic**?*, Vy an iu?cripuojvoii the nulfilt- . Another 

t|i»cTjuptlofi ui^ a i»toQe over ib^ no cm 4;ntraiii;e,f;bp.wj 

l^ttt the ^fecpU was teih«d in the yt^^^ . , .„ , - . _ _ _ 

Jh^^A yt^^ f^9^ *^* ^" * ^^^^^ ^n^^, ih^ *te«ile » , » JSo wto wUr j^trdes, Dona^h a4 ee, , So u I h ^'e \yto wn- 

u aaa^f^ curjjjM^y opsm»i|tted, with qaj'y^ work in *-^- '^^ — ^~- --J ^'-^^ ^ .-j i ^ ^i. ^r *u^ 

ftoi»r» .vi^ipre may, be at^p tbi^ ar^naof the Mont* 
fpm*rie*/ wuWr whiei* ovec tb^jwrtal^ nare tbc*e 
jlitM^r* iTi dpbcr, ^. A^ The sti^epW is b^tt inod^- 
f4ieU hipK ,\iit ngatly buUt ; aud aspire" of b^W^* 

m^rvc tfriii:U'iI WU^ti Ofv it givas i; a bsJid^oRie ap- 
pearaii cpf. : A liirBi^ t^inJ^, of tb c Col vill^ fmu ly ^ to 
a fcccjuligt QJ[ ififbicb tbe to^yii now belongs, stands 
in tiee twrth alaVi rj^ised 5 ^r & feet aboye tM tii*or, 
but nak«J uf Hfly iii;icriptio|K''' Aji old C4?tlc of,tJje 
Q'jfci^l^ ttw^d af K;eji'^t,o>vi^A^*Je^. : oJi^f ^^^^f ^^^- 
dfic^ ^a,pjef^'t**fMaJpi' »* Ifleibile of the rUantJi- 
tiofi^pf^X/ f^tfV ™ fitted i|p , ft* a rp s i dctice for the 
fti^ Sir pL^dL^JTontfO^ery, tl^e Huildec of. the old 
cbi|cd^iBkii4,uie fie*foiwidef?af,vhe wboje town i. but the 
dd 4ii»»!^ op tkui re*c disced, and y*e4 as the faroily 

manaloii 01 SkJt HugbV^^^L'^J^t^'^^f mh?^ upwartU of ~ ui^der Xj.-^].4|U| under ^ll},_J:^], under £15, — 
Jk93t4l^ uil,,de|^ roved b>: tire. , A oionaitcxy foj BfJQ^ \\ndvj 4^*-r-4U)p undi^r £2av— 27^* under XdO, 
nppK|li|^&i#f^ .w#s/found«d at New^ ^^$46, urulrr J>iQj~2;^i UDder X^,— and 336, at 

J|Krfp;^^Ofpe,pf,tbc aa^age tiiTtiiily ; in 121^ and a^q ^oxfi fuO* Th^ t'Otal ncU annual value of the 
l^la^^^iri* l^il flweettpg-pl^ol' pfovi^^ rat^fd it JElJ9il38 S.^-i the total number 

Aetd^. .Qqmb^r, Kid Kjlaioodi and 1 by eai^h of the 
oibo" divisiijns^ . ,Xbe diykions of Net^town-Ardcs, 
MjOunt-Stc^vai-ti Grey- Abbey) Kirkrubbin^ Ballyhal- 
I^tL PoniigV*de^j (if^owdore* and Bally waiter* are 
m.Kb^ barony of Af^^v 1 tN dirlaion of Bangor ii in 
^r4e^ a^d Lo^^er Castiereagh » the di vi^iona of South 
^evKtown^ArdeJi* Cotpb^r, KjbnotMit and llbillyma- 
daff, are iu JjOwer, C^sttercagb;, the didfiiona of 
^Ballv^o^van Biid .Moneyrefigb are in Low^r Castle- 
ti^iyjlAi ind L'pper Ca-i^tlereatfb i and th<? division of 
l^LtlhTi^kiH ia in Ardei^i Coutir Ca^lU^reagh, and 
X>t){]k'rj|Li ,TH? mirnb^r of valued tcneiiwnLii in the 
Ar(it;a 4^^tfirtB is 8*430,— ii* the l^wer Ca^tlereagb 
disfrifhi 4iM)tr-iji the Upper Caattereagh difltricti, 
l&ia^u ibf Dufferio district, SSi — in tbe whole 
uuitin, L3,OI7 ; and of tbia totaU d,3iO we^e valued 

:>^r- M^ Mn. HaW «^ 

__ ^ of persoris ratJjd is 1^,3^; 

^^ ^J MT^;te^T>«^f( tj>* aif*ii^i?icriiH of ' fated for a ^-aluation not exceeding £1, — ^2«768, 

^*«tr^*nj Ar(Sfi,*Ttnratifcifta! wttlfiimivt of tTii^itiiriFntfAbi- j t3:™(.f|Jnrr £'2 I flU nftt wKri'Piiiino' £tl ^7B1 
1^ k»U«&bAk Jl^iu^i&Hlitmuuriv. Th«^ trin* Ui^kr »V ^^'^'^enmg *^,-^^,aJ^, not flKceeaing Aii.^iDi, 
^-^ in '%'f%ot»< f* ikP- Bff* ^ .fi^tp 41141 V^iif^iA(a^b» and 
' th«^ *<?fv otanj 'jf^ou^ mrq,' ii^ (riitK»qii»l ttiAt f'A- 

and of thb»e, 2,726 are 

e^fecduig £4, — and 510, not exceeding^ £3. The 
W<>r,kli:ftu*e 3vap ,^ntfwrled for oij F«b^ 22^ 1840, — 

±r?s?^;^S;?.f';^ t *?, ^:s f 5'e.^^!r!^!!^^.f^"*pf!^^^^^ 

f^ AoU duftitf; tht tfci-Ufk^^itlt iriju^ tiuirric^f. hr fi|t- 

rt.'tf tiiH **fiiJonf nty linn'*, ttie Mnn v'f^P^'***^ t^' tilt 

tt^djjrrd ta 4t.'cline. Tb$ ^^Oifi K^i^^f^ar. inili^t<A upon 

^ i>f lliplr#[?riAint*'f, mairtM.^Iti fhfe hritSHioti 
imrtitvm^ to t^raw th« ftu^k'TTjAit aAjdcL Id di«? aect 
1^ ttra^lt th«! kiPif^_?i^ n fpUuitii: pOMifM] t^irou^ tbr 

' 4|[VefV4l bt^ t>ii', 1 tltiLrllliLf a. Vii^uud, t4 whiirli Ik* [Jiifd 

^ ftU MbH)^.. I'd 4irie£l]r qg.jotnlnfc Ihni no harni 
i« Id IiUA ill oifiKqiiL'ticc of UbC Ac%'t4i^iit^ itiit,<tit- 
(iTeauWrJ! " - 

rtDfl d« SledieV*, Ari:]i}t|;otittl7 I 
ta E«|flHi4 I jkijne jfarn ^\X4t- ' 
nU««nl»CalbfTiti«.rk»t u- Uid 1 

bb#waat4]ifa |sj tb^_inijiU*abl»C^UjfTiiWKiik*t U' 

£1^035 for, fittings and ron,ting^ncie^, — to occupy a 
^te of 8 BCf^s, 1 rood, ^ parches, purchjiaed for 
£60Ot— rBi)d to epntal;) aceommodation for £^X) pau- 
p^i^T The date of tb? fir»t admit^'^ion of paupers 
W^^ Jan. 4„ 1B42 ; the tpt#l eap<niditure thi'nce till 
F«^. 6, lB4a^ waa £2,7 10 ^e, ^|d. j and the. total 
previous exp^ndit^rt wa» 4^20 Bs, Th« number of 
puyper IfTinati^^ on Dec. 2% IB43, waa 19B. The only 
mediml charity withui tbt- union U « dispensary at 

TVWe.l^The we»,vioe- of muslin empluys a large 
nund>er of tbe male population ; and th^ ertibroider- 

ktft»^aAjbc|h«fu4i^iiblliyaddltWttfl]»iiaU>«jfh»^n^hii ing of mu^Un, for the inamifacturers of Glasgow, 

1^1SSi^S^:£.SS£^^S^^^Sl^^.o'Z ^"'P'");' -'"L^ «^ »he fem.1*,, Tbe town 
^^ ..... .,.,.L ,. .*._ , iiac a Jaree brewerv ; and it ronriucfsfi an extensive 

^ t i«fllFt«4 00 *ii» chilidrTu* ;— ' It Uiifjf h«r« Bt^t tli^* 

fcpm.' itf #i« "smiiw^allant r*cr '»*t-* t^tl,f '^Ir Ruili M^>n,t. 

of hvuad. Ue wm the * »Utfi kird of Braidstone,' and ftil- 
lo»«d JaBMii T. from Scotland to Wettminnter. Irish f«>rr 
fMlt4-l«D49 M^ tli«n plenty eooo|^, Wr Hojrh miretM a 
i^ri. mmA eodtiiTtd to fct U •voa tvith tb« free cuntcnt of tbe 

large brewery ; 
I retail trade. Large sale^ of afHeultural produce are 
I ryy^iU- «f il*.^ H<^^.L:l^v nirrkt'^'' ; '^r-- ^^jr-^ f""" held on 
Jun,.:^, May 14, and Sept. 23. Li the town is a 
branch uliice of the Belfast Bankiiig Company. The 
public conveyances in 1838 were 4 caravans and 2 
cars to Belfast, a car in transit between Orey- Abbey 




•nd Belfaf t, a mail-car in transit between Donagfa- 
adee and Belfast, and a coach and a mail-car in 
transit between Portaferry and Belfast. In the 
town are two inns and posting establishments. 

Municipal affairt.'] — A diarter of 11 James I. in- 
corporate Newtown- Ardes, and appointed its cor- 
poration to consist of a provost, 12 free burgesses, 
and freemen, and to be called, ** The Provost, Free 
Burgesses, and Commonalty of the Borough of New- 
town." Ascendency over the borough, previous to 
the Legislative Union, was obtained and maintained 
by successively the family of Colville, the family of 
Stuart, the family of Ponsonby, and the family of 
Alexander ; and, at the Legislative Union, the head 
of the last of these families, the Earl of Caledon, 
received the whole of the £15,000 of compensation 
for the annulling of the borough's right to send mem- 
bers to parliament. The Ponsonby family sold the 
municipal rights of the borough to the Alexander 
family m 1737 ; and the latter family, after the Legis- 
lative Union, exchanged them with Lord London- 
derry for those of Ne wto wn-Limavaddy . A borough 
court formerly existed, but fell into disuse in the 
course of last centurv. A peculiar court, authorized 
by the charter, ana callea the Quarter Court, is 
composed of the provost and 23 of the inhabitants, 
serving as grand jurors ; holds an annual meeting be- 
tween Midiaelmas and Christmas ; proceeds some- 
what in the manner of a oourt-leet to elect a number 
of officers ; and exercises the power of presenting 
money to be levied off the borough for various 
municipal purposes. The seneschal of the manor of 
Newtown- Ardes, appointed by the Marquis of Lon- 
donderry as lord of the manor, exercises within the 
borough the usual jurisdiction of manor courts, both 
by attachment of goods according to the course of 
the common law, and by civil lull under the statutes 
in personal actions to the extent of £10 Irish. A 
court-leet for the manor is held by the seneschal 
once a-year. A court of quarter-sessions for the 
division of Downpatrick is held by the assistant 
barrister of the county twice a-year. A court of 
petty-sessions is lield on every alternate Saturday. 

Statistics.'] — Area of the Ardes section of the 
town, 235 acres ; of the Lower Castlereagh section, 
130 acres. Pop. of the whole, in 1831, 4,442; in 

1841, 7»621. Houses 1,449 Pop. of the Ardes 

section, in 1831, 3,117; in 1841, 4,924. Houses 
927. Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 199 ; 
in manufactures and trade, 705; in other pursuits, 
67. Families dependent chiefly on property and 
professions, 36 ; on the directing of labour, 530 ; on 
their own manual labour, 405 ; on means not speci- 
fied, 20. Males at and above 5 years of age who 
could read and write, 1,152; who could read but 
not write, 575; who could neither read nor write, 
176. Females at and above 5 years of age who 
could read and write, 898 ; who could read but not 
write, 1,235; who could neither read nor write, 269. 
— Pop. of the Lower Castlereagh section, in 1831, 
1,325 ; in 1841, 2,697. Houses 522. Families em- 
ployed chiefly in agriculture, 167 ; in manufactyres 
and trade, 3m ; in other pursuits, 54. Families de- 
pendent chiefly on property and professions, 19 ; on 
the directing of lai>our, 241 ; on their own manual 
labour, 306 ; on means not specified, 8. Males at 
and above 5 years of age who could read and write, 
658 ; who could read but not write, 273 ; who could 
neither read nor write, 105. Females at and above 
5 years of age who could read and write, 501 ; who 
could read but not write, 611 ; who could neither 
read nor write, 189. 

NEWTOWN-BARRY, or St. Mary's op New- 
town-Barrt, a parish on the western border of the 
barony of Scarewalsh, and of the county of Wexford, 

Leinster. It contains the town of Nbwtowk- 
Barrt: see next artide. Length, eastward, 6 
miles; extreme breadth, 3; area, 8,284 acres, 1 
rood, 10 perches, — of which 29 acres, 1 rood, 3S 
perches are in the river Slaney. Pop., in 1831, 
3,592; in 1841, 3,723. Houses 635. Pop. of the 
rural districts, ia 1831, 2.162; in 1841, 2,286. 
Houses 395. The west end of ^e pariah is wholly 
noountainous, and has on its southern boundary tht 
sununitof Blackrock mountain, whose altitude abo?e 
sea-level is 1,971 feet, and at its south-west extre- 
mity the summit of Mount Leinster, whose altitude 
above sea-level is 2,610 feet. All the other districts 
consist of good pastoral and arable land, annually 
worth from lOs. to 608. per plantation acre ; and the 
eastern district in particular, is a rich, beautiful, and 
well-wooded portion of the valley of the Slaney. 
The rivulet Clady traces most of the northern boun- 
dary, from an elevation of 724 feet, down to inoscu* 
lation with the Slaney ; and the rivulet Glasha comet 
in from Templeshambo, and flows across the south* 
eastern district. The principal rural seats are By- 
land- villa and Millview- cottage. The road from 
Dublin to New Ross, and the road from Dublin to 
Wexford, pass through the interior. — This parish is 
a rectory and a separate benefice, in the dio. o£ 
Ferns. Tithe composition, £369 4s. 7d. ; glebe, 
£28 78. Gross income, £397 1 U. 7d. ; nett, £272 
4s. Patron, the diocesan. The incumbent holds 
also the adjoining benefice of Clonegall, in the dio. 
of Ferns. The church was built about the year 
1775, and subsequenUy enlarged by means of sub- 
scription and parochial assessment. Sittings 400; 
attendance 550. The Methodist meeting-house has 
an attendance of 150. The Roman Catholic chapel 
has an attendance of 1,030; and, in the Roman 
Catholic parochial arrangement, is united to the 
chapel of Clonegall. In 1834, the ProtestanU 
amounted to 591, and the Roman Catholics to 
3,204; and 8 daily schools — one of which was sal- 
aried with £12 from Lord Famham, and one with 
£30 from the Board of Erasmus Smith, and £10 
from Lord Famham — ^had on their books 332 boys 
and 266 girls. In 1842, the National Board had a 
boys' school and a girb' school at Newtovm-Barry. 
NEWTOWN-BARRY, or Bitncx^odt, a smaU 
market and post town, in the parish of Newtown- 
Barry, barony of Scarewalsh, co. Wexford, Leioatet. 
It stands on the north- western verge of the county, 
at the confluence of the Clady with the Slaney, and 
at the intersection of the roaid from DubUn to New 
Ross and Wexford, with that from Camew to Gorea- 
bridge, 3 miles south of Clonegall, 6^ north-west of 
Ferns, 6^ south-west of Camew, ^ south-south-east 
of Tullow, 10 north-north- west of Enniscorthy, I2| 
east-south-east of Leighlin-Bridge, and 48 soutlu 
south-west half-south of Dublin. The immediate 
environs of the town consist of one of the most 
superb portions of the valley, or rather basin of the 
Slaney, and possess a profusion of charms, both na« 
tural and artificial, such as make a strong and {per- 
manent impression on the mind of a tastenil tourist. 
The lodge and the beautifully planted pounds of 
Lord Famham*s demesne, immediately adjoining Urn 
town, — ^the sheets, and clumps, and rovn of wooA 
which warmly feather nearly all the low groundsof the 
valley, — the sprinkling and glittering of villas ao4 
yilla-§^dens, — the meanderings of the Slaney,— the 
diversified contour of its banks, — ^the detached conical 
hills backward from the stream, — ^the Wicklow moun** 
tains on the east, and the lofty nmges of MouBfc 
Leinster and the Blackstairs mountains in the west, 
— compose a landscape, both near and distant, of on- 
common brilliance and power. The principal neigh« 
bouring villas, additional to those within the paqah^ 




■re Ransford - lodge, Ballinapark, and Clohamen- 
lodge. Lord Farnham's lodge stands on a rising 
^rooiid near the town ; and the lawns dependent on 
It aweep down to the margin of the river. A little 
to the west of the town, adjacent to the road to 
New Ro6s» are some slate-quarries of considerable 
extent and eekhrity, but produdnpf only slates of 
inferior quality. The town is built in the form of an 
irregtdar square* and possesses a prevailing character 
of attraetive neatness. Its houses are, for the most 
part, white- washed ; and they include many oma- 
ment«d and most desirable eottage-dwellings. Its 
inn is oomfortahle* and has an establishment of good 
paat4Mrses. Its parish-churdi is a handsome struc- 
ture, erected at tie cost of the Maxwell or Fam- 
bam fiunily ; and its churchyard is one of the most 
hcaati^ rural cemeteries in the United Kingdom. 
**This UtUe earthly elysium," sa^s Mr. Brewer, 
respecting the burymg-ground, "is situated on a 
gortle declivity, overhanging the river Clady, which 
rolls its murmuring flood m appropriate plaintive 
sounds below. The burial-ground is said by the 
CheraUer de Montmorency, to resemble the ceme- 
tery of Pere le Chaise, near Paris, except that it is 
muck inferior in extent. Several walks, shaded by 
forest trees» and planted with shrubs, conduct to 
the Tenersted regions of the dead ; and many of the 
tomhs are composed of marble, and executed with 
considerable skill. The whole cemetery acquires 
a diarm at once simple and potent from the custom 
which prevails of decorating the graves with flowers 
and evergreens, the mingled emblems of deca^ and 
perpetuity. These jnous offerings of tender mend- 
ship, and of filial, conjugal, and paternal love, divest 
the precincts of the tomb of all that is appalling in 
aokmnitT, and impart to the scene a soothing cafan 
fevourable to the reception of religious and moral 
impressions.** A fever hospital and a dispensary in 
the town are within the Poor-law union of Eiuiis- 
corthy ; but no statistics ef them have been returned. 
Fairs are held on Jan. 4, Feb. I, March I, April 
2», Ma^ 2a. June 17, July 22, Aug. 20, Sept. 26, 
Oct. iSk Mot. 4, and Dec. 14. A court of pettv- 
sessions is held on every alternate Saturday. In 
1577* Alderman James Barry, who was then sheriff 
of Dublin, and from whom descended the Barons 
of Sttntry, bq;an to raise the miserable hamlet 
of Bnndody into the smart market town of New- 
tow»-Barry. Judith, the only daughter and the 
heiress af James Barry, prothonotary of the Court 
of Coflsmon nMS, married John Maxwell, first Lord 
FsrahMD, and eonveved the Newtown-Barry estate 
into tke possession of the Maxwell family. Area of 
tbe town, &1 acres. Fop., in 1831, 1,430 ; in 1841, 
1,4S7. Houses 240. Families employed chiefly in 
agri€*altare, 72 ; in manufeetures and trade, 150 ; in 
other pursuits, 58. Families dependent diiefly on 
property and professions, 8 ; on the directing of 
kboiir, 168; on their own manual labour, 96; on 
fans not specified* 17. 

NEWTOWN.BELLEW, a village in the parish 
of Moylovgh, barony of Tyaquin, co. Gal way, Con- 
naa^t. It stands on the stage-coach roaid from 
TuasB to BalUnasloe, 3 miles west-north-west of 
MoonUBellew, and 10 east b^ south of Tuam. It 
eoBtaiBa the parish-church ot Moylough, a Roman 
Gathobe chapel, and a constabulary barrack ; and in 
lis vKUiity are the seat of SuromerviHe, tbe ruins of 
a B i'Tf Catholic chapel, and the ruins of Moylough 
CMtle. Area of the viUi^, 26 acres. Pop., in 1841, 
%49. Houses 40. 

HEWTOWN-BELLEW, one of three denomi- 
— Ti i^ » of a series of bogs, from 1 mile to 4 miles 
Borth of the village of Newtown-Bellew, and prin- 
bpally in the panshes of Moylough and Kilkerrin, 


barony of Tyaquin, co. Galway, Comiaught. The 
other denominations are New- Forest and Gartna* 
deeve. Area of the whole, 1 1,063 acres ; estimated 
cost of reclamation, £12,913 148. If the area be 
stated in Irish acres, it amounts to 6,830 ; and it is 
naturally divided into 6,010 acres of red bog, and 
820 acres of low bog. '* This extensive tract of 
bog," says Mr. Griffith, its official surveyor, "is 
bounded, on the north and north-east, by Slieve- 
Rae, and the road from Kilkerran by Ballyhard to 
Creggs ; on the west, by the road from Kilxerran to 
Mount-BelleW, and on the south and south-east, 
partly by the road from Mount-Bellew to Windfield, 
and partly by the bye-road which passes along the 
southern base of Mount-Mary, between Kentstown 
and Creggs. These bogs are very much divided by 
sm^l streams and steep limestone ridges, between 
which the bogs are deep, and generally very v^et. 
The mode of improvement which I should recom- 
mend, is similar to that of other deep bogs ; and the 
efficacy of the system is fully exemplified by the 
improvements maide by Bfr. D'Arcy at New-Forest, 
which have been already described. The Mountain 
Bog at the summit of Mount-Mary, which I have 
included in this tract of bogs, as being connected 
with them, is very di£^rently circumstanced from 
any of the others, partly in its very elevated situa* 
tion, and partly from the substratum being composed 
of greyish white coarse grained sandstone, or of a 
thin bed of yellow or blue clay, mixed with fragf 
ments of sandstone rock. The bog on the summit 
of the hill is fifteen feet deep, and is very compact 
in its nature ; but on the declivity it seldom exceeds 
three feet in depth. Some improvements have been 
made by small fermers on the shallow part ; and as 
they all proceed regularly in taking in and improving 
a small pCNrtion of the bog every year, we may ex- 
pect at no very distant period to see the whole 
southern fiu% of the hill changed from its present 
wild and barren state to valuable pasture or meadow 
ground." • 

NE WTO WN-BRED A, a village in the parish of 
Knockbreda, barony of Upper Castlereagh, co. Down, 
Ulster. It stands on the road from Belfest to Saint- 
field, j of a mile east of the Lagan, and 3 miles south 
by east of Bel&st. It contains a neat parish-church; 
its houses have sloping gardens to the rear ; its im- 
mediate western environs, all down to the Lagan, 
are occupied by Sir Robert Bateson's beautiful de- 
mesne ot Belvoir Park; and both its site and its 
entire vicinity form a Uvelv and romantic portion of 
the brilliant environs of toe metropolis of Ulster. 
In the near neighbourhood are Fort-Breda, Knock- 
breda parsonage, Lisnabreny-house, Bloomingdale, 
CMrn's-HiU, Beech- Hill-house, Fairview, Fanny's 
cottage, Laganvale, Cherryvale, Rosella, LeadhiU, 
a meeting-hcmse, a cromlech, and the remarkable 
aBti<]uity called ^e Giant's Ring. A court of petty- 
sessions is held on the first and the third Saturdays of 
every month. Area of the village, 25 actes. Pop., 
in 1841, 384. Houses 86. 

NEWTOWN-BROWN, a hamlet m the barony 
of Gallen, co. Mayo, Connaught. It stands 5^ miles 
southoouth-west of Swineford, on the road thence 
to Balla. Pop« not specially returned. 

NEWTOWN-BUTLER, a vilUge in the parish 
of Galloon, barony of Coole, co. Fermanagh, Ulster. 
It stands on tbe east road from EnniskiUen to Cavan, 
I of a mile east of the EnniskiUen and Dublin mail- 
road, 3 miles east by north of the Earl of Enniskil- 
len's sumptuous demesne of Crum castle, 3| north of 
Wattle-Bridge, 4} south-south-east of Lisnaskea, 
and 13^ south-east by south of EnniskiUen. It con- 
tains a church, two Methodist meeting-houses, a 
Roman CathoUc chapel, several schools, a consta- 




bnHury Iwmtck, a bridewell,' «id' s dispensary ; and 
it is the seat of courts of c^uarter-seiisioiis and |ietty- 
sessions, — the latter held on the second Wednesday 
of every month. The bridewell contains 5 cells and 
2 day-rooms, and is kept in a clean and orderly con- 
dition. Tije dispensary is within the Clones Poor- 
law union, and serves ror a district of 30,404 acres, 
with a pop. of 13,531 ; and, in 1839-40, it expended 
£128 I4s. Ud., and administered to 4*082 paiMBte. 
Fairs are held on May la, omI O* seeDiid Tri&Kf of 
each of the other ewven months. The village is 
mfBclently near the recently opened navigation of 
the Ulster Canal to acquire from its facility of com- 
munication an impetus to trade ; and it would be not 
a little benefit were the line of railway constructed 
which the Public Commissioners projected to con- 
nect Enniskillen with Dublin. Newtown- Butler 
gives the title of Baron to the Earls of Lane«iboroagh. 
Area of the village, 42 acres. Pop., in 1831, 413; 
in 1841 , 541 . Houses 85. Families employed chiefly 
in agriculture, 19; in manufactures and trade, 52; 
in other pursuits, 33. Families dependent chiefly 
on property and professions, 9 ; on the directing of 
labour, 5G; on their own manual labour, 32; on 
means not specified, 7. 

NKWTOWN-BUTLER, a village in the parish 
of Oranmore, barony of Dunkellin, co. Gnlway, 
Connaught. The greater part of it is a miserable 
collectionof miserable huts. Area, 11 acres. Pop., 
in 1841, 405. Houses 71. 

NEWTOWN-CLONBUN. a parish in the bar- 
ony of Upper Navan, j of a mile east of Trim, co. 
Meath, Leinster. Length, south by eastward, 2 
miles; extreme breadth, 4| furlongs; area, 568 acres, 
7 perches, — of which 4 acres, 2 roods, 25 perches 
are in the river Boyne. Pop., in 1831, 373 ; in 1841, 
296. Houses 52. The surface consists chiefly of 
arable land, is bounded along the south end by the 
Boyne, is traversed near that end by the road from 
Tnm to Navan, and has upon that road the small 
Village of Newtown- Trim. The chief residence is 
Newtown-cottaffe ; but closely adjacent on the east, 
though within the parish of Kilcooly, is the demesne 
of Newtown- Park. At the south end of the parish, 
on the banks of the Boyne, stand the picturesque 
ruins of what is usually called Newtown-abbey, — a 
priory of regular canons, of the congregation of St. 
Victor, founded, about the year 1206, by Simon 
Rochfort, the first Englishman who held the see of 
Meath. This prelate substituted the church of New:, 
town-abbey for the church of Clonard, as the cathe- 
dral of the united dioceses of Meath, Clonard, and 
Trim; and in 1216, he held here a synod, the con- 
stitutions and canons of which are stift extant. The 
superior of the priorv was a lord of parliament; and 
Laurence White, tne last prior, surrendered the 
establishment, with its rich endowments, in the 31st 
year of Henry VIII. The remains of ^e cathedral 
or priory church evince the pile to have been 
Bpaaous and massive, but not nighly ornamented. 
Among several monuments which H contains is ojie 
of Sir Lucas Dillon, pf Newtown and Moyraet. 
This gentlenum was one of the ablest lawyers of the 
reign of Elizabeth, and long filled the office cf Ohief 
Baron of the Exchequer, and he was son and. heir of 
Sir Robert Dillon, attorney-general tO Henry VII^ . 
imd grantee of Newtown-abbey at the dissolution. — 
This parish is a rectory ; and part of the beneilre of 
Trix [which seel, in the dio. of Meath. Tithe 
composition, £46 3s. Id. In 1884, the Protestants 
amoun^d to 13, and the Roman Catholics to 372; 
and a hedge-school had on its books 54 boys and 3! 

CuNNixuHAK, a village in the parish of All-saints, 

baroity Of Raph^i cd. to^egal,'*niMer;' It ttandi 
oft the rtia# fHMn Let^efkenhy to^'Lotidonderry, 
within 3 furlongs of the head of a bay of Lough 
S willy, 4^ miles north-eefft'of Mahor-Conyngham, 
and 6^ west of Londonderry. It is sanroomM by 
romantically outlined hills ; it contains a constabu- 
lary station, a meeting-honse, and 'a parish-church; 
ana it is the seat of a monthly court of petty-sea- 
akma. Fairs are held on Feb. 12, June 1, Aag^. 25, 
Oet. 89, and Ildr. 16L Aickof tfatevillage, 12 acres. 
Pop., in 1841, 186. HmiserV. 

CatTMLiN, a parish, containing a village of the same 
name, 3 miles north-east by east of Clough, bafony 
of Kilconway, co. Antrim, Ulster. Length, south- 
south-westward, 3| miles ; breadth, from f to 9| ; 
area, 3,445 acres, 2 roods, 33 perches. Pop., in 1831, 
727 ; in 1841, 799. Houses 142. Ana of the vil- 
lage, 10 acres. Pop., in 1841, 175. Houses 30. 
Two-thirds of the parochial surfkce'conftist of moun- 
tain and bog ; and the general quality of the land ia 
of an inferior description. The road from Cvshen- 
dall to Kilrea and Portglenone passes through the 
interior. Pairs are held at the village on Aug. 9, 
Nov. 5, Feb. 5, and May 11. — This parish was for- 
merly part of the parish and rectory of Dunaghy, but 
is now a perpetual curacy and a separate benence, in 
the dio. of Connor. Tithe composition belonging 
to the perpetual curate, £30 ; glebe, £8. OroM in- 
come, 104 ; nett, £100 13s. Patron, the incumbaft 
of Dunaghy. The church was built in 1831, by 
means of a gift of £800 from the late Board of First 
Fruits. Sittings 250; attendance 65. In 1834, the 
parishioners consisted of 287 Churchmen, 293 Pres- 
byterians, and 182 Roman Catholics; 2 Sunday 
schools were usually attended by about 220 efaildren ; 
and 3 daily schools — one of which was salaried wil9i 
£4 a-year from the London Hibernian Society, «ul 
one viith £26 from the Wesleyan Missionary Society 
^had on their books 178 boys and 88 girls. ' ' 

NEWTOWN-DALY, a hamlet on the east boN 
der of the barony of Leitrim, 3 miles east-south-east 
of Loughrea, co. Oalway, Connaught. Pop; n&t 
specially returned. 


TO WW, CO. Westmeath. 

NEWTOWN-FORBE9, a small post-fOwn ih 
the parish of Clongesh, barony and co. of Longfordv 
Leinster. It stands on ihe mail-road Awn Dublin 
to Sligo, 2| miles north^north-wesf of Longford, 7 
south-south-east of Drumod, and 62 west -North- 
west of Dublin. The surrounding country is a flat 
and fertile tract ; and the western environs, away to 
Lou^ Forbes and the Shannon, are wholly ocenpied 
with the beautffhl' and well- wooded demesne of 
Castlc- Forbes : which see. The village contain! 
a police barrack, a Roman Cathblie ehapef, a Method 
dist meeting-house, and a parish-chureii ; and is the 
seat of a ccKnrt of petty-sessiohs, on evei'y aHemate 
Tuesday. A tract of land immediately to the itdathf^ 
bears the name of the ^otch Quarter, in coAaequenM 
of having been colonised in the 17th century- by n 
number of settlers from S^fotland. Area of the vil- 
liige. 81 acresJ Pop., in 1881,' 537; in 1841,. 478. 
Hmises 78. .Families 'emptoyed chiefly in agriM- 
ttir^, ?8 ; in toamrfiMitiires and traiAe,' ':45t in otiMr 
pursuits, 30. Families depehdeirT chiefly on '(iro- 
berty and profes^ofls, ID; oh the diree^ng df lawmr, 
55 ; on their own manual labour, 32 ; oh miijini^ noi 
specified, 6. 

NEWTOWN- FORTESCUE, a village in the 

Ssrish of Grangegeeth, barony of Upper Slane, eo. 
leath, Leinster. It stands 3j miles north of Slane, 




j€» ttie roAd ihenee to Ardee ; and it the site of a 
flciiool abd AfRomaa CathoUc chap«l. Pop. returned 
ifitk Iha parif h. 

NEWTOWNjQIBLEY, a village in the parish 
of Girley* barony of Upper KelU, co. Meath, Lein- 
«itr. It itandt 3 miles north of Athboy, on the 
r«ad ihenoe to Rells; and baa a poostabulary sta- 
tion, a idiooU and a Boman Cathohc chapel. Pop., 
in 1831, 105. Houses 23. 

NEWTOWN-GLEN. See Cushbndall. 

NEWTOWN-GORE, a village in the parish and 
Iwrooy of Carrigall^n, eo. Leitnm, Ooanaugfat. It 
cUMida on the road from Ballinamore to Killeshandra, 
Ml^naale east of Lough Garadice, 4^ miles north 
hf west of GarriffdJen, and 5 east -south* east of 
Bdlinamofe. A uir is held on Dec. 5. In the 
ll#fChem Tielnity is the demesne of Woodford . Area 
0i iht Tillage^ 13 acres. Pop., in 1831, 207 > in 
1841.187. Houses 84. 

. NEWTOWN-GORE, a ruined mansion in the 
^«riab of ^^Sf^ barony of Carbery, co. Sligo, 
CottMM^bt. The mansion was the residence of 
t^ aBcertora of the present Sir Robert Gore 
9o9tlib Bart«s and the ruins are an interestinff 
•bjeci* on Um north shore of the beautiful Lough 
€iil, « Uttla east of Holywell, and surrounded by 
the most ehanningly romantic hills. 

NEWTOWN- HAMILTON (Tmt), a rivulet 
of the eounly of Armagh, Ulster, and the county of 
J«o«th, Leinster. It rises among the mountains 
north of the town of Newtown- Hamilton; runs 
Aoslhwvd past that town, through the Fews moun- 
tains ia Cmgan, and near the village of Crossma- 
^Un; and then enters the county of Louth, and 
proceeds soutlueastward, to the formation of the 
CMtletowB river, a little above Dundalk. The 
Newtown-Hamilton bears, in different parts of its 
course, the names of Tully vallen river, and Greaghan 

NEWTOWN-HAMILTON, a parish, containing 
a town of the saoM name, in the baronv of Upper 
Fjews, CO. Araiagfa, Ulster. Leiwth, south by west- 
wardt 6i miles ; extreme breadth, ^ ; area, 12,404 
acres, 2 roods, 8 perches, — of which 29 acres, 2 
/oods, 38 perches are water. Pop.^ in 1831, 7,253; 
in 1841, 7,538. Houses 1,350. Pop. of the rural 
districts* in 1881, 6,233; in 1841,6,807. Houses 
1,117. The County Water runs on the western 
boundary I and the Newtown-Hamilton river drains 
»oet of the interior. LoHgh Kiltybane ties on the 
sowthfra boundary, and Lough Lisleitrim on the 
eonfthera bolder. The parochial surface is partly 
Mountainous, prevailingly hiUy, and to a large extent 
nnnaBtio. The highest ground. Dangry mountain, 
is situated a Utile north-west of the town, and has 
an ulOtttde of 1,003 feet above sea-level. The arable 
lands, though not suitable ibr wheat, produce exceL 
Jent crops « oats; and both they ana the pasture. 
y un d s have been much improved by georgy, and 
•re in u eomparativdy good condition* Among the 
seats are Millview, Tuilyvallen, TuUyardguill, and 
Uarrymoaot* — the last the residence of Henry 
Barker, Esq. The ruins of Blackbank-castle stand 
about two miles from the town ; a Urge fort or ex- 
ftansife eocampmeat, said, to have been one of the 
■lililrBcee of th^ O'Neills occurs in the extreme 
amt^jwest ; and some interesting antiquities and his- 
tnriaal asso<jsti»ns are epnnectedwith Johnstown's- 
Fnsrai which see. The interior is traversed by the 
■ndde road from DubUn to Armagh, and bv the road 
firoin Mount-Norris to Ostleblayney. — This parish 
i« a rectory, and a separate benefice, in the dio. of 
Amiaf h. Tithe composition, X537 18^. 7d. ; glebe, 
£38 l5a. Gross income, £576 13s. 7d. ; nett, 
X^16 Is. Ud. Patron, the diocesan. A curate 

receives a salary of £75. The church is situated 
14 mile south of the town, and was built in 1775, 
out of funds provided by the late Board of First 
Fruits. Sittings 300 ; attendance 240. A school- 
house in the town is also used as a parochial place of 
worship, and has an attendance of 150. The Pres- 
byterian meeting-houses at Altnamahar, Newtown- 
Hamilton, and Cortarolet, have an attendance of re- 
spectivelv 200, 350, and 600. The Roman Catho- 
Uc chapel has an attendance of 600 ; and, in the Ro- 
man Catholic parochial arrangement, is united to the 
chapel of Creggan. In 1834, the parishioners con- 
sisted of 1,265 Churchmen, 2,174 Presbyterians, 
and .4.002 Roman Cathotics ; and 5 pay daily schools 
at Carraganawoddy, Altnamahar, Newtown-Hamil- 
ton, and Dromalt, had on their books 143 boys and 
46 girls. In 1842, the National Board had two 
schools at Mullaghduff, two at Tully vaUen, and one 
at Cortamlet. 

NEWTOWN-HAMILTON, a post and market 
to¥m in the parish of Newtown-Hamilton, barony of 
Upper Fews, co. Armagh, Ulster. It stands on the 
middle road from Armagh to Dublin, 4J miles south- 
west of Mount-Norris, 5 south-east of Keady, 7| 
south-south-west of Markethill, 84 west by north 
of Newry, 94 south by east of Armagh, 124 north- 
north-west of Dundalk, and 52ji north b^ west of 
Dublin. It occupies a romantic situation; and, 
though not interiorly interesting, pleases the eye in 
connection with the surrounding country. It was 
founded so late as about the year 1770, and after 
attempts to raise towns at Blackbank and Johns- 
town's-Fews had failed ; and, in common with the 
circumjacent country, it is in an improving condition. 
It contains a meeting-house, two school - houses, 
a new market-house, a sessions-house, a police-bar- 
rack, a bridewell, and a dispensary ; and m its near 
vicinity are a Roman Catholic chapel and a spa. 
The bridewell is very well kept; and during 1842, it 
cost £18 168. The dispensary is within the Castle- 
Blaney Poor-law union, and serves for a district of 
25,000 acres, with a pop. of 13,354 ; and, in 1839, 
it expended £60, and administered to 820 patients. 
The town is the seat of courts of quarter-sessions 
and petty-sessions,— the latter held on the last Satur- 
day of every month. A market is held weekly ; 
and fiurs are held on the last Saturday of every 
month. Area of the town, 51 acres. Pop., in 1831, 
1,020; in 1841, 1,231. Houses 233. Famities 
employed chiefly in a^culture, 57; in manufac- 
tures and trade, 152 ; in other pursuits, 40. Fam- 
ities dependent chiefly on property and professions, 
10 ; on the directing of labour, 158 ; on their own 
manual labour, 73 ; on means not specified, 8. 

NEWTOWN-LENNAN, a parish in the baron- 
ies of Stieveardagh and East Iffa and Oflb, 34 miles 
north by east ot Carrick-on-Suir, co. Tipperary, 
Munster. Length, south by eastward, 4} miles; 
extreme breadth, 2. Area of the Stieveardagh 
section, 1,618 acres, 6 perches ; of the East Iffa and 
Offa section, 4,156 acres, 16 perches. Pop. of the 
whole, in 1831, 1,931 ;• in 1841, 1.806. Houses 
268. Pop. of the East Iffa and Oflfa section, in 
1841, 1,276. Houses 191. The sur&ce form* part 
of the extreme east border of the countv ; and is 
divided from Leinster, along the east by the rivulet 
Lingane. The Lindane, while on the boundary, 
descends from a surtace-elevation above sea-level of 
257 ieet to nearly the tidal-level of the Suir ; and a 
rivulet which traces the northern boundary, descendK, 
while there, from an elevation above M*a- level of 
435 feet. The highest ground in the parish is on 

• The C«D«a« of 1831 places the whole of the parish in 
East Iffa and 0A^ and ttates iu poiw at IfiiJ- 



the bovmdary-line between the two sections or bar* 
onies, and has an altitude above sea-level of 960 feet. 
The greater part of the surfiEuse consists of good 
tfable land. The principal seats are Cregg-house 
and Knockroe-house ; and the hamlets are Newtown 
and Cregg. — This parish is a rectory, and part of the 
benefice of Clonegane [[which see], in the dio. of 
Lismore. Tithe composition, £441 98. 5d. ; glebe, 
£6 9s. 8d, The Roman Catholic chapel k situated 
a little south of the hamlet of Newtown, and has 
an attendance of 400 ; and, in the Roman Catholic 
parochial arrangement, is united to the chapel of 
Carrick-on-Suir. In 1834, the parishioners were all 
Roman Catholics ; and two pay daily schools were 
usuidly attended by about 60 children. 


A post and market town in the parish of Drum- 
achose, barony of Kenaught, co. LfOndonderry, 
Ulster. It stands on the right bank of the river 
Roe, and on the road from Londonderry to Cole- 
ndne, 2 miles east by south of the south-east extre- 
mity of Lough Foyle, 3| south-south-east of the 
mouth of the Roe, 2^ east by north of Ballykelly, 
7^ north of Dungiven, 11^ west -south, west of 
Coleraine, 12} east -north- east of Londonderrv, 
17^ north-west by north of Maghera, 57 nortfa- 
west of Bel£E»t, and 131} north by half-weat of 

Envirous,'] — The site of the town is in a warm, fer- 
tile, welUwooded, and very beautiful portion of the 
rich vale of the Roe, near the line where that vale 
glides out from the character of glen and dell, and 
expands into the luxuriant and fructiferous plain of 
Myroe. In the east and south-east environs are the 
•eats of Streeve, Gortgam, and Fruit-hill, — the last 
the charming residence of M. MacCausland, Esq, ; 
in the south are Roe-park and Drunmagasker, — the 
former the fine residence of E. C. MacNaghten, 
Esq., in the immediate vicinity of the town, but 
sending a broad sheet of wood far up the Roe ; in 
the west are Bessbrook, Finlagan, Sheephill, Drum* 
mond, and Walworth, and the village of Ballykelly ; 
and, in the north, are Ardnargle, Rush-hall, Cul- 
more, and Oatlands, and, at 3| miles, the verdant 
mountain of Benyevenagh, with its beautifully 
columnar cliffs, and its panorama- vie wing summit, 
overhanging Lough Foyle, the desert shores of 
MagiUigan, and the opulent strath of Myroe. See 
BsNTEVENAOH, ** We recommcnd the traveller who 
is interested in the topography of this part of the 
country and the adjacent coast,"' says Mr. Fraser, 
'* to ascend Benyevenagh, whose verdant summit is 
1,260 feet above the sea. From it, and even from 
many of the less prominent parts of its beautiful 
oHfiy sides, under fiivourable circumstances, with 
the map, he will learn more of this mountain-district 
and its shores, from Fair-head to Innishowen-head, 
than from the most minute and lengthened descrip- 

Interior of the Town.'] — A stone bridge carries the 
thoroughfare, and the road from Coleraine to Lon- 
donderry, westward across the Roe. Catherine- 
street, a straight and remarkab^ spacious street, com- 
mences a few yards east of the brioget and extends 330 , 
yards to the horth-east« A straight but greatly nar- 
rower street goes off from the middle of the north, 
west side of Catherine-street, and extends 180 yards 
to the north-north-west. Main-street commences at 
the north-north-west end of the preceding ; and first 
exteods straightly and with singular spaciousness, 960 
yards to the north-east, — then beguis to contract, 
and extends h20 yards to the north-north-east, — 
and finally proceeds^ with much irregularity, 200 

yards to the east. A street of 380 yards in lengtbt 
nearlv straight, but not spacious, begins near th« 
middle of the south-east side of the spwdout part of 
Main-street, and extends south-south-eastMrard past 
the north-east end of Catherine-street. The other 
streets are few, short, and little, if any, superior i» 
lanes ; and the outsldrts, though straggling, are not 
extensive. The church is a handsome stmeture ; 
the market-house is not conspicuously ornamental j 
the meeting-houses, and other more prominent stmc 
tures, possess no arresting feature ; and the private 
houses, though including a number of cabins, and of 
large but poor tenements, are aggregately much heU 
ter than those of most second-rate towns in Coon-' 
naught, Munster, or even Leinster. 

The Poor-law C/Hton.]— The Poor-law union of 
Newtown. Lima vaddy ranks as the 76th, and was 
declared on Sept 21, 1839. It lies wholly in co. 
Londonderry, and comprehends an area of 15(^629 
acres, which contained, in 1831, a nop. of 41,031. 
Its electoral divisions, together with thefr respee- 
tive pop. in 1831, are Nevrtown-Limavaddy, 9,610; 
Fruit-hill, 2,699; Keady, 1,048; Lislane, 1,875; 
Gelvin, 2,135; Straw, 1,930; Drum, 2,601} DmiJ 
given, 2,941; Glenshane, 1,704; Owenrc«gh, 1,615; 
Feeny, 1,802; Fore-Glen, 1,992; Faughanvale, 2,575; 
Ballykelly, 2,235; the Highlands, 2,7U; Myroe, 
1,919; Aghanloo, 2,102; Bellerena, 1,900; and 
Benone, 1 , 634. The number of ex-oflSdo gaardian« 
is 8, and of elected guardians is 24 ; and of the latter, 
2 are elected by each of the divisions of Newtown^ 
Limavaddy, Dtum, Dungiven, Feenv, and Fanrli- 
anvale, and I by each of the other divisions. The 
divisions of Fore-Glen and Faughanvale are in the 
barony of Tyrkeeran ; the divisions of Ballykellv and 
Feeny are in Tyrkeeran and Kenaught ; and all th^ 
other divisions are in Kenaught. The number of 
valued tenements in the Tyrkeeran districts is 569^ 
— in the Kenaught districts, 3,797, — in the whoW 
union, 4,366; and of this total, 1,174 were valued 
under £5,-1,172, under £10.— 710, under £15,-li 
366, under £20,— 257, under £25,-201, under £90i 
—229, under £40,-106, under £50,— and 151, mH 
and above £50. The total nett annual value of ihW 
property rated is £65,580 ; the total number of peri- 
sons rated is 4,366 ; and of these, 153 were rated ftm 
a valuation not exceeding £1,— ^296, not exeeedinff 
£2,-229, not exceeding £3,-261, not exeeedhig 
£4,— and 290, not exceeding £5. The workhous» 
was contracted for on June 18, 1840, — ^to be com^ 
pleted in Aug. 1841,— to cost £5,982 for building 
and completion, and £1,309 5s. for fittings and eon^ 
tingencies, — ^to occupy a site of 7 acres, 14 percieif 
purchased for £708 I5s.,— and to contain accomaoojb 
dation for 500 paupers. The date of the first ad^i 
mission of paupers was March 15, 1842 ; the tot«l 
expenditure thence till Feb. 6, 1843, was £1^000 
12s. 6d. ; and the total previous expenditure wai 
£),283 5s. 6d. The number of pauper inmatea on 
Dec. 2, 1843, was 100. The medical ciaritie* 
within the luiion are dispensaries at NeYtownl 
Limavaddv, Dungiven, and Magilligan ; and, in 168Bj 
they received £136 from subscription, and £136 10^. 
from public grants, expended £154 4s. in salaries to 
medical officers, £107 1 Is. for medicines, and £SZ 15a. 
for contingencies, and administered to 3,818 paiientii 
The Newtown-Limavaddy dispensary serves for « 
district of 42,440 acres, with a pop. of 15,754; and, 
in 1839, it expended £105 17s., and administered ti 
1,515 patients. '■ 

TVttrfe.]— The linen-trade of Newtown-Limavaddy 
was at one time of considerable extent; and, thoagB 
it dwindled away to littleness, it gives proouse of 
reacquiring its former importance. There are two 
distilleries. The great impulse given for some Haik 




pMi to the agricalture of all the surrounding country, 
DMB occMioDAd a large, rapid, and steady increase to 
tke prosperity of the town. Wheat, though not ver^ 
many years ago imported for home consumption, is 
now raised in considerable quantities throughout the 
neighbouring districts ; and flax, after haxdng for a 
Gooiiden^le period fallen exceedingly off as an article 
of culture, has, for 9 or 10 years past, been so large 
a crop as to occasion of itself a very large trade. 
** The great increase in the culture of flax," says an 
officii report in 1837, '* is the principal cause of the 
prosperity of Newtown-Limavaddy ; and such has 
been the extent of this produce, that it was found 
expedient to open a market in the town for its dis- 
posal within the last twelve months, where the 
average weekly sales now amount to from 15 to 17 
tons, and to the value of £1,000 sterling; and it is 
considered that this amount will rather increase than 
dtHBuiish." The sales of agricultural produce, at the 
vreekly markets, and the general retail trade for the 
supplv of the surrounding country, are comparatively 
very Urge. Fairs are held on the second Monday 
of Feb., and on March 28, June 13, Jul^ 12, and 
Get, 29. The town has a comfortable inn, and 
bfmiicb-ofllces of the Belfast Banking Company, and 
the Northern Banking Company. The public con- 
veyanoet in 1838 were a mail-coach in transit be- 
tween Londonderry and Belfast, and a car in transit 
betweea Londonderry and Coleraine. It is pro- 
posed to execute a branch-railway to this place from 
the projected railway betwixt Coleraine and Lon- 


Mmmieipal Affian.'] — A charter of 11 James I. 
erected NeMrtown-Limavaddy into a borough, and 
appointed its corporation to consist of a provost, 
12 free burgesses, 2 serieants-at-maoe, and a com- 
■Kmalty, and to be called ** The Provost, Free 
BufgBiBCs, and Commonalty of the Borough of 
Lyiaavady.** The borough limits are not known to 
have been ai any period more accurately defined 
thaa ae ** the town and precincts of Lymavady." 
Tke Earl of Londonderry was patron or proprietor 
SI the time of the Legislative Union ; and he received 
iJbt iHiole of the £15,000 of compensation for the 
awmiBi'*g of its right of sending members to Parlia- 
ment. The corporation fell into neglect immediately 
aAcr tbediifirandiisement, ceased to perform any cor- 
porate act about the year 1606, and has long been 
eBtafidiy eztinet. A l>orough court, authorized by 
tke diarter, was discontinued about the year 1734 ; 
and a manor ooort, held by the seneschal of the sur- 
flunor, has also been a long time in de- 
A court of quarter-sessions is held twice 
: ; and a court of petty-sessions on every 
alicfaate Tuesday. The public peace is preserved 
Iqr a party of the county constabuUry. The 
bridflfveB ia kept m a clean and satis&ctory condi- 
tw; and, during 1843, it cost £24 16s. 8d. A 
p r esby tery of the OenenU Assembly of the Presby- 
tcfian Church in Ireland has its seat in Newtown- 
Luuavaddy, exercises inspection over 13 congrega- 
tiooi, and meets on the first Tuesday of Feb., May, 
Aug.* aod Jior. Two of the congregations under 
thia presbytery are at Newtown- Lima vaddy, two 
are aft Dungiiven, and the other 9 are at respectively 
Ballyfcelly, Magilligan, Balteagh, Largy, Drum- 
Mrhoee, Soriggan, Derrymore, Bovevagb, and Myroe. 

Simtistiet^ |rc.J — Area of the town, 515 acres. 
Po^« ia 1831. 2,428 ; in 1841, 3,101. Houses 566. 
Families employed chieflv in agriculture, 152; in 
msaufitftares anid trade, 3l9; in other pursuits, 118. 
Faoalies dependent chiefly on property and profes- 
sions* ^ ; on the directing of labour, 277 ; on their 
ova manual labour, 241 ; on means not specified, 16. 
Males at and above 5 years of age who could read 

and write, 674 ; who could read but not write, 350; 
who could neither read nor write, 239. Females at 
and above 5 years of age who could read and write, 
465 ; who could read but not write, 713; who could 

neither read nor write, 318 Newtown-Limavaddy, 

then called the Dog's Leap, was at one time the 
chief residence of the O'Cahans, the ancient toparchs 
of the central and the eastern parts of the territory 
which noMT constitutes the county of Londonderry ; 
and, firom the date of the Anglo-Norman conquert 
down to the period succeeding the Protestant set- 
tlement of Ulster, it shared in most of the greater 
events which occurred within the county. See 
Londonderry (County or). 

NEWTOWN-LOE, a village in the parish of 
Newtown, barony of Moycashel, co. Westmeath, 
Leinster. It stands on the mail-road firom Dublin 
to Galway, 2^ miles west by south of Tyrrel's-Pass, 
and 2| east of Kilbeggan. It is the site of a church 
and a school ; and in its near vicinity are a Roman 
Catholic chapel, and Archdeacon Vignoles' seat of 
Comahir. A height at the village haa an altitude 
of 368 feet above sea^level ; and, in spite of being 
so far inland, and so comparatively low, forms a 
nuu'ked feature in the midst of a vast flat country. 
Pop. of the village returned with the parish. 

TOWN, CO. Louth. 


market and post town, in the parish of Upper New- 
castle, barony of Newcastle, co. Wicklow, Leinster. 
It stands on the maiUroad from Dublin to Wexford, 
2 miles south of the Glen of the Downs, 2| west ot 
the shore of the Irish Sea, 2^south by west of Del* 

Smy, 6 north by west of Rathnew, 7i south of 
ray, 8 north-north-west of Wicklow, and 17i south- 
south-east of Dublin. It does not possess in its own 
site, or interior character or groupings any of the 
elements of picturesqueness or romance; yet it it 
surrounded by scenery the most beautiful and charm- 
ing, and forms an excellent central-point or head- 
quarters for a series of easy excursions among the 
most admired landscapes of the north of Wicklow. 
** From this place as a centre," says the author of the 
* Guide to Wicklow, ' " the visitor could strike off upon 
pleasant short excursions each day, and return to din- 
ner. The Glen and demesne of Dunran, the Devil's 
Glen, Glenmore Castle, Kiltvmon Glen, the demesnes 
of Newtown-Mo'unt- Kennedy, Altadore, and Hermi- 
tage, with many others, are within easy distances. 
There is a ver^ comfortable inn in the town, where 
the traveller is certain of being treated with great 
courteousness, and where the charges are very moder- 
ate." Within a circumference described upon a 
radius of two miles are three hills of respectively 
1, 122, 1,193, and 1,232 feet of altitude, and the seaU 
of Trudder-house, Killadreenan-cottage, Pro^ct- 
house, Mount-John-house, Kiltymon-house, Dun- 
ran-house, Kilmartin, Newcastle-nouse, Bloomfield* 
Bally philip, Cooldross, Woodstock- house. Warble- 
bank, Kilmullen, Kilquod-house, Ballyronan-house, 
Springfarm, Derraghville. Laurel-lodge, Searscow, 
East Priory, Mount - Kennedy - house, Rockfield, 
Dromin-lodge, Glenbrook, Mount-Pleasant, DoM-n's- 
*Lawn, Dromin- house, Holywell, Toomon - house, 
Down's-lodge, Bromley-houiie, Nassai^Iodge, Bel- 
field-house, Glendarragh- cottage, Altadore-bouse* 
Hermitage, Glendarragh-house, East-hill, Tithcwer, 
Springmount, and Monalin-house. The mansion df 
Mount- Kemiedv, or Newton- Mount- Kennedy, stands 
neariy } of a-mile north by west, of the town, aiid» 
together with the grounds around it, is noticed in 
the following terms by the author of the ' Guide to 



Wirklow:' *' The house and demesne o( Newt<)wii- 
Biount-Kennedy are well worthy the attention of 
the inquisitiTe touriBt; the demesne is extensive, 
highly improved, and beautifully situated. This 
whole tract of land about fifty years ago, was totally 
wild and barren ; about this period it was purchased 
by General Cunningham, afterwards Lord Rossmore, 
who then retired from public life. This demesne, 
as well as that of Dunran, were planted by his lord- 
ship, and the soil of valleys and lowlands, hitherto 
useless, reclaimed by that energetic and sagacious 
nobleman, principally by the application of marl and 
limestone gravel. So paramount was this excellent 
man's taste and ability tor agricultural improvement, 
that, beginning from fifty acres, he extended his de- 
mesne and farms from Newtown- Mount- Kennedy to 
the southern extremity of Dunmn, nor ceased till he 
had expended £64,000 in improvements. This house 
is a large square buildbig ot great simplicity and ele- 
gance; it is in the Ionic order, and after a design by 
Wyatt, executed by Mr. Cooley, also a very eminent 
artist. From the portico there is a charming view 
of the improvement and woods, terminating in the 
mountains ; and from the east front is a commanding 
prospect of a highly cultivated country, bounded at 
the distance of 2 miles by the sea." The property 
received its name, and the town of Newtown-Mount- 
Kennedy its origin, from a mercantile family of Dub- 
lin, one of whom, George Kennedy, was an alderman 
of the city in 1590. The manor passed by inheri- 
tance from the last male of the Kennedys to Mr. 
Barker; it was purchased from Mr. Barker by Gen- 
eral Conyngham, afterwards Lord Rossmore; and it 
descended from Lord Rossmore to the fiunily of 
Gunn of Rattoo in the county of Kerry. — A court 
of petty-sessions is held in the town on the second 
Saturday of every nx>nth. Fairs are held on Feb. 
2, April IB, June 29, Aug. 15, Oct. 30, and Dec. 21. 
In 1841, the Newtown-Mount- Kennedy Loan Fund 
had a capital of £906, circulated £3,595 in 896 loans, 
cleared a nett profit of £52 9s. 9d., and exj^nded 
for charitable purposes £65. A dispensary in the 
town is within the Rathdrum Poor-law union, and 
serves for a district of 25,680 acres; with a pop. of 
12,201; and, in 1639^10, it received £159 15s., and 
expended £137 12b. 1 l^d. In 1798, a body of rebels 
was defeated at Newtown-Mount- Kennedy, by a 
body of the King's troops under Lords Rossmore and 
Kinigsborough. Area of the to¥m, 49 acres. Pop., 
in 1831, 825 ; in 1841, 828. House? 1 18. Families 
employed chiefly in agriculture, 58 ; in mamifectures 
ana trade, 77; m other pursuits, 29. Families de- 
pendent diiefly on property and professions, 9; on 
the directing of labour, 63; on their own manual 
. labour, 82 ; on means not specified, 5. 

NEWTOWN - PARK. See Newtowk - Clow- 

NEWTOWN-PLATTEN, a village in the par- 
ish of Duleek, barony of Lower Duleeit, co. Meath, 
Leiivter. It stands 2 miles south-west of Drogh- 
eda, on the road thence to Rosnaree. In its vicinity 
ai'0 the seats of Mount-Granville and Flatten. Pop. , 
in 1831, 116. Houses 21. 

NEWTOWN-REGAN, a hamlet in the barony 
of Kiltartan, co. Galway, Connaught. It stands 1^ 
mile south-west of Gort, on the road thence to Kil- 
macduagh. Pop. not specially returned. 

NEWTOWN-SANi&ES, a village in the parish 
of Murhir, barony of Iraghticonnor, co. Kerry, Mun- 
ster. It stands on the road from Listowel to Glin, 
4| miles south of Tarbert, and 5 north-east of Lis- 
towel. A dispensary here is within the Listowel 
Poor-law union, and, in 1839->40, it received £55 
17s. from subscription, and £55 1 7s. from public 
grants. The church of Murhir stands about a mile 

to the south«west. Area of the vilkge,-]fi 
Pop., in 1831, 376 ; in 1841, 314. Houses 54. 

NEWTOWN-SAVILLE, a quoad saera parish, 
4^ miles north of Clogher, barony of Clogher, kSb. 
Tyrone, Ulster. Length and breadth, each ^ milefe ; 
area, about 13,768^ acres. ' Pop. not separvfielV' re- 
turned. It consists of the northern district m the 
quoad civilia parish of Clogher ; and is traverfittd 
northward by the road fr«Mn Clogher to Ofomfii, 
The land is variously good, light, indifferent, moun- 
tainous, and waste; but in no case is prime. The 
hamlet of Newtown-Saville is the site of the ehift^h 
and the glebe-house ; and near it are a Roman Gfei- 
tholic chapel, and two schools,— one of the laMfer 
connected with the National Board. Viin aK Held 
on the last Monday of every month. — This parish is 
a perpetual curacy, and a separate benefloei kt ihe 
dio. of Clogher. Glebe, £15. Gross meome, £75 ; 
nett, £72 58. Patron, the dean of Ok>gher: The 
chiu-ch was built in 1815, by means of a gift of £^88 
9s. 2|d. from the late Board of First Fruits, anil a 
donation of £156 18b. 5(d. from the Ref ; FrmHns 
Gervais, the proprietor of the estate on wiiicl^Mt 
stands. Sittings 180; attendance 120. The number 
of members of the Established church witMA'i^e 
quoad sacra parish is about 1,150. All the ioth^r 
statistics are mixed up with those of 'the •q,ud^ 
civilia parish of Clogher. 


NEWTOWN. STALABAN, a riUage in 'the 
parish of TuUyallen, barony of Ferrard, to, Loiitb, 
Leinster. It stands 1 ^ mile nortb-east of Drogh^Aa, 
on the road thefice to Termonfeekan. Afi^acefitHo 
it on the east is Newtown-house. Pop. not so- 
cially returned. -'^ 

NEWTOWN-STEWARTi a post and marh!^ 
town in the parish of Ardstraw, barony bf StrabKtifr, 
CO. Londonderry, Ulster. It stands on the ri^i^er 
Moume, and on the mail-road ftbm Dublin to Ijdn- 
donderry, 5 miles west of Gorton, 7 north-northy^rtt 
of Drumquin, 7^ east of Castle-Derg, 7t80iith-sotttb- 
east of Strabane, 8 north-north-west of Omagfr,^- 19 
south of Londonderry, and 94| nofth-north-west' bf 
Dublin. The Struel and the Movie or G)en«Ay 
rivers form the Moume a few perches east of t%e 
town. The hill of Mary Grey is situated I| mHe 
to the east-south-e^t, and has an altitude of 8S6 
feet above seaplevel. The hill of Bessy Biell is ^. 
uated 2 miles to the south, south-west, and has ah ik16- 
tude of l,386feet above sea-level. The'Mar^^ilis'^f 
Abercom's magnificent demesne of- Baroii's-^u^ 
commences 1| mile to the south-west; and eicteMiAs 
apwards of 2 miles south-south* west ward; profttte 
in natural beauty, rich in wood, arid largely gemfB^ 
with the chain of ornate lakes called Loupis BiEaHr, 
Fanny, and Catherine. Within a dreumfepenOg tfe. 
scribed upon a radius of two miles are Pijreon-Hft, 
Castle-Moyle, Oldcastle, Harvey Avery's Cast4e«iihd 
Woodbrook. These agreeable objects in the eiifi- 
rons, the convergence of vales at the towti, thebitMd 
valley of the Moume below, and the periphery M 
verdant, picturesque, and sheltering hfUs, raider t)ie 
situation of Newtovm- Stewart greatly more piea^i^t 
than that of most of the other udand townk of Trp- 
land. *' Its sheltered position,'* remarks the Rev. 
Dr. Fitzgerald, "softens the rigour of every tHtid 
that blows. 'The fertile and extensive vaUey'fhat 
fronts it to the north, and through the centre of 
M'hich the river Mourne takes its course, is encOo^ 
passed on every side by gently swelling hills, backed 
by corresponding mountains of different altitudes,^ 
which Bell and Grey, to the south and east, are ^f» 
nearest and most beautiful ; the lofty top of the for- 
mer serves as a barometer to the surrounding f^T^ 
try ; when overiiung with clouds or 6trtkii6pSd "witk 




•Hfti, It ii a n|^ of Approaching ram, but when dearly 
teen, it indietles fiur weather. The temperature of 
the eUmat* may he inferred from thia eircumMance, 
that tnow in the valley here mentioned disappears a 
ityr dwa earlier than in the more exposed dutriets 
towards Strabaae and Derry," 

Newtown > Stewart was originalhr called Lislas; 
and it acquired its present name from Sir William 
8t«¥rart, to whom it was granted by Charles I. In 
oonaequence of its eoamaMUng a great pass from the 
valley of the Foyle, and the northern sea-board of 
Dioatgal and Londonderry to the centre and the south 
of the hingdom, it was long an important military 
pest ; durii^ the Revolution it was baraed by order 
of James IL ; aad daring 30 of 35 subsequent years, 
it lay in a state of ruinous prostration. The modem 
improvement of the town, for some unexplained rea- 
aoa. hM not been so great and rapid ai either its 
own fine situation or the progress of other towns in 
tht north might have led a stranger to expect. Yet, 
though irregular in its plan and poor in some of its 
architecture, it exhibits around its centre some se- 
ries of good houses. Its principal public buildings 
are a church, two Presbyterian meeting-houses, two 
Methodist meeting-houses, mid a Roman Catholic 
chapel. At the foot of Main-street stands the house 
in which James II. slept on his way to Londonderry; 
and in the vicinity is a remarkable caiKtle, noticed in 
the following terms bv the Rev. Dr. Fitegerald : 
** It stands oo a high hill a little to the south-west of 
the town, and has two round towers and a platform. 
The towersy except on the north side, are entire. 
This caatle belonged to Henry O'Neal, who, accord- 
tog to tradition, was king of Ulster in the jfifth cen- 
tury; he was called by a name which signifies in 
liiik: 'cross* or * wicked,' as eharaeteristic of his 
temper. Of this the following anecdote is a singular 
'Bstance: — He hada sister who is represented as having 
an elegant person but the head of a swine ; and thetrce 
called the female monster. Henry, anxious to get 
rid of an object that mortified his feelings and his 
pride, adopted the plan of ofiering her in marriage 
to any person who should seem inclined to propose 
for her, but on condition that, after having seen 
her, he should either marry or Imng. Accordingly. 
nineteea persons, among whom was a captive prince, 
who bad agreed to the condition, were all^exeeuted 
OD the plajUbrm before his castle ; and tradition says, 
the twentieth and last person who proposed for her 
was the aon of his own cowherd, who was tempted 
by the maniitude of her dowrv« but who, on seehig 
her, immediately exclaimed, ' Cur sous me, cur sous 
me;* that is« * hang me I hang me r The young man, 
hawaver, was spared, and the unfortunate princess 
put to death/* Other old castles in the vicinity are 
notioed in the article Aedsteaw: which see. — ^A 
diiapeaaary in Newtown-Stewart is within the Stra- 
bane Poor-law union, and serves for a district of 
4i.79i acres, with a pop. of 18,692; and, in 1889, 
it expemled £106^ and administered to 1,541 patients. 
Fairs are held on the last Monday of every month, 
A ouurt of petty. sessions is held on the third Thurs- 
day of every mouth. Area of the to>%'n, 61 acres. 
Pop., in laai, 1,737; in 1841, 1.405. Houses 273. 
Families employed chiedy in agricultuns (32; in 
maott&ctures and trade, 182 ; in other pursuits, 67. 
Familie* dependent chiefly on property and prufes- 
»ioiiri, 17; on the directing of labour, IGl ; on their 
own manual labour, 1 14 ; on means not specified, 9. 

NEWTOWN-TRIM, a village in the parish of 
NewtoMTi-Clonbun, and on the left bank of the 
Boyne. } of a mile east of Trim, barony of Upper 
Navan. co. 31eath, Leinster. Pop. returned with 
the pari&h. 

MCHOLAS (St.), a parish on the southern bor. 

der of the barony of Ballaghkeen, 4 miles north -of 
Wexford, co. Wexford, Leinster. Length, south- 
south-eastward, 2 miles ; extreme breadth, 1^ ; area, 
1,213 acres, 2 roods, 18 perches. Pop., in 1881, 
311 ; in 1841, 316. Houses 49. The hind is of a 
rather light description. In the centre stands the 
hamlet of Oarrylough. This parish is an impropri- 
ate curacy, and part of the benefice of Ardcolx 
[which see], in the dio. of Ferns. Tithe composition 
belonging to the incumbent, £27 7s. 1 l|d. The reC' 
torial tithes are compounded for £39 Is. 94d., and 
are impropriate in Lord Portsmouth. In 1834, the 
Protestants amounted to 28, and the Roman Catho- 
lics to 268 ; and there was neither diurch, chapel, 
nor school. 

NICHOLAS (St.). See Nathlash, Dublot, 
Cork, Limerick, Galwat, and OARRicK-oit-SuiK. 

NICHOLASTOWN, a quondam parish, now 
treated as merely a townland, oo the north border of 
the barony of Kilkea and Moone, 2i miles south-east 
of Athy, CO. Kildare, Leinster. 

NIER (The), a grand mountain rivulet of the 
county of Waterford, Munster. It issues in various 
bead-streams from small Alpine lakes, two of which 
have a surface-elevation of upwards of 1,200, aad 
one of 1,650 feet above sea-level, among the central 
and loftiest heights of the Cummeragh mountains; 
and it rolls, and leaps, and tumbles about 9 miles 
westward to the Suir, at the point where that river 
makes its sudden and final deflexion from a southerly 
course, 3^ miles south-cast of Ardfimian. 

NILTEEN, or Nai.tb£M, a grange in the baroHy 
of Upper Antrim, 3 miles east of the tOMm of An- 
trim, CO. Antrim, Ulster. Length, west-south-wett- 
ward, 3| miles; extreme breadth, 1^; area, M97 
acres, 2 roods, 22 perches. Pop., in 1831, 1,109; 
in 1841, 1,191. Houses 218. The land is of su- 
perior quality. The road from Antrim to Dotigh 
runs nearly along the northern boundary ; and that 
from Belfast to Connor passes across the interior.^.- 
This grange is practically a vicarage, and part of the 
benefice of Dokeoorx [which see], in the dio. of 
Connor. The vicarial tithes are compounded for 
£124 08. lUd., and the rectorial for £248 Is. lid.; 
and the latter are claimed by James Moore, Esq. of 
Cloverhill. In 1834, the inhabitants consisted of 63 
Churchmen, 1,046 Pinesbyterians, and 66 Roman Qa- 
tholics ; a Sunday school was usually attended hy 
about 120 children ; and 3 pay daily schools had^m 
their books 65 .boys- and 41 girls. 

NI:N£.MILE.H0U8£, a village in the parish of 
Templemichael, barony of Slieveardagh, oo. Tippe- 
rary, Munster. It stands on the east margin of the 
province, and on the mail- road ik>m Dublin to Clon- 
mel and Cork, 3^ miles north-east of the summit of 
Slievenaman, 6 soutb-soutb-west of Oalkn, and 1 1 
north-east by east of Clonmel. It has a small post- 
ing establishment. Fairs are held on March 25, 
May 20, and Nov. 1. In the immediate vicinity are 
Rockview-house, and the commencement of the de- 
file past the east base of Slievenaman. An-a of the 
village, 9 acres. Pop., in 1841, 160. Houses ad. 

NOBBER, n parish, partly in the barony of Lower 
Kells, but chiefly in that of Morgallion, co. Meath, 
Leinster. The Morgallion section contains the vil- 
lages of NoDRER and Ballinke : see these articles. 
Length, south by eastward, 4 miles; extreme breadth, 
3|. Area of the Lower Kells siTtion, 1,088 acres, 3 
roods, 6 perches; of the Morgallion section, 9,399 
acres, 1 roo<l, 25 perches, — of which 70 ucrt's, 2 
roods, 19 perchcH are in Lough White wood, and tl 
aiTcs, 2 tmhIs, 3.') perches are in small Inkes. Pop. 
of the whole, in 18;n, S,m2; in 1841. 3.757. Houses 
(>.')9. Pop., in 1841. of the Lower KolLt section, 
384 ; of the rural districts of the Morgallion section. 




2,877. Houses in these, respectively 66 and 493. 
The townland of Rathe was formerly in the barony 
of Lower Slane, but was transferred by the Act 6 
and 7 William IV., cap. 84, to the barony of Mor- 
gallion. The parochial surface is part of the north 
border of the great plain of Meath, and has an undu- 
lated character, and a rich and ornate appearance. 
Gallows Hill, the highest ground, has an altitude of 
306 feet above sea>level, and commands a noble' pan- 
oramic view of the surrounding country. Imme- 
diately we^t of the village of Nobber is Brittas, the 
well- wooded and fine old demesne of Edward Bligh, 
Esq. ; and on the west border, north of Brittas, is 
the conspicuous demesne of Whitewood, the pro- 
perty and occasional residence of Viscount Oormans- 
town, adorned with Lough Whitewood, whose su- 
perfluent waters form the nascent river Dee. The 
other principal seats are Spiddal, Marl-Hill, Rock- 
field-house, JttUanstown-house, Castlefield, Mullan- 
deggan, Prestonvale, and Comabrock. The road 
from Dublin to Kingscourt and Clones passes through 
the interior. — This parish is a rectory, in the dio. of 
Meath. The tithes are compounded for £480 128. 
4^d., and are appropriated to the see of Meath, and 
held under lease of the diocesan. The parishes and 
appropriate curacies of Nobber and LouoAbbac- 
CAN [see tiiat article], constitute the perpetual cu- 
racy and the benefice of Nobber. Olebe, £70. 
Gross income, £125 7b. 8id. Patron, the diocesan. 
The church is situated at the village of Nobber, and 
was built about the year 1771* by means of parochial 
cess. Sittings 120 ; attendance, from 30 to 35. The 
Roman Catholic chapel is aUo situated at Nobber, 
ami has an attendance of about ] ,500 ; and, in the 
Roman Catholic parochial arrangement, is united to 
the chapel of Cruieetown. In 1834, the Protestants 
of the parish amounted to 121, and the Roman Ca- 
tholics to 3,976 ; the Protestants of the union to 129, 
and the Roman Catholics to 4,478; and 2 daily 
schools in the parish and union — one of which was 
chiefly supported by £20 a-year and other advan- 
tages from Lord Gormanstown — were usually at- 
tended by about 158 children. 

NOBBER, a po^rt-village in the parish of Nobber, 
barony of Morgal lion, co. Meath, Leinster. It stands 
on the road from Dublin to Clones, 5 mflcs east- 
north-east of Moynslty, 5| south-south-east of Kings- 
court, 6| north-east by north of KellS, 7^ west- 
south-west of Ardee, 9} north by west of Navan, 
and 3l| north-west by north of Dublin. The church 
and the Roman Catholic chapel at the tillage are neat 
structures. The remains of a priory stand in the 
churchyard. The dispensary of Nobber is within the 
Poor-law Union of Kells, and serves for a district of 
19,089 acres, with a pop. of 7,188 ; and, in 1839-40, 
it expended £122 16s. 7d., and administered to 1,212 
^tients. A fair is held on April 25. In 1C70, 
Turlough O'Carolan — popularly known as Carolan, 
the last of the Irish minstrels — was born, in humble 
circumst&nccs, at Nobber. "He was deprived of 
his si^ht bv the ravages of the small-pox, at so early 
a period or life, that he * remembered no impression 
of colours.' He was accustomed to say, when speak- 
ing of this calamity, that his eyes were transplanted 
into his ears ; and so apparent became, even during 
childhood, his acute sensibility to the concord of 
sweet sounds, that his friends procured him a pro- 
fessional instructor on the harp, before he had com- 
pleted the twelfth year of his age. He was, how- 
ever, a natural genius of the first rank, and was born 
to create rather than to practise. Although his harp 
was rarely unstrung, he, in general, as is observed 
b^ Mr. Walker, only used it to assist him in compo- 
sition i his fingers wandered amongst the strings in 
quest of the sweets of melody. At an eai-ly age 

Carolan became enamoured of a lady, by name M iis 
Bridget Cruise ; and the song addressed by him to 
that fair object of his wishes, is 8up{)0sed to be his 
chef d'oeuvre. Miss Cruise, however, refused bis 
hand ; but the sympathy- remaining true, although 
the object might change, he shortly found a solace 
in marriage with a young woman of a respectable 
iamily, named Mary MacGuire, b^ whom he had 
seveii children. He now fixed his residenee on a 
small farm near Mosbilt, in the eountv of Leitrim ; 
but the fate of genius followed him to his little habi- 
tation. He prosecuted his studies in music and 
poetry with great care, but <^uite neglected, in the 
ardour of such pursuits, and in the pleasures of an 
unbounded hospitality, a due attention to prudential 
concerns. He consequently soon abandoned a ^rm 
that was an encumbrance rather than a source of 
emolument, and commenced the life of an itinerant 
musician.** Some further notices of Carolan are riven 
in the article Kilsonan : which see. Area ik the 
village of Nobber, 24 acres. Pop., in 1831, 379; in 
1841, 349. Houses 57. 

NOCK-LYON, or Knockltow, a hamlet in the 
parish of Tallaght, barony of Uppercross, 4 miles 
south-south-west of Dublin, co. Dublin, Leinster. 
Adjacent to it is Knocklyon-house. Pop. not spe- 
cially returned. 

NOGGINSTOWN, a hamlet in the parish of 
Kilreekill, barony of Leitrim, 5\ miles north-east 
by east of Loughrea, co. Galway, Connaught. Pop. 
not specially returned. 

or NouoHtLL, a parish 4^ miles north-west bv west 
of Ballymore, and partly in the barony of Kilkenny- 
West, CO. Westmeath, partly in the baronies of 
Rathcline and Abbeyshruel, co. Longford, Leinster. 
The Abbeyshruel section contains a small part of 
the town of Balltmahon : which see. The West- 
meath section consists of two mutually detached 

north-westward, 5} miles ; extreme breadth, 2^. 
Length of the lesser district, westward, 3i; breadth, 
from I to 2^. Area of the whole of thie Westmeath 
section, 11,588 acres, 1 rood, 5 perches, — of which 
2,391 acres, 3 roods, 26 perches are in Lough Ree, 
and 181 acres, 2 roods 8 perches are in small lakes 
and the Inn^ river. The Rathcline and the Ahbev-, 
shruel sections in co. Longford also Ue mutually' 
detached, the former 5 furlongs west of the latter^; 
and including a small portion of the north-eastern 
extremity ofLou^h Ree. Length and breadth of 
the Rathcline section, each } of a mile; area,. 931 
acres, 2 roods, 35 perchcs»-:4)f which 36 acrea*. 2 
roods, 16 perches are in Lough Ree, and 10 iqnss, 
3 perches are in the river Inny. Length of tb*, 
Abbeyshruel section, westward, 3^ miles; extreme 
breadth, 2 ; area, 3,232 acres, 3 percbes,--^ which 
28 acres, 2 roods, 6 perches are in the river Inny.. 
The Rathcline section formerly belonged to Al^bey* 
shruel, but was transferred by the Act 6 and 7 Wii. 
liam IV., cap. 84. Pop. of the whole parish^ in 
1831, 4,154; in 1841. 4,480. Houses 793. Pop., 
in 1841, of tiie Westmeath section, 2»868 ; of the 
Rathcline section, 26 ; of the rural districts of the 
Abbeyshruel section, 1,482. Houses in these, re* 
spectively 514, 4, and 257. The Abbeyshruel tee- 
tion is bounded on the north and west by the river 
Inny, and contains the seats of Cartron and Rath- 
more. The wet^tern district of the Westmeath aco- 
tion contains the islands of Innisbolfin, Innisturk, 
Leveret, Red-island, Reman's and Hog, and th« 
greater part of Lough Creggan* The eastern dis- 
trict of the Westmeath section is cut into nearly 




CMil fMtf by the CnM||^ rivulet, and eontaim the 
vubfe of AuBUAH {wuch §ee], the greater part of 
Lough Doooii* a police §tatioo, the seats of Little- 
towB4odge, Van-Dieman-lodge, Lon^-lodge, Rock- 
laod-hoose, NohovaUhouse, LisaquiU-house, Kil- 
eonnii.lodm, Lon^eld- house, and Ardnacrany- 
house ; and the rums of an abbey and a castle. 
The prevailing quality of the land tbrougboat the 
parish is good. — This parish is an appropriate rec- 
tory, and part of the perpetual curacy and benefice 
of FoBONBT [which see], in the dio. of Meath. 
Glebe belonging to the perpetual curate, £18 ISs. 
The tithes are compounded for £450, and are appro- 
priated to die see of. Meath, and held under lease 
from the diocesan. The Roman Catholic chapel 
is situated in the eastern district of the Westmeath 
aectiouy and has an attendance of from 900 to 
1,000; and, in the Roman Catholic parochial ar- 
rangement, is united to the chapel of Tubberclare, 
in the pariah of Kilkenny- West. In 1834, the Pro- 
testanta amounted to 144, and the Roman Catholics 
to 4,113; and 7 pay dailv schools were usually at- 
tended by about 237 children. 

KOHOYAJj, a parish, containing a village of the 
same name, on the coast of the barony of Kinnalea, 

4 mUes east of Kinaale, co. Cork, Munster. Length, 

5 miles; breadth, U; area, 2,568 acres. Pop., in 
1831, 1.200; in 1841. 1,175. Houses 202. Areaofthe 
Tillage. 20 acres. Pop., in 1841, 142. Houses 27. 
The land, though light, is productive. The greater 
p«rt is under tujaffe, and the whole is conveniently 
situated for both lime and sea-manure. The road 
from Kinsale to Robert's Cove passes through the 
interior. — This parish is a rectory, and part of the 
benefice of St. Peter's, in the dio. of Cork. Tithe 
compodtion, £140. The parishes of Nohoval and 
KnjiAVOox [see that article}, constitute the per- 
petual curacy and the benefice of NohovaL Pop., 
u 1831, 2,4t7. Tithe composition belonging to the 
perpetual curacy, £75; glebe, £4 lis. 7d. Gross 
iDCsome. £102 ISs. 7d. ; nett, £95 Os. Id. Patron, 
the ar^dettcon of Cork'. The church was built up- 
wards of a century a^ ; but the cost of its erection 
ia Bot known. Sittings 120; attendance, from 30 
to 60. A achoolhouse in Kilmanoge is also used as 
a parodual place of worship. The Roman Catholic 
dmael has an attendance ot 450 ; and, in the Roman 
GadioHe parodiial arrangement, is united to the 
chud of Traeton. In 1834, the Protestants of the 
paw anumnted to 35, and the Roman Catholics to 
1,850; the Protestanto of the union to 151, and the 
Rmbbb Catholics to 2,400 ; a Sunday school in the 
parU was usually attended bv about 15 children ; 
a ^aj dtSkj school in the parish had an average at- 
trmmnrr of tbout 100 children ; and there were 
three dafly tchods in Kilmanoge. 

HOHOVAL, or Nougbatal, a parish on the 
80«them border of the barony of Burren, 2^ miles 
north-east of Kilfenora. co. Clare, Munster. Length, 
Borth-westward, 4 nules ; extreme breadth, 2 ; area, 
4,031 acres, 1 rood, 9'perches. Pop., in 1831, 408; 
ta 1841, 450. Houses 65. The hamlet of Nohoval 
had, ID 1831, 10 houses, and 64 inhabitants. The 
f»roportioa of tillage or meadow land is very small ; 
and that of limestone rocky pasture is very large, 
mad quite predominant. The tillage lands produce 
potatoes, oats, and here ; the pasturable mountain 
aoMUBta to about 80 Irish acres ; and the extent of 
bog is about 20 Irish acreit. The highest ground is 
OD the northern boundary, and has an altitude above 
sea-level of 635 feet. The seats are Lismoher- 
honae and Lismoher-lodge ; and the principal anti- 
quitiet are the cross ana the ruined church of No- 
hoval, three cromlechs, three Danish forts, and the 
I or vcatigei of Ballyganner, Ballymurpby, and 

Binroe castles. Lough Aleenaun lies in the east. 
The roads from Kilfenora to BaUyvaughan and 
Kinvarra pass through the interior. — This parish is 
a vicarage, in the dio. of Kilfenora. Vicanal tithe 
composition, £35 ; glebe, £32 10s. The vicarages of 
Nohoval and Carrunb [see that article], constitute 
the benefice of Nohoval. Length, 10 miles ; broidth, 
4^. Pop., in 1831, 1,453. Gross income, £106 lOs. ; 
nett, £100 13s. 6d. Patron, the diocesan. There 
is no church. The Nohoval and the Carnme Ro- 
man Catholic chapels have an attendance of respec- 
tively 100 and 700; and, in the Roman Catholic 
parochial arrangement, are mutually united. In 
1834, all the inhabitants of both the parish and the 
union were Roman Catholics ; a hedge-school in the 
parish had on its books 20 boys and 15 girls ; and 3 
daily schools in the union had on their books 110 
boys and 74 girls. 

NOHOVAL-DALT, a parish, 6k miles north- 
west bv west of Mill-street, and partly in the barony 
of Duhallow, CO. Cork, partly in the barony m 
Magonihy, co. Kerry, Munster. Length, 5 miles; 
br^th, 2. Area of the Cork section, 1 1 ,544 acres ; 
of the Kerry section, 5,829 acres. Pop. of the 
whole, in 1831, 3,229; in 1841, 3.954. Houses 
623. Pop. of the Cork section, in 1831, 1,925 ; in 
1841, 2,350. Houses 351 . The sur&oe consists of 
a portion of the glen or vale of the river Blackwater, 
almoet immediately below that river's source, and - 
portions of the mountainous sereeas of the vale 
witidn both Cork and Kerry. About one-third of 
the whole is arable and pasture land ; and the re- 
mainder is either bog or waste mountain. The glen 
or low ground district is warmed and embellished 
with a considerable quantity of wood ; and its chief 
localities are Mount-In£uit, Farrankeel, Knockna- 
feeth, Knockagree, and Knocknasee. The extreme 
north is part of the crownlands of Pobble O'Keefo, 
and has already been noticed in the article on Knro- 
WiLLiAJf'a-TowN : which see. The principal boga . 
are situated in the south-east, and within the Coik 
section ; they lie in slight hollows on an aluminoua - 
sandstone ; they require only sur£Mse draining in 
order to be fully available for cultivation; they 
cover an area of 1,814 acres; and as they existed 
about 30 years a^ they required an expenditure of 
only about £672 m order to their complete reclama- 
tion. The Kerry section of the parish forms part c£ 
the district popularly, but not politically, known 
under the name of the East Fraction. — This parish 
is a vicarage, and part of the benefice of DauHAim 
[which see], in the dio of Ardfert and Aghadoe. 
Vicarial titne composition, £140; reetoriad tithe 
composition not reported. The Roman Catholic . 
chapel has an attendance of 821 ; and, in the Ronno , 
Catholic parochial arrangement, is united to the 
•chapel of Drishane. In 1834, the parishioners were 
all Roman Catholics; and 2 heoge-sdiools were 
nsuallv attended by about 92 children. In 1842, 
the National Board had two schools at Knock* 

NOHOVAL-KERRT, a parish in the barony of 
Trughenackmy, 2^ miles west of Castle- Island, co. 
Kerry, Munster. liength and breadth, each 2 miles ; 
area, 3,204 acres. Pop., in 1831, 853; in 1841, 
944. Houses 133. Most of the surface is part of 
the beautiful and generally fertile valley at the 
north base of Slievemi«b ; yet it consuls of land 
of various qualities, from good to indifferent. The 
road from Castle- Island to Tralee passes through the 
interior. — This parish is a rectory, and part of the 
benefice of Ballym acelligot [which see], in the 
dio. of Ardfert and Aghadoe. Tithe composition, 
£G8 9j. lOd. ; glebe, £18. In 1834, the Protestants 
amounted to 15, and the Roman Catholics to 851 ; 




. m4 A hedgo-scliool luad on iU books, .25 Iio^b &tid 

' NONANE. See Tejuflemoloqc^. 
. ' NQHE ( TttB)» a river, partly qf the coontyof Tip- 
^berary» Munst«r, but clue fly pf Qu^ttii c^jmity and 
me (bounty of Kilkpn^y, L^iaAi^t. It nies atuo^iig tfat^ 
'!peyi)-Bit mpuniaiuft m to. Tipperary, »ta point l^ 
tEiJle north-east of i^^oneyftdU and flowa 12^ mibs 
nortb'east by ea^twardi to wilMu 2 aitJe!? of ^tount- 
rath,_5 mIlL*a soatti-ca^tw^rd tct wittiiii 2 milf!^ iff 
AbWykix,^-8 iniles south -so utli-enstword ta the 
imm (filiate yicuiity of f^&llyniggi^t^ — 4 m\hiB Koutb- 
Wi^ril to the fcKtt of ^tbe vale of Fn^^hfordf^^orul 
^ miki south-^ath-eft$tw»rdt und liouth-^ust by 
joutb^vurd, to a. conAiiatiCQ xyiih the Barro^v at u 
|K>iiit 1 1 mile ELbdve Ne w- Ro>3^$. Its prmcipai trLbtp- 
tttriei urt; tb» Taiuiet« tbe Erkirit tha Difiane, the 
^King'3 riv^r, ibc BdltyduifT tbe Dobbi^i'!? Mill rivulets 
^Jer point t-LVMJetL oiid TbocmiBtou'ii rtvukt. Tbe 
towns on or quite nemr its baolci* ^e Borrii^ui- 
'Ossdry, Mountrath, Abbey ULt* DtirroWi Bally- 
ji^gg^t, Kilkenny* Stoneyford^^ T^ pin w town, and 
^ruii$tbguc» ** Tbe river Nure^" flavb Mr, Tj^he^ 
'the talented and judicious st^M^t of tbe i^iuity of 
Kilkenny, ** passes through a. country of Uyw varied 
^bilU to Bally ragget, bui lu it approtidie^ KJIkeiuiy, 
t^e banks beconie higher ; from an enunejiee calkd 
the Eagle Hock, nearly opposite the tnouth of the 
Pinan^ a i^rnjid utid liiteht^ive pfoipect l^ presented ; 
liW river (vind& heneuth j beyqndU a cultivated and 
ir'fvi"" p^l^■, ivi'li ffi^tant hill*;j part of the wogded 
d' ■- ' . . vvji adds to the eeene, whieh is 

interspersed with several country bouses and planto^ 
lions. From the eastern bank above Kilkenny, the 
view of that city is ^rand and striking; its ruined 
ii)ona$tj?rie9« some of its lowers, its cathedral on one 
eminence, and its commanding castle on the other, are 
placed on the attitudes. Below the town, the baiikg 
are often steep and in a state of great neglect; but the 
soil, though poor, is capable of improvement, either 
for pasture or plantation. One small wood at Kil^ 
fera ornaments this part, and many mills and build- 
ings convey the idea of trade, which seems to contend 
against the disadvantages of an unnavigable stream, 
f^nd'ane/cpeBsive 2aiiA>cari!i4gfl. Haviisg joined thv 
Xing's- RiKer, and passed' some country seats and 
i^ipiovementa, theiNore>flOwi into the centre of the 
gfamiidcmeine of Mount*- Juliet^ where a variety of 
r'm»g 0f»Nwd8 «ne jjudioiously cov«ffed. by connected 
plantations ; beneath a green carpet spreads to the 
ny^im Wme lUpfmite.jMtgtolikn (h^'ikiirii^ion- 
^lisei t )>*^C* ^^0 benk/ whidhat crowad decked 
wUbi yoiM^/trecsi < and .unriahed ^tb: I6ld soattered 
Of|lB% The >Wk>le ^ita laoune •from hence to Bqik, 
(ly.TboitiMtowii ajidInnietioeMc,.pnBaentB'picturc9^ue 
seefiftry^MVBneil.-bir mined .icmsitlee>«Bd'.ibbeys^ by 
r^^ks . that. turn thA: cottrae . ef the river, by greem 
Hieedows ikai^skirt ills r^anks^ 'or by iteep hilU fo^i^g^^" > The river • is mvijnible for 
^^eiits irooi Imiistlogue to Thomastoivmrend-it wn> at 
oae time. -pp^losed- imde aubserviedt to a^ore 
imponlaal inayl09tieii.: tSDeirKaiLK&Njrr ^ (eoimTT 
«]|). .. Xbe ,ftdierj of the iiNore is ckdmed, under 
l^tsnt* bjjr .Lord Oraiond,:'Mr. Tighe, and $ome 
piker partiee. - The mills, on theNore, the lock on 
the Berrow, tend especially the building, about 37 
years ago, of $ootch weirs, have occasioned a gra^ 
dual decline in. the amount and value of the salmon 

. NOBTH ROCKS, a k>ng range df dangerous 
rocks* off t^ east coaet of the barony of Arden, uo. 
Down, Ubter. They cover or lie xipposite Glogfay 
bay; and are situated 1^ mile east by north cu 
Slane's Pointy ait tbd south side of the entrance of 
tMr'bay» .ipd ^^mUee aorth-iiortii-east ^ Bally* 

qubtin Peint»,pi the aMHtfatrssde oC ihciie n tr e Btt a bf 

teu^b StrangifpKd. s Tkejr are eevtsPHl-et^ki^flocfl ; 

at which time^the streamin shore turns lotto noftii. 

They range ooiithhnoirth«ee9twaiid. to the>eBleniiDf 

I at lea^t a league v. mi spme oflbhoots'.iif them. He 

kunk at low water so near the ehord^ tbata yeesel 

, camioU in generaH, navigate .'tlKiatrati} between] tiuan 

I atid the mainland without :d«sger^ Af. seat: of Stobe 

I on one of the llooks as populaiiy oaUediSt, Patflkk*s 

I Chair, and has oecasioned (the whole gr^up tor be 

I some time ji called St. Patrick's Books. < ; 

i»Oi;GHAVAL. Sea NooBOVAL. ^ . » 
NUCETOW^. See N»woes»on. ; i . ■ 

NUN'S-C^OSS, or JKiliea, ahamletin.tliSipar- 
liah of Killiskey. baroay of '^ewtaetk^ ofk' Wickk>w, 
Leinsj^ter. It stands on the river Vaittev» 8nd;0i>tlie 
roud from Wicklow to Ajwaoioei koKo^aihWiy bdow 
the debouch of the Bevii's Glen, jh of a Mile west- 
north- vine $t of Ashford, mbA 4i miles - north-west 'fif 
Widklo w. An elegant church. for the pisrish of Kil- 
lisky wa& built here in ]817» by FrsneisiSjuige, Es<fe 
and hero also stand the ruins of >a'preinoiis>ch«r£ 
Pop. of the hamlet mt-speciaHy returnedb .i / --i 

K U HN EY, a parish^ partly in tiks baroniesisf Forth 
and C^low, but chief^, in ttts barony of £)ttt JdroiM, 
2| miles north-east by: east of Leigh^-Bridge^i«d. 
Carloitr, Leinst^r. The East.Idromi seetioaeoft- 
Lsins the village lof Numeyt Ifiug^ of'tbe paiisk 
\ve^t by j^outhward. 4 miles s eiltreiiie>4(read(ik,:l|^ 
Area of the.Fqrtb section, -MS acres* .ft.roodfi,:6 
pejfdiei; of.tb^b»r0i\3^of €wk^.seirtk9v766-sc»e^ 
2^ perches; of the East Idrone section, 1,795 acres, 
18 [jerches,— of which 10 acres, 2 roods, 16 perches 
are in the river Barrow. Pop. of the whole, in 1831, 
975 J in 1841, 905. Houses 148. Pop. of the Forth 
fleetion, in 1831, 18; in 1841, 2:2. Houses 4. Pop. 
of the baronyofCarlow section, in 1831,153; in 1841, 
171- Houses 30. Pop. of the rural diistricts of the 
East Idrone section, in 1831, 520; in 1841, 496. 
Houses 73. Area of the vilUge of Numey, 10 acres. 
^op„ in 1831, 284; in 1841,216. Houses 39. The 
surface is bounded on the west by the Barrow, and 
eoni^bts of a beautiful and fertile portion of that 
river '^ bii-sin. The highest ground is on the northern 
bouftdftfy of the baroAy of iG«ffcw sectftji'w&'Jias 
an ttltitti tie abdve sea-le v\4l of ^643 feet ; and fba iicift 
hifrheft irround is at the ebnreh^ and Ut^ tth idtitMh 
of 344 feet. The seats are :&ndcktbonMs.HbuS^ tM 
Orchard-hoUse.^ TheiuiAsof BsflFy^*u<aistle'AA 
»itusted in the eastw'' Tli^ i^d frdm<Chi^l<yirt^fiii#i 
naktown trasses across the intiEirio^.<Li-T^t biiisB^fli 
a rectory; tad a>^seperttte beiie^cie, ^ ^i'm/9 
Leighlin. Tithe •cotafj^sitioB' and' ^ri^ii"fi 
£230 15*. 4!d; ; neiti £200 iSs', 9^. PtrtH)*; 

di oceean . Tbe cburcb k situated at fhe villegi^, 1 

was built in 179l,by meaiw df a'gift or«46I lOl?: 
9i± &o«u the late Board of FHrst I'riilt^; ildd'il 
doimtion of dC646 3s. Id. frotn'Cdl. Bhien. 8« '' " 
aOO; atteridaace 70. lif '4834; tb^' Pi-O 
SDiount^ to 114, andiihh Jloknan'Oiit^fi6ft t6|l 
and t wa Protostkill pah^chlal t):hob^ wtere sitpv 
by ffiibsciifrtion^' and bad on tbeit' l)ookS^'bd9s^ t 
40 girU. - . ■ • •• . • =/'' . •!.* 

NUBNBY, a parish In the bafonv of Caiplter^,'>fl 
mile* north-north- west of the village of (^>i*r^;My 
Kildare, Leinster. Length, tiofth by' We« ' 
ndles ; eSEtreme breadth, 1}; areo^ 2,l3toN 
rood, 18 perches. Pop., in 1831, 685^ in 1841; ^f.^ 
Hquw» 110. The sur&ce includes a conddetfabK^ 
proportion of bog ; ye* prevailinglv consists f^ ailaUlf 
land; nnd averages in annual value'' aboat{2|jSs. 
plantation acre. The highest grduhd is'bn 
northern boundary, and has dil altitude of 408 ftel 
above sea- level. - The extreAiity of a northw^lftif 
wing: is touched by the river Boyne, and ttie miU' 




hoAf H dndmd toutliwBrd by tbe rfVAleir Garr. 
Tbe §mU are Nurney-houae and Wflliamston-bouse. 
The chief antiquities are the ruins of otie castle and 

the site of another This parish is a vicaraKe, and 

part of the benefice of CAtTLE-CARVERT [which 
aee], hi the dio. of Kildare. The vicarial tithes are 
conipouiided for £29 8s. 3d., and the rectorial for 
£44 lOs. 8^: ; and the latter are impropfiate in the 
Marquis of Dowfishire. The Roduin Catholic chapel 
has an attendance of 950 ; and, in the Roman Catholic 
parochial arrangement, is uMted to the chapels of 
Cadamstown ami BalKnadrimna. In 1884, the Pro- 
testants amounted to 44, and the Roman C&tholics 
to 647; and a daily school was salaried with £8 
from the Nationid Board, and had on its books 64 
bova and 54 girls. 

NURNEY, a parish, containing a village of the 
aame name, in the barony of West Ophely, 3| miles 
south by west of Kildare, co. Kildare, Leinster. 
Length and breadth, each 1} mile; area, 1,79B 
acres, 1 rood, d4 perches. Pop., in 1881, according 
to tiM Census, 9ji0, but according to the Ecdesias. 
tical Authorities, 622; in 1841, 785. Houses 122. 
ArM of the village. 22 acres. Pop., hi 1841, 189. 
Houses 21. The sarfrce prevailingly consists of 
light land, but has a well cultivated, wooded, 
and a wann appearance. The demesne of Numey- 
bcHise is the principal feature, and a height in that 
demeoM, 960 feet in altitude above sea^level, is the 
highest groimd. The road from Kildare to Athy, 
and that from Calverstown to Monastereven, inter- 

sect each other in the interior. Iti tlte vicfnity of 

the village is an old castle This parish is a rectory, 

in the dio. of Kildare. Tithe composition, £87 13s. 
9id. The rectories of Nume^, Kildangan, and 
Waltkrstowic [sec these articles], constitute the 
benefice and prebend of Nomey. Length, 4| milM ; 
breadth, 2^. Pop., in 1831, 1,042. Gross incomb, 
£196 18s. Old.; nett, £182 is. 3id. Patron, the 
diocesan. The incumbent holds also the offices 6f 
first canon in the cathedral of Kildare, and surro^te 
in Kildare consistorial court. A curate received a 
salary of £75. A new chorch was recently com- 
pleted in Walterstown. The Roman dathbUc 
chapels of Numey and Kildangan have an attendah<*e 
of respectively 660 and 1,000; and, in the Roman 
Catholic parochikl arrangement, are united to ftifi 
chapel of Monastereven. In 1834, the Protestants 
of the parish amounted to 51, and the Roman Catb^o- 
lics to 581 ; the Protestants of the union to 65, ari^ 
the Roman Catholics to 005 ; and there was iip 

NYMPH. BANK, a great fishing.batik off t)^ 
south coast of Munster. It lies at the mean distance 
of about 7 leagues from the shore ; and Extends from 
14 to 20 leagues east-north-eastward, from a poiHt 
opposite Cape-Clear and Mizen Head, in co. Cork, 
to a point south-east of the harbour of Diingarvan,|Ui 
CO. Waterford. It is supposed to afford an inexhau|t« 
ible supply of cod, ling, and other fish ; and, if pro- 
perly fished, might be made to yield a great accejl- 
sion of wealth to the southern parts of the kingdom. 


OAOHILL, or Oohiu., a village in the island 
and parish of Arramnore, barony of Arran, co. GaU 
way, Connaufht. It stands a little north of the 
ceotre of the island, 1^ mile west -north -west of 
Kilronw; and is the site of a Roman CathoMc ehapd, 
and of the lighthouse of the Arran islands. Pop. 
not spccisllir returned. 

OiKPORT, a lake in tha barony of Boyle, co. 
Roaoonmoiip Connaught. It is an expansion of the 
BcgrU river, midway between Louffh*liey and the 
fihannon ; it oseasvea 2 milea in leoglh, and ^ a 
■Oe m aartreme breadth; and it lies.diiefly in the 
pariah of Ardcam, but oartly bttwten that or Tumna 
on the left and that ot Killukin on tiie right. The 
dcsaasnc of Oakport, William Molloy» Esq., slid a 
ckain of snail lakes, called Oerreea, Laanarlv, and 
Black, lie along the right side of Lough Oakport. 
This lake forms part of the Boyne narigwtion, which 
was proposed by the Shannon Commissionera to be 
Bade practicable for river-craft to the near rididty 
of the town of Boyle. 

O^BRAZIL. 8ee Ht-Brazil. 

0*BRENNAN, a parish in the barony of Trugh- 
eaackay, 3^ miles north-west by north of Tralee, 
CD. Kerry, Munster. Length, south - south - west- 
ward. 3 miles; extreme breadth, 1^; area, 6,547 
acm. Pop., in 1831, 847; in 1B41, 992. Houses 
154. Most o( the surfiure consists of part of the 

9tadcB Biountains This parish is a rectory, and a 

aeparata btnefiot, in the dio. of Ardfert and Agha- 
doa. Tithe conpoMtion and grout inoonie, £G9 4s. 

7d. ; nett, £65 •Os. lO^d. Patron, the diocesan. 
There, is no church or chapel ; but the parishioner^ 
are suf&ciently near Tralee to bave easy access t» 
the plaecs-of worship in that tbwn. In 1834, tha 
Protestants amounted to 18, and the Romaa Cathi 
olicsto811. ! 

0'BRIEN'fr.BRIDOE, a parish in the barony 'Of 
Lower Talla, co. Clare» Munster. It contains IIm 
vilkses of Bridoetown and O'fiRiEN'a-BiaiKje^^'. 
whidi see. Length, southward, 6 aiiles } breadths 
from ^ to3i; area, 11,435 acres, S9 perches,.^-or 
which 3,772 acres, 2 roods, 19 perchea form a de- 
tached district of 3 miles bv 2, lying | of a mil« 
west-south-west of the south- western extremity «f 
the main body, and 56 acres, 1 rood, 23 perches aiw 
in the river Shannon. Pop., in 1841, or the WhoH% 
4,995 ; of the rural districts, 4,349. Houses in tlMT 
whole, 814 ; in the rural districts, 700. The northw 
em and narrow district of the main bodv, down to^a 
point a little south of the centre, is almost wholly 
mountainous and waste ; and contaiiiH three heights 
of respectively 1,729, 1.458, and 1,181 fretof alti. 
tude above sea-level. The western part of the de- 
tached district is also conKiderably upland, and hat 
at its extremity a height of 875 feet of altitude above 
sea-level. The other districts, though occatiionally 
warmed into pleasantness with wood and cultiva- 
tion, prevailingly consist of poor and sand^- land. 
The Shannon bomids the east fide of the inani body 
over a distance of I J mile ; and contains the island 
of InniiiUMky. The Inchaloghogt rindet bouMla 




the norfiiem extremity of the main body ; gnd runf 
there upon on elevatioo of 675 feet aboFe sea-level. 
A riiriilet which bounds most of the east side of the 
main iMidy to Ike Shannon, descends, while on the 
boundary, from an elevation of 518 feet. The ham- 
lets in the parish are Ballyroursher, Monaglee, Bal. 
lydaw, and Ballinamona, in the main body, and 
Trough in the detached district. The seats are 
Clonboy-house, Fahv-house, Ross-house, MiUnew, 
Fisher*s-lodge, and ifillbrook, in the main body, and 
Trough-eotta^e in the detached district. The prin- 
cijpal antiquities are the ruins of Aharinagh-caatle, 
or another casde, of Redfield-house, and of a church. 
The road from Kilialoe to Limerick passes through 

the interior This parish was formerly part of the 

parish of Kilialoe, but is now a perpetual curacy, and 
ft separate benefice, in the dio. of Kilialoe. Glebe, 
£4 10s. Gross income, £73 158. Id. ; nett, £71 
18s. Id. Patrons, the dean and chapter of Kilialoe. 
The tithes are appropriated to the patrons. The 
churdi is situated at tne village of 0'Brien*8-Bridge, 
and was built in 1820, by means of a gift of £830 
I5s. 4Ad. from the late Board of First Fruits. Sit- 
tingB 150; attendance 85. The Roman Catholie 
chapels at Bridgetown and Trough have an attends 
ance of respeeUTely 960 and 300. All the other 
statifitii!s are i^ed up with those of the parish of 
KiLLAXOE : which see. 

O'BRIEN'S-BRIDGE, a village in the parish of 
O'Brien's-Bridge, barony of Lower Tulia, co. Clare, 
Munster. It stands on the eastern verge of co. 
Clare, on the right bank of the river Shannon, and 
on the road from KiUaloe to Limerick, li mile east- 
south-east of Bridgetown, 2k north of Castle-Con- 
nel, 4 south-south-west of Kilialoe, and 6^ north- 
east by north of Limerick. The bridge which gives 
name to the village stands across the Shannon, and 
has at its east end, in co. Limerick, the village of 
MoNTPKLiER : which see. The arches of the bridge 
are 14 in number, and of various forms and sizes, 
from 19 to 28 feet in span ; the piers are from 7 to 
9 feet in thickness, and appear to have been founded 
upon the surface of the bed of the river, without any 
puing, and at difierent deptiis ; and the roadway is 
18 feet in width, roughly pared with pebbles, and 
protected by a paraph varying from 3 to 4 feet in 
height. The whole bridge is built of rubble stone, 
in rude workmanship ; yet it has, for several cen- 
turies, withstood the action of both the current and 
the atmosphere. '* The velocity of the current at 
this bridge during the month en November laat,** 
says an official report of t^e engineer, Mr. Rhodes, 
In 1832, " ¥ras up>vards of 3 miles per hour, calcu* 
latm 800 feet above and 750 feet below the bridge, 
whi(» was performed in six minutes. Immediately 
under the bridge, the velocity was 5 miles per hour, 
kM the fall about 10 inches. The 4 arches next the 
north abutment being so very narrow (vis. 19» 23, 
:S8, and 26 feet), ren&rs Ihe navigation exoeedin|[ly 
dangerous to liveti and property, and it is surprising 
th$f no mof^ accidents nappen. Vessels laden with 
merehaMise are obliged to stop here for a consider- 
tkble 'Ifme, for the purpoae of being warped up 
dirMgh the arches by a capstem, which is placed 
upbn a pie^ projecting into the river 50 feet ; and by 
means of a block alBxed to a floating buoy in the 
river, leading in a Ime with the large or fourth arch : 
a rope is dropped through this arch and listened to 
the vessel, arHl being siready attached to the cap* 
stern; she to by 8 or 10 men (according to the resist- 
ance of the* water), hauled through the arch ; this 
mechanical operation causes great delay, and not 
without serious risk. To reniedy this great incon- 
venienoe and risk to lives and property, 1 would pro- 
pose taking down the four arches at the north end of 

the bridge with the land abutment, and the three in- 
termediate piers towards the centre ; to dredge the 
bed of the river to at least 7 feet below the bwest 
summer* water, and build the land abutment and 
track- way for horses, and a centre pier, capable of re- 
ceiving two arches of CO feet span each, composed 
of timber or iron. These arches should be flat, and 
the segment of an ellipse which would be capable of 
allowing the canal vessels to pass at all heights of 
the river : I should also propose to take away the cap- 
stem and its pier, deepening the side of the river 
from the bridge to about 200 feet above this pier, and 
bringing the retaiuiog wall forwards, or into the 
river 10 feet at the bridge, and diminishing to the 
present line at 700 feet upwards." All these recom- 
mendations have not be^ carried into efiect ; but, 
in the course of 1844, 7 arches at the co. Limerick 
end of the bridge were removed* and 6 of 27 feet 
span each substituted for them. A quay 700 feet in 
length was also completed, and a lay-by formed. 
Fairs are held at the village on July 25, and Nov. 7. 
Area, 20 acres. Pop., in 1831, 350; in 1841, 435. 
Houses 73. Families employed chiefl)r in agricul- 
ture, 38; in manufactures and trade, 32; in other pur- 
suits, 14. Families dependent chiefly on property and 
professions, 4; on the directing of labour, 34; on 
their own manual labour, 41 ; on means not speci- 
fied. 5. 


ODAGU. See Odoqh. 

ODDER, a quondam parish m the barony of 
Skreen, 1^ mile south -south -west of Tara, and 4 
north-west by north of Dunshaughlin, co. l^&eath, 
Leinster. It was an impropriate rectory, in tiie dio. of 
Meath ; but is now identified with the southern dis- 
trict of the parish of Tara. Two objects whidb still 
bear its name are Odder-castle and Odder-cottage. 
A nunnery for regular canonesses of the order of 
St. Augustine, was founded here by the fkmily of 
Bamew^ ; and it had annexed to it several celu in 
CO. Meath. Margaret Silke, the last abbess, sur- 
rendered the nunnery and its possessions in the 31 st 
year of Henry Vlll. 

ODOGH, or THBEB-CASTUBf , a parish, 3 miles 
east-south-east of Freshford, and partly in the barony 
of Fassadining, but chiefly in that of Cranagh, co. 
Kilkenny, Leinster. Length, south -soutJi- west- 
ward, 3 miles ; extreme breadth, 2|. Area of the 
Fassadining section, ^ acres, 3 roods, 25 perches ; 
of the Cranaffh section, 4,113 acres, 26 perdhes. 
Pop. of the wnole, in 1831, according to the Census, 
1,323, but acoordmg to the Ecclesiastical Authoii- 
ties, 1,367; in 1841, 1.402. Houses 230. Pod. of 
the Cranagh section* in 1841, 1,1 80. Houses idl. 
The surface consists of a fertile and pleasant part of 
the valley of the Nore ; apd is drained southward, 
nearly through the centre, by that river, — and east- 
ward, along part of the northern boundary, by tho 
rivulet Nuenna. The only seat is Odogh, or Thr^ 
Castle-house, the residence ^ Mr^ Lawrenson. The 
diief antiquities are the ruins of two churches Ium3 
two castles. The road from Freshford to Kilkenny 
passes through the interior, and is overlooked by a 
constabularv station. — This parish is a vicarage, in 
the dio. of Ossory. Vicarial tithe compontion, 
£100; fflebe, £60. The rectorial tithes are eom- 
pounded for £200; and are impropriate in the Tynti 
or Colville fiimily. The vicarages of Odogh and 
DoNAGUMORE, and the rectory of CoolcbarksIi 
[see these articles], constitute the benefice of O^ogh. 
The united parishes are not mutually contiguous. 
Pop., in 1831, 4«644. Gross income, £430; nett, 
£330 78. 6id. Patron, alternatelv the Ctown and 
the diocesan. The incumbent holds also the perpe> 




tuil curacy of 8t. Mary'e of Kilkenny, and it ren- 
dent in that dty. A curate for Odof^h receives a 
fudary of £S7» and the use of house, npuden, and 16 
acres of rieKe. The church was buiH in 1796, by 
means of a gift of £461 lOi. ^d. from the late 
Board of First Fruits: and repaired in 1826, by 
means of a loan of £106 Ss. Of d. from Robert Len- 
nigan, Esq. Sittings 150; attendance, from 60 to 
aO. The Three-Castle Roman Catholic chapel has 
an attendanoe of from TOO to8U0 ; and, in the Roman 
Catholic parochial airangement, is united to the 
chapels of Fresbferd and Tullaroan. There is a 
Roman Catholic c)M^>el also at Ballyragget in Don« 
aghmore. In 1884» the Protestants ot the parish 
amounted to 40, and the Roman Catholics to 1,354; 
the Protestants of the union to 123, and the Roman 
l^atbolics to 4,627 ; a Sunday school in the parish 
was usually attended by about 20 children ; 6 pay 
daily scbools in the parish — one of which received 
some aid from the incumbent — had an average attend- 
ance of about 280 children ; and there were 13 daily 
schools in the two other members of the union. 

O'DONOHOE'S-PRISON, a perpendicular rock, 
rising 80 feet above the surface of the water, in the 
Lower Lsko of Rillamey, 2| furlongs east of In- 
nisfidlen, and 1| mile south-west of Killamey, co. 
Ker^, Monster. It does not seem to possess sufficient 
soil for the support of any larger jdants than lichens ; 
yet its summit displays a luxunant growth, and a 
rich and matted foliage of the ash, the holly, and 
the arbutus, shooting from the fissures of the rock. 
** The tradition relative to O'Donohoe," says the 
author of the Guide to Rillamey, *^ states him to 
have been a man of gigantic stature, warlike bold- 
ness and ^reat bodily strength : upon this rock the 
roost obstinate of his enemies were doomed to perish 
by cold or fiunine, or were bound in fetters until 
tbe^ acknowledged submission to his will. His 
native historians relate, that being pursued by a 
number of enemies, upon one oceaoon, his charger, 
in atteoutting to cross his morass, sunk below 
the saddle-lx»w, upon which the herculean rider 
dismounted, and placing a stone under each of his 
feet, pulled his gallant steed completely out by the 
ears. • • • • The memory of his snow-white 
steed ^ is perpetuated by a rock, not unlike a horse 
drinking, near the shores of Mucrusa, which pre- 
serves the name of O'Donohoe's horse." 

O'DORNEY, a parish in the barony of dan- 
maurice, 4| miles north of Tndee, co. Kerry, Mun- 
ster. It eontains the village of Abdeydornbt : 
whidi see. Length, south-westward, 3^ miles; 
breadtK 1}; area, 7,227 acres. Pop., in 1831, 
gJB6; in 1841, 3,1^. Hcmses 443. Pop. of the 
rural fistricts, in 1881. 2,648; in 1841, 2,724. 
Hoosea 3B6. The surfiwe includes part of the north- 
era skirts of the Stacks mountains, and a large por- 
tioo of the upper section of the vale of the Brick. 
An old abbey of some monastic celebrity stood in 
the parish, but has been noticed in the article on 
ABBETDoavET. In 1537, Edmund, the llth Lord 
of Kerry, was created Baron of 0*Dome])r, and 
VUcount Kilmaule This parish is a wholly impro- 
priate rectory and vicarage, in the dio. of Ardfert 
and Aghadoe. There is no church ; and the occa- 
sioual duties are performed bv the curate of Kilflyn. 
The Roman Catholic chapel has an attendance of 
5U0. In 1834, the Protcittants amounted to 34, and 
the Roman Catholics to 3,160 ; and 3 hedge-schools 
had on their books 145 boys and 50 girls. 

OFF A. See Irrx. 

OFFALV. See Ophaly. 

OFFERLANF^, a parish in the barony of Upper- 
wood#, 34 miles west -south -west of Mountrath, 
Queen's co., Leinster. It is identical in extent with 

the barony of Upperwoods» and contains the vil- 
lages of Castletown and Cooukain : which see. 
Length, south-south-eastward, d} miles; extrema 
breadth, 8 ; area, 48,026 acres, 3 roods, 14 perches^ 
Pop., in 1831, 9,015; in 1841, 10,401. Houses 
1,670. Pop. of the rural districts, in 1831, 9i224 ; 
in 1841, 9,896. Houses 1,571. The western and 
the northern borders, each to the breadth of from l^ 
to 2 miles, consist of a main portion of the eastern 
division of the Slievebloom mountains; and at their 
extremities, or on the boundary-lines of the parish, 
are three summits of respectively 1,676, 1,681, ana 
1,733 feet of altitude above sea>level. The southr 
em border is hilly or rather moorish, and has a sum^ 
rait of 469 feet of altitude above sea-level. The 
eastern border and some portions of the interior con- 
tain a considerable aggregate of bog. The remain- 
ing districts consist of arable and pasture lands of 
various qualities, and present considerable tracts of 
pleasantly-featured and agreeably -dressed surfEurOf 
The river Nore runs across the southern districts 
and, though here but a brief way below its source, 
and not unjustly characteriied as a rapid and turbu^ 
lent stream, it enters the parish upon an elevation 
of only 323 feet above sea-level. The oblef of the 
numerous rivulets which rise among the Slieve- 
Uoom Doountains, and descend from the western 
and the northern borders to the >iore> are the Ton^j 
net, the Detour, the Gortin, and the Alountn^th. 
The principal seats are Rockview-house, Springhil)* 
house, Castleview, Mamdn-house, Newtown-^ouse^ 
Moorfield- house, Rush-halUcourt, PeafieId-h«Hise, 
Brookfield- house, Mondrehid* house, the Lodge, 
Danesfbrt-house, Haselpit-house, Laurel-hill, Alta- 
villa, Shanderry, Coolrain-house, Coolnaaour, Bad- 
gerhill- house, Derrynaseera, Grossbrook, Mount- 
Salem, GiHfield- house, Tinnakill- house, North- 
grove-house, Ashgrove-house, Lacka-house, Deer* 
park -house, Cardtown- house, Mountainy- houses 
Moran's-grove, Sallybrook, Westficld^m» Dinore, 
and Roundwood, — the last three the seats of 
respectively J. R. Price, Esq., M. W. Despard^ 
Esq., and Mr. Hamilton, The principal antL. 
quitios are the ruins of the castles of Sraban^ 
Mondrokid, and Castletown. Sir Oliver Morres* 
the quondam possessor of these castles, and lora 
of the portion of ancient Ossory in which they 
are situated, is the subject of a nooreeau of kia* 
tory intimately comieeted • vrith the name of the 
modem district of Offerlane. " Sir Oliver Morres, 
styled MaeMorres, Lord of Muinagh of Lateragk, 
&c., and Baron de Montemariseo bv desoent,"* savt 
Mr. Brewer, ** was a person of mucn power in the 
county of Tipperary, and chief of tbe AnglorKorman 
ftraily of Mbntmorencv. He married Lady Ellice, 
daughter of Peter, Earl of Ormond, and was actively 
engaged in suppressing the sept of Fitapatrick, under 
the auspices or the noble house with whi<^ he had 
formed an alliance. Sir Oliver was eldest son and 
heir of Sir John, and grandson of Sir James Morres» 
of Thorny, Lateragh, Knockagh, &c.. Knight Ban- 
neret, by Lucia, daughter to Kdmond Arundel, 
styled Lord Arundel of the Stronde, county of 
Cork, a younger brother of Sir John Arundel, Lord- 
marshal of England, and the son of Sir John Arun- 
del the elder, by Eli2atbeth his wife, daughter to Sir 
Oli\*er Carroinow, of Cornwall and Devonshire, Knt. 
by Elizabeth his wife, daughter to John Holland, 
Duke of Exeter, and Elizabeth Plantagenet, dau^- 
ter to John, Duke of Lancaster and king of Castile, 
fourth son of King Edward III. Sir Oliver Mae- 
Morres is described as having been a man of gigan- 
tic stature, and of surprising bodily strength ; which 
circumstances, ioined to an undaunted course, pro- 
cured for him the lasting Irish soubriquet of ^]4ar- 




l^ogkwi'^^WhLagkaHt *th« Iproad maa Uoa.* Even 
mi this time the- portion ot Ossory, formerly pQ»- 
setaed by Sir Oliver, and in which the casile of 
Cwtletown is utuated, it often called O'ffarlaglum 
parish. It may be observed, that to this period of 
history we must refer the war-cries or mottoes of 
the Fitapatricks, and of the Morres family of Bally- 
jriekardrMorres and Ratblin, in the countvof Tipper- 
ary, Sir Oliver's sole descendants ; the torroer being 
JFeMr-ladir-aboo, 'the strong man uppermost,' and the 
latter FearUfofhan^hoo^ *the man lion uppermost.' 
Amongst many tales of marvel, still locally current 
feespecting the strength and courage of Sir Oliver, 
we are told that, shortly after he had gained possea- 
Mon of this castle, the dynast of Ossory, Bamaby 
Fitspatrick entered the place by stratagem, at the 
bead of a partv of his vassals. The completion of 
Fitzpatriek's design was, however, defeated ; fbr 
Bcaroely had he passed the castle-gate, when the 
lion chief seized him in his arms, and hurled him 
down the tremendous precipice upon which the 
fortress stands, overhanging the river More. It is 
added that he cast his horse down after him.".^ 
This parish is a vicarage, and a separate benefice, in 
the dio. of Ossory. Vicarial tithe composition, £dOO; 
glebe, £318 8s. 9d. Gross income, £618 8s. 9d. ; 
nett, £684 Us. 9d. Patron, the diocesan. The 
incnmbcnt holds also the benefices and rectories 
which constitute the corps of the deanery of 8t. 
Canioe* cathedral; he holds likewise the sinecure 
pecentorship of Waterfbrd cathedral ; and he resides 
m the city of Kilkenny. The rectorial tithes of 
Offerlane are compounded (or £600, and are appro- 
priated to the deanery of St. Canice' cathedral. Two 
curates receive each a salary of £75. The church 
was quite recently built, by means of contributions 
of £1,211 7s. M. from the EcdesSastieal Commis- 
sioners, and £324 from private parties. Sitting 
400 ; attendance 200. Another place of meeting is 
sAso used aa a parochial place of worship, and has an 
attendance of 80; The Roman Catholic chapels 
at Comross, Castletown, Rush-hall, and Killenore, 
have an attendance of respectively 1,300, 1,000, 700, 
aAd 500; and, in the Roman Catholic parochial 
arrangement, they are mutually united, and are 
itoder the care of 3 oflhnates. In 1834, the parish* 
xmers consisted of 1,334 Churchmen. 46 Protestant 
dissenters, and 8,788 Roman Catholics ; 2 Sunday 
idiools were usually attended by about 75 children ; 
and 8 daily schools — one of which was aided with 
£6'iuyear from ihe Society for the Suppression of 
Vice,' and £5 from the dean of Ossory, one with some 
advantaffes fW>m Mr. Kemans, one with £8 from the 
National Board, and £6 from the Ladies Fitzpatrick, 
Ml -^ were In connection with the Kildare Place 
S6cictv— had on their books 393 boys and 237 g5fls. 
Thfe Offerlane dispensary is within the Abbeyleiif 
Pbor-law union, and 'serves for a district containing 
8 pop. of 7,315; and, in 1839, it expended £136 68. 
and admini^rtered to 2,100 patients. 

OGASHIN, a sinecure benefice in the county of 
ClfflTe, and diocese of Klllaloe, Munster. It consists 
<tf the rectories of Qdin, Clonib, Dowruk, Kil- 
RjidHtEB, XuLMcmiiTKEGAu TEX)PLtrAAi«T, and 
1*ttL|:A: see these Krtides. ' Gro^s income, £48^ 
>38. lOjd. f. hctt, £458 lOs, 4d: Patron, the Earl 
of EffOirHWt. 
OGint'L: See OActoLL.' 
OGONl^ELLO.E, or O'Gokilloe, a parish in the 
barony of Lotirer tuUa, 3i miles north by west of 
Killaioe, co. Clare, Munster. Iiength, south by 
westward, 4 miles ; extreme breadth, 3} ; area, 9,9& 
acres, 2 roods, 9 perches, —of which 3,353 acres are 
in Lough Derg. Pop., in 1831, 2,966; in 1841, 
3,162. Houses 497. The limits include the south 

aide of Scariff bay» and the west side of the lower 
part of I Lough Uetg, from that bay down to within 
^ miles of Killaloii. The territorial surface con- 
sists, for the roost part, of hmd of a light gravelly 
I soil, tolerably good for Ullages but, to some extent, 
: is either boggy ground, or cold, mountainous up- 
j land, but a degree superior to mere wilderness. 
Knocknalicka, and another height on the western 
I boundary, have altitudes above sea-level of respec- 
tively 816 and 1,019 feet; and a height at the Ro- 
roan Catholic chapel has an altitude of 600 feet. 
The principal islands in Lough Derg belonging to 
Ogonnelloe are Cahir IsUmd, Lashog^Rocka, Crow 
Island, Ulaunaskagh, Swan Island, Cormorant Mand, 
and Ocat<Ialand. The chief seat ia Tinaraba* house ; 
the chief hamleta are Annaearriga and Oamagnoe ; 
and the chief antiquities are the ruins of a castle and 
of Aghenish-house. The foad from Killakie to 

Scariff passes through the interior This parish is 

a vicarage, and a separate benefice, in the dio. of 
Killaioe. Vicarial tithe composition, £58 8s. Id. ; 
glebe, £10 10s. Gross inoorae, £102 Ids. Id. ; 
nett, £73 16s. 7id. Patron, the diocesan. The 
rectorial tithes are divided into two portiotia, the 
larger of which is compounded for £78 9s. 2|d., and 
appropriated to iiie sinecure benefice of O'MolIod, 
while the smaller is compounded for £38 15s. 4d., 
and appropriated to the economy fund of Killaioe 
cathedral. The church was built in 1812, bjmeana 
of a gift of £738 9s. 2|d. from the Ute Board of First 
Fruito. Sittmgs 100; attendance 45. The Roman 
Catholic chapel has an attendance of 1,000. In 1834, 
the Protestants amounted to 128, and the Roman 
Catholics to 3,056; a Sunday school was utoally at- 
tended by about 35 children ; and 4 pay daily achodki 
had on their books 190 boys and 105 girls. 
O'GRADY, or Coram, a lake on the mutual bor- 
der of the parishes of Tomgraney and Kilnoe, 1| 
mile west-south-west of Scariff, barony of Upper 
Tolla, CO. Clare, Munster. It measures 7 furlongs 
by 5} ; and has a surfisce-elevation above aea4evel 
of 122 f^et. It receives the united streams of the 
Graney and the Cloghaun rivulfits, and dfediarges Ht 
superfluent waters by the Scariff river. 
OGRAM. See O'Gradv. 
OGULLA, a parish in the barony of Rosooifr- 
mon, 4| miles sou th-south- west of Elphin, co. Roa» 
common, Connaught. ' It contains the post-Tillag« of 
TuLSK : which see. Length, south-south-eastwird, 
4 miles; extreme breadth, 8; area, 6,31^ acres, f 
txKHls, 3 perches, — of which 753 acres, l*rood,'9B 
perches lie detached 2 miles to the east, and 118 
acres, 1 rood. 34 perches are water. Pop., In 1681, 
1,832; in 1641, 1,826. Houses 308. Popf. of tfte 
rural districts, in 1841, 1,698. HonsenttS: Tb« 
land is, for the most part, excellent. The lakflt 
Annaghmore and Corraslira lie on the boundaHea of 
the detached district. The road from RosooqinNMi 
to Boyle, and that from Strokestown to Castlere^ 
intersect each oth^r in the interior of the main bodr. 
The printipal seats are Toonuma and Camn. — Tiua 
parish is a rectory, and pat^t of the benefio6 of El> 
PBI17 [which see], in the dio. of Elphin. Tithe 
composition, £91 4s. 6d. In 1884, the Vto^ika^ 
amounted to 29, and the Roman Cathtiliea tA I,9l7j 
and a hedge.64;hOQl had on iu hboks 20 boVi ahtf 10 
giria. • ' ^ 

OtLGATE, or Otloate. a village lit the'piimh 
of Edermine, barony of Ballaghkeen, to, WctdME; 
Leinster. It stands on the road from Enniseofthj 
to Wexford, I| mile east of the Slaney, 5 south by 
east of Enniscorthy, and 6Jl north-north -w«st of 
Wexford. It has a Roman Catholic chapeljnd a 
constabulary station; and gives name to a 




C>ifbott«'|*riA in^tlns dlA. of - rert8r-"^Thd"<rtfcter 
«bMl of the paiM Mthdi «t OM1>i4hV. ' ^Flilri aHe 
held •I'OHsttVe ^li'MardblS, Mi^il',! A&g. Td; and 
l>€e: 10. • Arta'of ite 'village, lOftbi^. l*op., in 
iaSV,86titi I84M15; Hollies 24. 

OLAVE (Sr.). See Watbrpoko (Co^ukTt or 
*H« Cmr Of). 

OliDBAWK/t bamlet in tbe parish <^ Tiillaglrt, 
barony '<of 'Uppercrom, «o. IHtbibi, Leinster ft 
«6kii^ on asnudl afflaeat of the Dodder» d furlongs 
ipeit «f thM rjfier, and | of a nrile south by West of 
thaTillaM of-Tallacht; ' Here are a paper-mil) and 
tbt Hwof SiloQntaytnew. ) Pop. returned with thte 

OLDB&IDGE, a village in the parish of Dofiore, 
^mmif of 'Loarer Doleelc, 60. Meath, Leinster. It 
■tairfii tta oorthem verge of the county, and on 
tiie-ffi|gftj| laidiar th* BoynJu immediaUly below the 
«ait wa^ddaflection. wtfakihat river makes in reoei ving 
the Mattock; and df mika wQifc by north of Drogb- 
eM. It^ia' celebimtsd no the aona of some of thie 
mnat stitriag'aotioni of the battle of tiia Bdyne. See 
BOTNK. Pap., in ia»l^ 107. Houses 20: 

OJLDCA8TLE, a fishinfr- harbour on the aait 
«aast of Glare Ishuid, tf the mouth of Clew bay* 
te. MAyo, Caraauigltt. The natural harbour u a 
cove ; tn^ the artifidal harbour consists of a breaks 
water, a boat*slip, and a qua?, — the last formed bv 
cutting a mural &ce upon a sloping or shelving rock 
an aiftu Tha oentrAl position of this harbour, near 
the gmi ftshingwbank which extends from Achill to 
IWBSbaffiD^ aad on a lee»shore from the prevailing 
westerly and northr- westerly winds, renders it of 
great iiaportaace for the accommodation of the 6shery, 
and cntiaM it to rank in the first class of fishery 

OLDCA8TLE» or Clotthoe, a povish on the 
north border of the barony of Demifore, and of the 
eottjity of'Meath, I#einster. It contains the post* 
town ai Ouhsabtlb; see next article. length* 
wait » north .westarard, 5 mhs; extreme breadth, 
SI ; area, 7*907 acnas, 3 roods, 33 perehes. Pop., 
ifl 1831. 4.718; in 1841, 5,079. Houses 843. Pop. 
flf tha raral dUtricts, in 1831, 3,13^;* in 1841t 
3,571. Houses 599. The surttce consists, in gen. 
eraU of very good land« . The highest grqufid 10. at 
tha^ircfi, and h4s en altitude ^ 372 feet, above 
as^deval. The aeats aft AliUbrook, StonefieldT 
ktmm, JUtqatfield-house, andi Newca»Ue*hau8e,.^he 
V— •1m» — -P^i*-"-i. of ThonvM Bflttersby, Esq . The 
riMnHkiUi^Ji, by wny of Moiint- 

jlhf aiC#rior..^^Thi% pnri^h ii a vica^ugr, in the dig, 
fl^ Heath. Vicnrml til he coi^poiMtbD, £UM $^,3iLi 
xlsba, JCi^ The tecutrjtA tithr^ arq i^pipouoded 
iorilBti t6s.$|d^, ai>4 arc ]mpr«>[innte jti the Mltr- 
fu oT We5iti»eftth* The Yjnifflije* of OIJi'«i^tl« 
wA iuiJtaiPK. [t^a thftt artidojt constitute the 
hiM^eit of Oldca^tk, Lefigtfa, 12 mile> ; breadth. 
a, Pop, ill mi. 9,^76. Oro^ iucome, JDKJI 
i3». ,' mx% £t\0$ ifw, Bd, Tmoof hvtd Dutuany. 
Tvm rMntt*, for the t*o nariiihe* qf Ihe mioih r«^ 
mr« €*fih a takty of £7^- the churrh of Old- 
pnib MM h^U in ]@16. by mean» of & lomi oTXUSS 
Isl. Ii^4* Uvcn UiQ Ut€ Board of Fir^^ Fruits. Sit. 
Mfig« 400 ; ^CtcndftnrCf ab^fijt '30()* There is a cWrph 
aV* la KJlbndr. Tkv MeJthfidUt meetin^-hou^iehas 
tt i:uiTda/ice of from 50 tn 140, The ftomRri Calbo- 
bc chapei has an atUnda^e pf i^9in^2,gQ0 .to, 3,qQ0 ; 
■Hi^ in ihe Bod^an X;atlM^ {laro^hial afrahj^ement, 
is anttcd to the diapel^of toughorew. Jn 1834> the 
frotcstants of the pan^b amounted to 506, and, the 

• Tki4 iacliMWfl Um iMJnlet id UvilaMOiKn, wiiich cdDtained, 
fai USl, m fCf^ of A5, and is not aoticed in ths Cqusui of U»ll. 

Hoihan C(itht>19^ 'f^' 4,368; d • MMJkjtti^ Mtdi^ 
sdiool frtis usuanyMt^nded By aboht 96^^ ^hildrei^ 
UnA 6'daily schooIs^^-Mie'vyf whieh'^as a Me Mhool 
for hoys' tad igifls, brnlt on a fre© site frdin Mr. WaS. 
friet of Lbugb^i-ew, and supported hy about £700 

E*T annam, arising from a bequest in property froM 
aurence Oilson, Ew^'.^had on their books OMboyfe 
and 5i5 girls. In 1843, the National BoM had 4 
tehoo) in Oldciistle '#t)vkhou^. - ' . 

OLDCASTliC, a smell Market and post town 
in the parish of Oldcalrtle, barony of Demiibre, eo'. 
Metith, Leinster. It stands on tne road from Duh- 
lin to Killef^andra, and on that from Csbtle-PolUird 
to-Bailieborough,' 5 miles sonthieast of Mount-Nu^ 
gent, 5t 80iitb.<Bbiith-w»8tof flrginia, 7f north-east 
bv north of OastlewPolIand, 10 west^north^weBt df 
'KcHs, 13 north-West of- Atbboy, and 41t|inorth.weat 
of Dublin. ' The estates of Mn Napier Aromd the 
town exhibit results of patriotie care and agricuHural 
improremeiit, which both have |r<^atly enfaanoed 
their own value and appearance, and are actings be* 
nigtily by way of example npon Surrounding propers 
ties. The town contains a oomfiDrtaUe inn aiid->a 
good posting^ eatablishment ; and nnay be advanti- 
Mftously adopted as head-quarters m visiting the 
Mkia of Westmeath, and the interesttrig country 
within tMr catchment basins. The puMic build* 
ings are the pariahrchurch, tha lletbomst meeting* 
' house, the lUnnaa GathoUc chapel, and the endowed 
\ school-houses,— the last lorming a fine architeetucal 
feature in the town, containing aecoromodation for 
about 1,000 children, and offenag their advantages 
to families of all reUgious denoeainationa. Near the 
town are extensive oora-mills. A weekly market ia 
held on Monday, and is the largest for yam in the 
county; and fairs are held on Feb. 87» April 10^ 
May 15, June 12, Jufy 10, Oct. aS, and Dec. IS. 
A court of petty-sessions is h^ 00 the second Mon« 
day of every month. The town has a savings' bank 
and a loan fund; and» in 184]* the latter possessed % 
capital of £1,190, circulated £5,628 in 1,640 loans» 
cleared a nett profit of £129 6s. Od., and expended 
for charitable purposes £55 5s. 

The Oldcastle Poor-law- uniop ranks as the. 96th, 
and was declared on Jan. 6, 1840. It comprises 
portions of t^ counties of Meath, Westmeath, and 
CnUv^Lii} arqouijtiiig to iiit ariMi af UH,,'if>i sicrvs^ aiid 
contaiDiii^T i^ 1631, jl pop. of 46t0t>0. Iti decto^ 
r«l dimion^i together witn th«ir re»|i€ctive pop.^ in 
1331, nre, into, Atcatt. Crossakepl, 1,828 j KjDsllon* 
1,7^; Uugbc?rew, 1.344; ^oylfl^b, 2»4fil ; KiU 
bftgh, 2,2^21; (wil QjJcHistle, 5,^Jt}0;— in co, Wc^U 
meAth»Cast1a-PoUttrj1, 0,39:2; uiul Fore, 3,21!^; — 
Bind ti) CO. Ceivaitf MunUtconnf^ughU 2,9^; Vb^ 
gii|i% 6,387 ; C4k*ftle^Eagb*in, 5, ISO; Ball nam e«duff. 
4,444 ; aiid Kilbri4«, 4,039. The number of ex* 
otTjLTO ^untdimis is 7i «T>d of eltcled guardiunf \f 
21 ; and of the latter, 3 are elected by the divisioQ 
of Virjpjuat 2 hy each of the divi\iori» oW>lJca4tl£» 
Caistle -Pollard, Fgte^ CftMlf-Hsgh^, BftU>j«ai«*- 
dp^« and Kilbride^ and I b^ ejHb of tb« other ^n- 
sions. The diviiiow^ of QMcjiatk, KiUettgh, Moj-, 
l^gtt, Lou^hcr^w, and KiHaUon* are \n the >1«»th 
btu-ony of DegoifpTfl; CfOiiftaked is in Dem;forc and 
llppttf Re lb; CftstU-Pnllaj-d is in the We*tmea|h 
biw-^n^ of pcwif^f^ ; for^ ifi jxj Demifore and D*lvin;, 
\funterc<^naii|irht, VTrj^nia, anfT'CaHtTe-fWb&D, ai1( 
the barony of Ca* tl«'-Rf^jhw> } , P*ll>jjiin^*JiJfr ^ ,in 
Vam t Ic - Rfl^h m and l^ppy , t ciuglii^e, ; and K iibc*fl« 
i^ in ("lonmaWn. The n amber of valued, lenementi 
ITI the rastle-Rs^ban distrirt*,!?* 5,437» i» the Clon-, 
muboM iH«trirt*540. in theUpjxT Loughte*^ diatrict* 
no, in thi! Mt?Ath Dcmiforr ilI-^frTrtt I.^T'T, in the 
I'pper Kelts dlntricts 81. in the Pelvin di»tncts 173, 
in the Westmeath Demifore districts 8M, in tha 




whole union, 5,001^; and Of tblt total, 2,469 were 
valued under £5, — 1,412, under £10,-.-666, under 
£15,-356, under £20,-105, under £25;— 99, un- 
der £80,-142, under £40,-66, under £50,— and 
244, at and above £50. The total nett annual value 
of the prooerty rated is £79,841 ; the total number 
of persons rated is 5,609 ; and of these, 699 were 
rated for i valaation not exceeding £l,-i-592, not 
exceeding £2,-403, not exceeding J^,— 409, not 
exceeding £4,— and 392, not exceeding £5: The 
workhouse was contracted for on Sept. 3, 1840,— to 
be completed in Dee. 1841,— to cost £5,975 for 
building and completion, and £1,119 lOs. lOd. for 
fittings and contingencies,'— to occupy a site of 7 
acres, 1 rood, 6 perches, obtained for £562 lOs. of 
purchaso'-money, and £42 I3s. 2d. of oompentotion 
to ooctipylng tenant, — and to contain accommoda- 
tion for 600 paupers. * The date of the first admis- 
sion of paupiers was Aug. 12, 1842; the total ex* 
penditure thence till Feb. 6, 1848, wm £1,461 8h. 
8d.; and the total previous 'expenditure was £897 
9b. 2d. The number of pauper inmates on Dec. 2, 
1843, was 258. The meditel' charities within the 
union are a fever hospital at Castle- Pollard, and dis-i 
pensaries at Badlyjamesduff, Castle-Pollafd, CrOMa;- 
keel. Mount- Nugent, Oldcastte, and Virginia; and, 
in 1839-40,; thev received £881 20. 3d. fVom aub- 
scriptibn, and £316 16s. 3d. from public grants, 
expended £374 in salaries to medicdl officers, £160 
Is. 6d. for medicines, and £125 18fl. 4d. for con- 
tingencies, and adtaninistered to 62 intern and 7i277 
extern Mtients. The Oldcastle dispensary serv^ 
for a district of 26,970 acres, ynth. a pop, of 
11,026; and, in 1839-40, it expended £103, and ad- 

ministered to '825 patients Area of the town of 

Oldcastle, 48 acres. Pop., in 1831, 1,531 ; in 1841, 
1,508. Houses 244. Families employed chiefly ia 
agricdlture, 88 ; in manufactures and trade, 154 ; in 
other pursuits, 50. Families dependent diiefly on 
property and profeMions,* 12; on the directing of 
labour, 155; on their own manual labour, 117; on 
means not specified, 8. 


OLD OONNELL. See Connbll (Old), 

OLDCOURT, a demesne in the parish of Bray, 
4 of a mile south of the town of Bray, barony of 
Rathdown, co. Wicklow, Leinkter, It is the pro- 
perty and residence of Major Edwards, the descend- 
ant of Ridhard Edwards, Esq., a Welsh gentlenran, 
to whom it was granted in the rei^ of Charles 11. 
An old and lofty square tower, which gave name to 
the demesne, oVeniangs a pleasant and romantio 
brook;- and forms i^ picturesque object. Sir Thomas 
Mutoo, the builder of this tower, was an English 
kirigbt in the rliign of Henry VI. ; he obtained a 
grant of a di^rict of land in the territory of the 
0*Tooletf, their oallcd the Marshes of Dublin, and 
now the County of Wioklow, on condition of bring, 
ing it intp subjection to the Englidi government ; 
and he took forcible possession oJP the district, and 
built upon it a castle and a small town; but be was 
killed in a skirmish with the Irish, and his followers 
yfvre expelled from the lands wfaioh he had oon-i 
qUered.' The oastellaited pile which ho built waa 
orMnally tailed:^ honour of himeelf, Mubio*e Court. 

OLDBRFLEETi an old and ruined castle, at the 
extremity of the snta^ pehinaulaof Carra^ and at the 
right aide of the entrance of LOugh Lame, Ih mile 
south-east of the town of Lame, barony of tipper 
Glenarm, eo. Antrim, Ulster. As seen from La[me, 
it hts a bold arid pictufesquo amiearancej but on 
being nearly approached, it quite -loses its imposing 
character. ** The oastle,'* says the author of the 
Guide to the Giant's Causeway, " is now an insigni- 
ficant ruin ; but the advantage and dignity of its 

situation can nerer fail of ftttracting the risitdi'. 'U 
is supposed to have been erected by one of the Bis^ 
gets, a powerful Scotch family, upon whom Henfy 
III. bestowed large possessions! frt th^'bMnyof 
Glenarm, som^ of which were' foisted* by illiiirh 
Bisset in the treign of Edward IL for rebeliiwi. 
James M'Donnell, Lord of' Klntyre,* ttsteifted hfiv 
claim to this land in right of the BissetSv hpfit'hM 
son ^neas was content to acceat of them on «ondi»- 
tions approved of by Elizabeth [ via., -«hal Ike wodld 
not carry aims under any but the kingtf of >Eaglaifd»' 
and would pay an annual tribute of iufwks and tattle; 
It was on Uie peninvuk of the Ourraat^ UUi IfiAifcUl^ 
, Bruce effected his knding in 1315, with the eoipM* 
tation of making himself kin^ of irlAand, which- ?«itf 
and foolish ambitieh' caused to much MobdAhed 
through the east of Ireland, and wa^ |^6dadil4e^ 
such dreadful calamities to the EngBsk ac4 t ieri fMr^ 
ticukurly. The castle of Olderfleet beeame'imper- 
tant as a defonsivi) fortress agaiiisft' the 'pcctdainr/ 
bands of Scots \vho infested tliei^orth-easteni^x)A«t»i' 
and was generally under the direction of ««o^mPiior.' 
In 1569, we find SirMovses Hill belB this «Acei' 
but in 1508, being thougnt nb longer Useftelf 'r^*mi 
abolished . After changing proprietors several tiAMtt, ' 
the castle was finally grtsited to Sir Arthur Qhiielieit 
ter, in 1610, by James L At' Older fteet 'vHIl b* 
found a ferry-boat^ which pliea fegttlarly iN^ween' 
that j>oint and Island^ Magee." " r • : 

OLD-HEAD— popularty The Old HMi of K^ 
9ale,-s. promontorv in the barony of Ooureeya^ to. 
Cork, Munster. It- screens the west side of ^Oourt** 
nMCsherry bay, projects 2} ntflefe: e0tttb4oUtti-4*^ 
ward from the prevsiling hne of the adjacent eedsty 
and terminates at a point 7 miles east^nottb-east Of 
the cape of Seven Heads. Ita extremity is Ug^ -Md! 
steef^; and, as seen from the Aa either to the^eeii 
or to the west, it appears as if it Were an island. On 
the summit of this extremity is a lighthonse wUehr 
exhibits a fixed light, and which cost, during- 1840, 
for some repairs and building, and for genefai main-i 
tenwice, the sam of £1,181 5s. lOd. ; And on both' 
sides is anchoring ground in almost any desiFeble- 
depth of water. A mile from the extrewfty ia aR* 
ancient castle of the Lords of Kinsale; built itomf 
the one side of the isthmus to the othe#; andlhp* 
merly constituting a complete defence of all liie laadf 
to^tard8 the cape. This place waa anciintlV kiXtkd 
Duncearma, and was a seat of the old Irish' kingt;- 
The isthmus is completely perforated by tbewow 
ing of the sea, and presents a stupendoas'archi mdet^- 
neath which a small boat may pass from ■€» tbte«<< 

OLD-HEAD, a fishing harbour in the' pariah ef 
Kilgeever, barony of Morisk, co. Msvo, CootamghlLf 
It is situated at the bead of a smaU c^ee,- on^the 
south side of Clew bay, 1} mile east-nertb>ieact ef 
Lewitoburgh, and 8| west by south of Weatpoii;^ MSr 
pier was commencea in ISSbi, but not oonmWtediap 
a number of years Uttr ; it oost nearly £2,000^ th«; 
greater part of which was contribtfted firom gokemr' 
raent funds, and the lesser part by the llhnpuft';4|! 
Sligo; and it both acoominodates a ptfU «f ■ thhi 
coast^^guard, and ranks among harbeura or tlieflMt* 
olass for •ub8er\iency to the fisheriesl - A 
report, written while the work was 4n* 

says, 'I The namerons fishing craft ofdewlikyind' 
the adjacent shores will acquire most biMeflau gel' 
ooouDodatlon by a hirbour so fiv to windwani^aaB 
so much nearer to the fiihingwgrounda than -'V^Mk 
port, or the natural shelter sdSbrded by tiM' islHMil 
at the eastern end of the bay, across tiie wxmA of 
which, for many lesgues'both Jiorth arid sooth; flki' 
great western fishing banks and the sunfish hmh* 
extend." Adjacent to the harbour is the villa of 
Old-Head-lodge. A coast-guard station takes naiiif 




from Old-Hemd ; «Rd, in 1836, the fisliing-craft within 
Its district consifltec^ of 5 open Mul-boats, worked by 
20 men, and 100 row-boats, worked by 400 men. 

OLD-LEIOHLIN. See Leiohlix (Old). 

OLD^ERRION, • scattered villa, or series of 
plr a fint reddencts, in the parish of Donnybrook, 
barony and eountv of Dmblio, Leinster. It is situ* 
ated on the sooth shore of Dublin bay, and at the 
eaateni eKtremity of the parish of Donnybrook, 3 
miles south-east of I>ablin<€astle. Here are Mer- 
rion-parade, Blerrion-castie, Merrion-haHI, the ruins 
of a ehureh, and some vestigpea of a castle. 

OLDAIILLSi a village in the parish of CamcastiB, 
barony of Upper, GUenarm« co. Antrim, Ulnter. 
Area, 6 acres. Pop., in 1841, 117. Houses 26. 

OLD ROSS. See Rom (Ou»). 

OLDTOWN* a vilbige in the parish of Clonme- 
than, barony of West Balrothery^ co. Dublin, Lein- 
ster. It stands on the road from Kilsallaghan to 
NaaiU 1| mile west by north of Ballybotfhill, and 4 
south by west of Naul. Within a mile of it are 
ClomBaUiaa thurcb, the hamlet of WrenVNest, and 
tha seats of Mum^h. Westphalstown, Newtown, 
Wyaiistown*bousa, Trallie • lodge, Jordaostown. 
hoiuc, and Brown's-Cioss-hoiwe. A Roman Cath- 
olic chapel stands at tha village, on a site 196 feet 
of altitude above the level of the sea. The Old- 
town dispensarv is within the Poor-law union of 
Balrothery, and serves for a district containing a 
pop. of 4,90»t ud, ia 183^40, it expended £102, 
and admamstered to 900 patients. Area of the vil- 
lage. 10 acrea. Pop., in 1841, 156. Houses 27. 

OLD W£IR.BR1DGE, an interesting locality im- 
mediately abcMre Turk Lakct, and on the river which 
brings down the superfluent waters of the Upper 
Laka of KUlacney, oo. Kerry, Munster. The bridge 
which gives name to the locality, bestrides the river 
over a very violent rapid ; and it consists of two 
arches of titguX span, one of which must be shot by 
evwy boat rrtuniing with tourists from the Upper 
Laka. So powerAil is the rapid directly below the 
h ridf e that the slightest confusion among the pas- 
■s n^ fi in m boat, woidd destroy the little vessels 
eyiilibriw, and most probably cause it to strike 
agsSBst a rock. Aknost immediately above the 
bridge is the smgulariy romantic scenery of the 
EaoLB's-MsaT: which see. 

OMAGH, a barony of the county of Tyrone, Ul- 
star. U ia bMnded, on the nortJi, by the county of 
Dancgal and the barony of Strabaoe ; on the east, by 
tha baftoay of Dungannon ; on the south, by the bar- 
ony of Clogher, and the eounty of Fermanagh ; and 
oi tha west, by the counties of Fermanagh and 
Unarjai lu kiigth, in the direction of west by 
aarth* ia 31^ miks; its breadth, in the opposite 
diiecdMiv is fraas d to 12 miles; and its area is 
tt4,074 acrea* 3 rooda, 7 perches,..^ which 1,155 
scves^ 18 perches are water. The central district 
iHBia tha basin of several of the headstreams of the 
toaal and the Monroe rivers ; and is hilly, tumu- 
hted» and af very diversified rurface, and aggregately 
pkasmiC and ornate appearance. The cMtem dis- 
trict is part of the great bleak, tame, central moor- 
kad district of the oocmty, and has two summits of 
riiputtively 91 1 and 806 feet of altitude abow the 
level of tise tea. The western district is crossed by 
iha fiwr Darg, and partly bounded by the rivulet 
UmumAt^ ; it rontains some valley ground, but pre- 
Tflhugly eonstitates a portion of the vast congeries 
flf — iintaini in narth-eastem Ulster ; and it lifu 
fca eaamiu to the altitude of respectively 1,260, 
SBSt 6Q6i. 5AU dUI. S70, 1,117, (i6», 1,110, and 9H0, 
fcal ahave the level of the tea. The soil of the 
r 19, for the mo«t part, of a light friable nature, 
of a brown colour, superincumbent ou a iirm 


loamy subsoil, mixed with gravel, and, in some 
places, OR sandstone, or on slatv rocks ; but, in the 
vicinity of bogs, which abound in all parts of the 
barony, it is of a moorish cm: pc«tv nature, superin- 
cumbent on a clay subsoil. ** The agriculture of 
this barony>** savs an official report of the vear 1836, 
*Ss very far behind that of the county ot Armagh, 
or any we have visited. The principal Undlords 
are absentees, and do not encourage improvement ; 
many of the farmers are ignorant of the cultivation of 
turnips, clover, rape, or mangel, wurael ; some of them 
eav they are aware of the advantage they would re- 
ceive by these plants, but the v are too poor to get time, 
manure^ or sand, to begin the system. Their plan 
is to grow a succession of oat crops (sometimes nve) 
after potatoes, till the Ibnd can no longer produce ; 
and in that exhausted state it is left to rest, as they 
term it, tiU it is ready for a repetition of this scourg- 
ing process. The pasture affi>rded in the- interim, 
left, aa it is in many or most oases, to spontaneous 
production, is poor m the extreme i some few sow 
a little white-grass. Rye-grass and timothy-grass 
are sown in a very few instances, and a little clover. 
It is said there ia no agricultural society in the 
county of Tyrone. The nrms average about twelve 
acres Irish measttre. Two-thirds are ordinarily under 
the plough. The rent of the arable land, keeping 
the high land near the mountains, is £1 10s. per 
acre Irish, the tithe Is. to 2s. 6d., the county cess 
3s. to 4s. per acre. Many have leases, but without 
anv instruction for proper cultivation ; and, on the 
other hand, without any condition on the part of the 
landlord to assist the tenant in draining, liming, 
building, ibneing, he, as is the usual practice m 
many parts of England. The old Irish breed of 
cattle prevails here almost exclusively, no im- 
proved breed having been introduced. Sheep are 
rarely seen. The pigs are of a good description. 
The horses are altto useful, and adapted to the coun- 
try and the small farms. The car is still in use here 
With the revolving axle^tsee and solid wheels ; there 
is idso a species of carriage quite novel to me, viz., 
a sledge, or as it is here called, a sled or slide ; it 
consists of the shafts of a cart, having nailed to each 
of them at the lower end a piece of crooked wood, a 
yard or four foot long, to slide upon the ground ; 
upon these shafts a basket is placed to carry turf, 
hav, he ; these sledges are used on the mountain 
siass, being lighter to draw up the steeps of the 
hills, and less subject to be overturned. They do 
not appear to 1>e aware of the convenience so gen- 
eral in England of what are called shclvings, viz., a 
simple slight projecting rail, extended round the 
cart for the purpose of carrviog a load of hay or 
straw. The ploughs have been much improved; 
the old clumsy wooden plough, with its wooden 
mould board, has |;iven place to the Scotch and iron 
pk>ugh, with a pair of horses abreast. Their spades 
and shovels difler from the English in having handles 
5 or 6 feet long, which are certainlv calculated for 
keeping the bmly more erect, and for ease in their 
use, and in some cases nuiy be as useful, but the 
Eaiglish spade and shovel are in my opinion calcu- 
bted for doing more work in a given time. Al- 
though the roads in every direction were receiv- 
ing great in)ury from the accumulation of water 
and mud upon them, we did not see half<a-doseii 
men employed at them during the ten days we 
were residing in and travelling in the barony ; that 
i.4, \\*e did not six times H*e any man employed upon 
thfm. It is notorious that so many poor men are 
forced to be idle, though so anxious to get a daj^'^H 
work that they would travel six or seven milen for 
it. Very little attempt ap|>curt( to be made to culti- 
vate the surtacc of the Ixjg LuhIk; what i» doiie is 




/ [fif 

the mosBeii or bo^, with pattens to prevent 4fcjtu^'^*^'i J ttifhi^itiU. ■"jfl^ J[#ff '-"^ '* * Ji*f^i^^-i/ 
ftiHkill^, !« pr»ctiMd bt^Uai*i»hire^^ Psrtat6eH ire '. ' . n p^i -^.ti .-rrr* .1 *-, ,.,,11,,,^ ;;t-^ v 
tdll Kiiown >«in tbti'ridtfe or kejri^tMd niBtkod; not n^ A .pout atil' idaHt«tu'tAwtf^>lLnd 'Hud citiM #f ltb« 
iijnitfteinitiin«e'<M!Dbf»d.wbtr« the plough waa tiieiL i^^mttpoi TyfAi^fe^ b lb« t>^^b af DnbirH^,,lMir- 
WbMil ifl wry littte fTDwn, which xntLj be in parti m^ ■ on^ of/OrtKiJ^Iii kk Tyfofi*, LH»tefp- it ■t«ndf on 

' bd«Rt«A^ by 'tilt distuice to arry pore or wutcr con 
V»^ce>; whiit is produt^tKl i* ciwtt^ to Cakdon or- 
■' 'Dereyj'tidtti^aiirc' or thirty irii^h jm\^ ; uimiy f^Titiof 
' ' the'WoBTatidi^outitija^e'wclJ odnpteil to its irroivtb 
''• widtrpnapur-fuht^'ttuin^ At Onu|^ \hwe k » ^o4 
' '-tmxktt for •al'i, V«r7 few orcfaftrilii are to 'be iicHiiid. 

• ':Bf«iiy of tlw I'noLotfiirefi oro l&r^ for th« »ivo of th« 
f fanust utd tbc iemit^a w ba4 tbtt they art obliged to 

• bving All thinr <^tJe Jitto tbo hav^ at night ofteo 
without food, and attend tli«in b^ day.> In more 

'* pirt^ qukkftet fciice* bat* ink^n tbr pliot of wjiin^ 

' - 'andmeuiids o4 earth, but mthti^e rsaei>ti]e,tcri«nl$ 

• baird evdn had to pctfrhaxe the tborna mtd ^tani 

theoij Which are not very dear« «aj 3^ to ^ per 

tlibukknd: ' It is allowid bf -all that the larraerA^arei 

beromiiig verir poor* und Jpn abk to ,inakti aay^im-^ 

' prov^eiit ; tlic sititati on t>r tW cottit^ i^^ 4ef durable s > 

■ liviii^, or more propedy, dJ43rely pt^nae^im^ ail ejthlh> 

" ' tooem pSFTErtr^Tag*, andivrDtdie<bi««a9 in d we lings 

1 :Aot firt f«r a bntnan h^iM^t hequetti\y, witbont wi^H^ 

■ .'doiwa or dumoeya, built of sod» or i»t|4, 1*3 or II 
'. ft«t square, i niperif*tly *o vored with tiuhes Of atw w. 

• tbe ttiioke iA»aing out of thodovr and rVBciQttf parti 
'■■■ of the roof*'* ' I ■ •■' ■ I 

The barony of Onagb contains parttif tht^ (xafi^he^ 

■ ', tf CappaKh/DoDni^oaTey, Maf^bemcr«««, and Ter^ 
I . - idonlkiaoguirk, i^i d ihe a-ho W of tk^ pari^ et of CL<»^bi-^ 

• ''enr^ Drcuaore^ Brtuni-iigbiKiltk^ery, tiknt L4ng6rtd, 
(■■.:WesC-liaiig£ifld^ Bkitfs of Ucney und Arditnw* aiid 
- 'TertnoBaoionf^Ti/ The to Mm* and ebief viUageH are 

Omagb , Ua r^U, Snk iiior e . I>roniai'«4 T rillicic > Dni it^ 
'I-- qvbij i.'aiitlGder^* tsLA^Mik-CiKKi^, and Tei^monrock- 
. Pdp., io ISai, l^m\ ift le+l* 7e^<H5. ilww* 
TL'i3-^lQi. ' i<^amilia« enm^oyed'ohiely in^^ncuUure,! 
•i 9,(9a09 m ^aam&ietiirM and trade. Sl^Sl^; i^ mhm 
>^ paimiutt, 7i4. l^^lIlili«i depvodeut cbi«^ 01) pro- 

t>our, 3,864 ; on their ovii uiEvituni laWu^t 9ffl^; 011 

:•- ttMBinrmit ^^emiifdt 112. >IaLf!f ut aqdab^jra |f year» 

-■' of agd who could rttfd aiid:^w^tei 1 1t£^*. whc^ <ou1d 

' nmA bat not xvritc 7t^'1^; wh^coiild (itotbiv r^nd no£ 

write, L8,^;iA. Fflfliaies at and ahtn^e B ye^r^of agjtt. 

r.' 'Wbocmikl r^iandivriu, 4,ti4&S who cpulfi fdid but 

'I ' ndt write* 11^4^; ivbo could ueithtir ftiiMll?i^T write, 

. • 1^68h-^ThU baroDv i^i diUribvted amuiig tbf) Voot- 

. . /Uop.imibnB of Oinn^hf Cajtkfbrg, Eumtkillc^u mid 

. j'Iii)Wtbcrat(nvTn The t(»tal nuiiibtr of t^u^mtftiH 

:• ! Taliioddi d.i()&7 Rttd of the^e^ 4.1 Q£l we^t: .viilut^ 

—527. under £^K~^iiBL umkfi ,£2^,^U17. **idet 

• .tfaO»,-J6tf. iwdflT je4a-^X uDdtir.i:o«>,^awd *.?4*. a^: 

■ 'Mid>abovi^ £^fk Thi> iotja it^&t ammvi vMue ^f tht; 
.fio^ert^ fikt*d in West Oiwuffh ii Xia,(i3;i 1C#. ^tJ- J 

and* the Jtuna kvied uader tJbo i^t\d, vrariw^^ of 
•priaif and iiuiEiraer lg44\. wert- £1,1^ 11#. .0^. and 

■ : • «1,A06 IL*. Sd*, and ^tider the^ grjuul \\i*?iwit& of 
('.1i|iriil^«tid (^umni«r J84U XIJ4I(i«. lOd.wid £jr,d6yf 

■ ^ .9ai'WJ'-Tbr*tMaI.iii;lt auntjfliSf vnljuj^of t^4?fODerty- 
. i.iifed fat'flwt'Ufnnsk i4i^^,4^^J:i^, Ya.i .a|t4 th* 
<"aiiiDS'ie?j«d undtT thfl fiwid A^airantj* of aptW wwi 

<4ldiQ and iiadflf t\m ^mnd^ w^rrant^ of ^pqng and 
. aamraer. 1B€1, X4^B07 3*. $4-.*«4.,44,i#i H*. 
lOd. . 

jowpkindft of tj^uiutrioli uf Hn^hefiicruiiii mmi cnc bAr<nij 01 
Tyriteniicd jf ***>. FfnTiiina^i, to tht: banMtj of Om«f h, w. Tjp. 

to«rp^ndft of tl^u 

rof^ 111 lui, 3M. 

WnUam IT^ rip, St, truf^nnd two 
■ " lefucruHH frvtn the bitiwti j rtf 

the horthem i^itle rf tbe barony, on the ratd^rom 
KrniiakaUfD iA iMleraLne, ou the: nail- dowI &om 

DubHn to London dcrryi. and al* lb a focma^on oCitbe 
i»tfule rivpT bf tbd eoiifluenotr of tho 0&inoi«a tend 
the I>rumm^ nviiUtifi^ t3 mile» east i>y .aoiOll » of 
i>FUTOqum, 6| Eiortk of Fiuto^iu,^ ^1 weaitWifftkiWeit 
oi I^^.Mila^^CtwAi 7 aautk-«outb-we«t f>f Gdrtiiv 7 
north-east of l>roautfe«; & fH»utb*aouthi»eaiiofL!Naw> 
toim.SttMWti U^ nortb'iiviil of Ballygiwkyj I5| 
Boutfa-ioutb-eHst U S^trabanev 27 aoutJk of London- 
dtfrry; /)8 weat otBeUa^, iandS64 WirtJk«ortb^west 
of Dublin. ^ .>..;■ r !■ r. .,^. , i ,,, 

-Ocn^o/ l>e«dp?>f ««!«. >*f-Tba. itta of tJif tovrtt la « de^ 
cli^ty Of rapid ilopo^upoo the mde of 00^ of a otiMer* 
bua serioa/of tiittuoui vak« andrinuousa^di^if widcb 
aut^ali tbe arcymjao^ot o^oiitryfiittoa lah^rintJi of 
Mllocdtf, ridgfUt hilli, and bollow!) i y^t it k 1^cb#iif- 
ikiontty low in jttelf^ and^ulBdflDtiy [iiii?OfGii)uded 
by trirroii»idii5f|.stWBlls mid einieaicfis. to btt fully and 
vary factorial ly^Mjen ifom t^DuhUo^idLQtdQt\lirfTy 
mai-Poad^*4t'' a fonHid«rpi^le diat«ii««^yina lUoe a 
bright and^ rRtfleRatAd i^mupou a mb grauiid-work 
«f ^recD' arvd goM^at cc^oiuiritf * Th«i ground fM or 
oii-tliw o£ tbD iiiSvu m^y ba r%|>re6i'ia*d by.tWNttor 
Y ; thejuaio.jarc*3t Miig^urud by Ibt Inmlqtfffaa 
btttr, anditbfi only otber iwpjjtfe*ift of^af\y kyvrt. 
anco by Hi armi Or biraf^bew* The tmiin ttap# ia 
v«er^;4pa^u«;.w«fiUi^ite^ WldiCboiM'ul i.-Afld it 
contaia^ th«' principal iitiu» ^oaV of tb« frk^fipol 
8b<^p#^ and all tlie afmiA of public Oi«rk«fii»g f. bpt it 
d«ac«nd» tJic^dupc mi which t}t< toimjtondaiwith 
nwh a ropidity «t' ^jradit^^t a* tabo4acidadly iwfon- 
v*ni*fit for wht-a^jd Yuhidft*. ,and qren ji^i a. few 
ptdtBtriao a. Th« ooMO t> court4u»fe^ oooficooUi the 
upp^ «xi4 of tfaitt fttr^fti, ov ijtwd#M ths4?kalr>trof ita 
forking into the tvfo otjjer ^irootft-j aJid iki$ ftroc- 
lur« avr^t:» at^«;ntiou not oiororby tb^ ccmipicviaut- 
mtm of'i^ [Hi^iiioii thHitby the cbwte. touily and 
tha G reciaii aUm "ms of it a %t e JiitectHrp, .Tke oowity 
IB^ of Tyrone kail^jio raodftm.buildiug ot the 
iLOrih tidn oi the lawn ;> it contoina ^.^ii^ eijU^ IS 
otbar dormitonetti 12 4ay-roqin«« 6 w^rk-roomK 1^ 
leelLit for M>btfrryii£oviilnf m£«ti a^ othertboufh ufual 
anp^ubafej» of ^u-i^on. di^K^plin^ 1 it ia a wdl^llci'^t 
prison,, and fift^m^i^i iiuiliri^u^t oouverucikreaij^r^ucb 
diH^ipUnea^wi^ afi^w yfi^ri» ^^9 ^«teeo^ed th«^ be^t, 
.yot bai«. no otpacitv' foe the ifttr<>dwct4<^ of tb*, *e- 
paratioiL «yatf!jn ^ andrdrMnng, )^, the imap^imom 
Jiom^^fir of Jti pri#oneTt|vi¥^lp3, ihf nv^t^ngtt numbt;r 
wna llHjh tJiK total iH^^iber^ uu'lu^i'iK ^htor^, ytia 
1684, ti>o nwnbeT of ra^onuuitUU yms 33. n^ul the 
;oti4 f 3^p<pditunf w*H 4;i,l>W.lT**<*id. Xhi^ Q^her 
pu^lAr buildiit^ qrie a c^iiri2b,.f^ur ?f,t»^^nt ^i»- 
iNJ^ting iDe«Un^-iionsoa> fl.ilqmttn C^boUc chawA, a 
bsrradk, ^winbrinary, afevef hospital* fska i^.f^- 
law mm^ ivo/kboiims. An a^>citM)t ru»tlc snjifeinanie 
foribo lowo, wbitnh ffriffiijftUy,' wa* ,Oji^ - ji#|gh, 
,Mbo a«tt *ff tbe^ i:hi«f;' W thii atrucl,fre,^i™i 
pearly d*:fttr(i>t«d by lirt^ in Ui'^f aj»d »it» fftf^r^-df 
|-«b(4iJit', , A. rmiigiou*, /ovuKjELtM^ of wmcv kjM i 
aiwi%0pd I o . it ttc; ito ifO) ab^ ut ih e vvcur 7^ ^ '^4 ^ 
we* fue^iMlod-.*? Me as the; 1.5rh (wi^m^Ti ,fer 
EDtutfFtery for jfran(^j»cai^ tViir** i>f tbr third otik^, 
JBi*w"-Wj C'fl*€"i.]— a poor-law griion^ wKicEtpk 
nainf; fw^ t>m*gh* and huis iU wutkliouw: at tJ^tligl* 
ratikji^ thu 4(Hh» nnd v^iv^ dfi^^rt'd oii^Uy i]yUf9|||y 
liev wholly iji eo. Tyrofut, abd comprebeiifii aa | 
0^ 174^04^ acre«, wbk;)] coIlt4^ne4* in 16^.1^ a mk 
60«;^, Its electoral divi^io^ together yi(i^ 1 




renpective pop., in 1831, are Omagh, 5,464; Faet 

Mountjoy Forest, )^^1r;!/\V[e8t Mountjoy Forest^- 

2,353; Gortnacreagh, 1,067; Dunbreen, 2,079; 

''MitaiMUld; lv£65;^^Kmydi>giier,MI0; Ikh^Hduu 

'9tQ^' ■i}fia8^ 'Qtinivkxaatt,'ljSl^^ Cr^rgan^ .660 ii 

- Aitalryjl.STiat'Biz.iiilv^Croaa^ 2j85s2ipMollaghas. 

I ll*;'t,«64i'CttiB9iv«av 2;Crrfi; Beragli, 8,484; Der- 

'r''«igbfi0y,l;M8;Sfe8kniora,^6M<; Derrybavd^ 2^488; 

* 'nutftt§^yU/^'%3^K^¥'mtvm4-^8Q6i Fallagbeam; 

r* %4lH*i- TUUftltmagh^' 9,464^ Dromore, 2,^27 ; 

^•*Omamn,'%H5; Oiaderrv, 1^8041; Dromquki, 2,2099 

*- ifalllHllafti^2,470» OltaukH»g9miv2,|S37 apdLougfa^ 

" JMielp,>^«T39/ " ThtnMber of «».*ffiol6 goardiavit 

''k^-9i' aM <ir^«le0Ud' ^ardbM 10 30 p and of .the 

:* laitMV t-Wr^ ReMed by <ke difislon «f Oroagfa, and 

**l>fev (atoh ^ tbe^^btb^r divMoHB. The diviiaions of 

•' <teJ i iwH <C' fWiaglkaam, >wd Tattynioyle are partly 

in the barony of Clogher and partly in tbatof Qmagfa;' 

itli« <ntM»WOiliagil Ib partly in the bkrony of «tra. 

^%iM«iM plir% -in -thil •of >On(«igh(> the dirinons of 

■^ ' OenyWtt and' PiiMMia are in (be barony of Olegher i 

* lk€miakmpMiBBitMo\imyoy Fwrevt, We«i Monnt-' 
t-ji^ i'ofiebt;'Gor«nai»aaifb< Dunbreoi, Mountfield, 

^•■•mii*WMy\Ao(/l^r^ ai%in the barony of Sitraibane^ and* 
^-^H^iMe 4tkkr'4i'fMtfm ^ intbe bwony of Onaglr. 
'-'TlM^'iilnllttol'Hif talAe4'tMelnent8 in the tnrony of 
< '^Ib^MV JdintHM^ is i;478t'i^n the baroay of OiDBgh 
> ^dlMr{WHj«,4^e,':-4llib0iNBronyof Strabane districts,' 
' ■■ tf4f0;..^4b»^hole u]iM';9«t04'i aifdof thiatoUli^ 
: ' 4,43194 \nkw fMaed tandet- ^^-2,767; undet tClO,— 
'i;tie, ttidtf 'itl0,:«i:446k ttiid^ JE20,'-42d], utider 
''XBSi-Cl5l» «iidefe'£00,:^l45, «nderi;40,.^^, under 

- M0;:-JlM'0r, bt and aibo>«« jBoO^ The total nett 
.*] iuyiiial: irttM of- tke i^rof^rty rated ia £fi6«04l 10$. i 
<• 4Mi^M«I^hilteVeP4tf pertfoas mled; is e,2M{ and df 

* llifcMr'Stl^l»c¥e'ikM ibf«'ii«hi4Udn not exceeding 
'* ^Ch«--4Re,' not efibe^dteg dB2,.u:684, tlot 'exceedinf^ 

'^ i6S^-4^#l^>'Wot'i^xe^ediM i^i^w^dOddi'notexeeed^ 
' W M. 'Th^ workhoiise ^w4b ' bontrdcMd for in^ 

* WHMtff 9, i64^i:j|)o blFMmbletid in March, 1941, 
• : . .Lit6^ 'iHmif 'MfiSR Mr ImilttinlJ and domptetion, and 

'*XI,Si^ ^-filtiittfs 'and'^dnt^Sig^nGile^-^to ooouny a 
-'^alCii'^'9M»4k,.dbUitifcd for an' ailiMuilrent of X30; 
1' -^1 Aitf^fo '^oiicaia ^AcflctatteddatiOft for 600 paupers, 
''-▼b^ Me of «fte frM adriti^Moii\0if naupers wbs Aug. 
*"'^' ISfl*, tbe'tobd expenditure Uienc^ tHl Feb. 3; 
"I im; vMr .£4;e6»14i: 4d. i and ih<i toM previous 
^immntiM- th4 IMOS' I8#;' 2d; < Thb number of 

-pMbcr'fddMlMseMi De«."2, 1843, w«v 869. The 
' i^teocia tfanrities witi{ir'ilie"anfin''are tito county 
'^^I^Mfltr iM'aft4«f1kb)4»it^ gtOhitegfa^ and dis« 

''puMHetAt^Dronort; ptilto^niHi FintoftA^'Oniagti, 

- *'aM' f!MloilliiM|f«lrk:7'and, 9i 1889,'tliey reeved 
^-£9W15#;fft»iii subsei4t>tidti; ^1,566 8ei 8|d. fronH 
' '"|MAA«;]«Mts; ^d JiY\ Itf. 8d. fl^m^ oilher «ourcesi 
*''(xMMW 2548 2t. in sldiiHeft'i6 1lttedl<$iA= oflker^, ' 
'^MbK Mk.;-8a. ^ die«drtes;' dnd £r,58& Mp.'^^^d. 

' '-ftr MltiIMitia^'ailtt'adlhim^eyed b[y487 hitetrr and. 
'' -7,M '«mfii tpiiaeAf^; Eh 4884, tftie eottftiy rnlkmary 

'«it« M IMK ft WAS '^nUrifed at tbei-eoslt of about 

' ' ^'OOe ;''aind it 1^ novf catmbl^ of contattiiryg 1015 

''4Mr,'tm*tbdiiirh'<!<miniodlo«i#, ApcfAsively lotted u^/ 

"-'ta8fttir*tiMed w^tE « nmlt!plidty of Appliandes'with.^ 

' M ^ « t«fdta'to4 iliiAg-groondft >l^hout, it fiii 

^Hp4 fii^fll^ befi^ iMy'c<Mirof«d)le t^ patients, or 

' lif Mae'itiyMets tolefmy mtiteble to its fwrpo^s. 

' fa I83^, thi3 htstittttibn reteired Xi,200 139; B^d., 

rtg e a jrf £1,834 18«. 2|d., andadhiitted272patieiit9. 

^Tbc ftVer hospital at Oufigh is a county institution, 

'■lofttm^vrr cases firom all jterbt ^ Tyrone ; and, 

* ib f^3A,lf rerdfed JE26T I3». 6d., expended £286 
' 44. 5it., aad admRted 225 patients. The Omagh 
' (fit^cfifwry MTre^ fotf* a ^strict ' of ifr,682 acrett, 

with a pop. Cf 'i4,87! ; and, in 1839, it received £83 

12s.> expended £124 78., and Adnittistered to 1^888 


2>ad^,< jrc.]^Oina^h is the ccatral or market 
town for an extensive hnen trade ; and baa long been 
known, in particular, for it^buUty sake of brown linen. 

• Its com trade and its geaeral retail tsade are also of 
conparativeiy great extent. The Weekly aaarkets 
are well attended ^ and fairs are held on the first 
Tuesday of every motith* The town has a branch 
office ot the Pfovindal Bank of Ireland; and m the 
residence of aatipendiary magistrate, the bead-quar- 
ters of the county oonstabultfry, the headU^iuafters 
of one of the five districts «f die ooanty oofitftld>u- 
larr, the depot of the north^weat militwry district, 
and the seat of 4he coarts of assise for Tyroae, of 
courts of •quarter^aetoiOiB, and of monthly courts of 
petty-sessions. In 1841, the Ooiaffh loan fond had 
« capital of £3^460^ cinculated £16^062 in 3,985 
l^ans, realised a nett profit of £146 17s. 8d., and 
expended for diarititble purposes £51. The fmblic 
cdnveyances, in I8d8i^ were a coaCh ta l>ublin, a 
coach /to LondoadeiTy, and a mail<KSoaoh in. transit 
between Dttbliii and' Londonderry. >« In 1689, the 
town was garriBOied by troofis Jen in it by JAmes 
it.yiAnd was Ipamediby them* with the view of its 
beinff Mndered useiess4» the troopa of WiHiam.IlI. ; 
andm 1743, it was a'eeebnd time, but accideatallv, 

-binned, and' wa^' on- this occasion ao dreadfully 
damtigcd' that only two of its houaca were leit entire. 
The town, as it now stands, has a quite modem, and 
a vdry <il#ariIy,'orderlyvand aaat' appearance.: 
■ 8tntatic*X-Kf^ of the bDwnr73 acrea. • Pop., 
in 1831, 2,211 ; in 1841> 2,947. Homes 382. Fami- 
lies <emjilo;^ed chiefly dn agriculture, 84; iti manofac 
XAJttti andnrade, 272 ;* in other-pursuits, 187* Fami- 
lies dependent «hie3y on pro|^rty and professions, 
42^ 6n tbe directing of iabOar; 276; on their own 
manual labour, 145'^ on means not specified, 30. 
M^es H^'ltfid above 6 years of age -who conldTead 
Md irt^e, 664] who covki read but not write> 227 ; 
wh^ cokidd beitlier read nor write, 371 . Females at 
and abbv«'5 ^rs of age who could iread and iwrite 
443 ; "Mto ieoutd read but not write, 375 ; who could 
ikfrtber ^ead nor write, 577. 

'O'MBATH, a hamlet ill the parish of Carlingford, 
'barony of Lowier Dnndalk, Leinster. A churGh waa 
recently built here at the cost of private parties; 
and in the viclnHjf is the villaof O'Meath. 

OMEY, ah island hi tbe parish of Omcy, barony 
of BiHhiahinch, co. Galway, G#anhught. It lies 
tabt moi« than 3 furlongs west of theiieareat part of 
the mAinlanti, opposite the hamlet of Loaghawee, 
Akid about 5 miles north-west of the town of Clafden. 
it meaMireir l| mile in length, and 1 in fareadthf and 
4t c<mt|dns' Lough PAy, Corcaa burying^round, and 
tb^ riiinrs df Omey-houfie; 

• OMEY; Omay, Uhma, <» Umonj>» a parish on 
the cMtft of the barony of H^naliiiich, oo. Qalway, 
COMi^Ugbt'. It contahie the towm of CLtvosM: 
wlHch ^. Len^h, west^orth-weatward, 10^ miles; 
extfrcnti hreadA, ctclwiye of islmida, ^ ; area, 
20,835 acres, 2 roods, 88 perches;-^ whieh 513 
acres, 7 pC^chCs are Water. Pop., in 1831, 4^721 ; 
in 184i;7,i>58. Houste 1,308. Popi of the rural 
districts,' in 1881 ; 5|484 ; te 1^1, 8,444. Houses 
1,12J. The surface coatanis a vwy large proportion 
of biggy *nd wa^nse land? but, though prmulijigly 
mopfish and upland, is not strvetly mountainouH. 
The Wci!»terti skirts of tie Hinabok mountains de- 
scend upon the eastern boundary, but contribute no 
great altitude to the area within that boundary ; and 
the chief heights in other districts, are two of 540 
and TOO on the northern boundary, and one of 576 
feet l^ mile west-north-west of Clifdca. The river 
OwengUn flows along the southern boundary to the 




head of Ardbear bay. The principal lakes are Aii- 
nagh, 207 feet of superficial elevation above sea- 
level,— Nahillia, 51 1 feet, — Cregp, — Narabraeka, — 
Shanakevar, — Glcnbrickeen, — Fahy, — Courhoor, — 
Atalia, — and Anghruskbeg. The coast is exceed- 
ingly broken and very deeply intersected by the baya 
of Claggan, Sellerna, Kingstown, Strean»s«to\^ii, 
Clifden, and Ardbear, — the last two, intimately con- 
nected with each other, and lying on the soiitheni 
boundary. The principal islands are Gooreen, Roe, 
Dog, West Ferroonagh, East Ferroonaph, Cuddoo, 
Friar, High, Carrickawhilla, Carrickaloo, Omey, 
Crooagh, (ilinsk, liinisturk, Eirshal, Turbot, Wk- 
vcrymore, Wavcrv-beg, East Carricklahan, and West 
Carricklaban. The Ciinneniara coast -road passes 
throuph the interior. The principal hamlets are 
Loughawee, Dnimgaroe, Connacullew, and Streams- 
town. The chief rural residences are StreamstouTi- 
house, Glenowen-housc, and Clifden- castle. — This 
parish is a rectory, and part of the benefice of BAt- 
LiNAKiLL [which see], in the dio. of Tuam. Tithe 
composition, £50 15s^ 4Ad. The church is situated 
at Clifden, and was built in 1812 bv means of a gift 
of £553 16s. 1 Id. from the late Board of First Fruits. 
Sittings 120; attendance, from 70 to 100. Tho 
Roman Catholic chapels of Clifden and Claddagh- 
dhu have an attendance of respectively from 500 to 
1.200, and from 500 to 600; and, in the Roman 
Catholic porochial arrangement, are united to the 
chapel of Ballindoon. In 1834, the Protestant* 
amounted to 191, and the Roman Catholics to 7>001) ; 
and 6 daily schools — one of which was aided with 
£7 from the Tuam Diocesan Society and some ad- 
vantages from Mr. D'Arcy — were usually attended 
by about 220 children. In 1842, the National Board 
had schools at Cliiden and Silemo. 

OMORTAGH. See Morbach. 

0*MULLOD, a sinecure benefice in the dio. of 
Killaloe, and co. of Clare, Munster. It consists of the 
rectories of Kilseily, KiLFrNACHTV, Killurane, 


and Feakle : see these articles. Gross income, 
£747 15s. 2id. ; nett, £688 13s. 6}d. Patron, the 
Earl of Egremont^ The incumbent holds also the 

nefice or Lackeen, in the dio. of RiUaloe, and co. 
of Tipperary. 


O'NEILLAND (East), a barony in the north- 
east of the CO. of Armagh, Ulster. It is bounded, 
on the north, by Lough Keagh ; on the east, by the 
county of Dovm ; on the Bouth, by the burony of 
Lower Orier; and on the west, by the barony of 
West O'Neilland. It-* length, north -north -west- 
ward, inclusive of 2 miles on liOugh Nengh, is 9^ 
miles; its extreme breadth is 5^; and its area is 
34,496 acres, 2 roods, 21 perches,— of which 14,136 
acres, I rood^ 21 perches are u-uter. The northern 
district is a chief part of the low, flat, tertiary-for- 
mation district along the head of Lou;;h Neagh ; and 
the southern district is part of the undulated, fertile, 
beautiful, and thickly-peopled region which consti- 
tutes the main territory of the counties of Armagh 
and Down. By far the greater part of the water 
area of the barony is in Lough Neagh ; and the re- 
mainder is in Loughs Gullion and Lurgan and the 
river BB]m.--TThis barony contains part of the par- 
ishes of Magheraliii and Shankill, and the whole of 
the parishes of Segoe, and Montia;jhs and Islands. 
The to^vns are Lurgan and part of Portadown ; and 
the chief village is Charlestown. Pop., in 1831, 
19,961 ; in 1841, 23,391. Houses 3.H43. Families 
employed chiefly in agriculture, 1,587; in manufac- 
tures and trade, 2,430; in other pursuits, 2.>4. 
Families dependent chiefly on property ajid profes- 
sions, 90 ; on the directing of labour, 'l,ChH ; on their 

own manual labour, 1,519 ; on means pot snecified, 
28. JM ales at and above 5 years oi'tige wno coula 
read and write, 4,099 ; who could 'read but not 
write, 2,589; who could neither read lio/* wir^re, 
3,447. Females at and above 5 ye^ri of f^j(fi '^po 
could read and write, 2,145 ; who cotild i^ad hui not 
write, 8.777; who could neither read nor writti, 
4,296.— F^st (VNeilland lies wholly within the Poof' 
law union of Lurgan. The total number Of tcnc.|' 
mcnts valued is 4.224; and of these, 2,&S8 ^'cirli 
valued under £5,-804. under £10,— 3a2, iitirfd^ 
£15,-113, under £20,-70, under £25,— «5„uil<?ey 

£30,-50, under £40,-10, under £50 and 4f, at 

and above £50. The total nctt annual value bf tHj^. 
property rated is £19,557 3s. 3d. ; and the 'surrii'^ 
levied under the grand warrant of spring and sum-' 
mer, 1841, were £1,179 68. Id, and £907 ISs! TcJ. • 
I O'NEILLAND (West), a baronyin the north; 
; of the county of Armagh, Ulsttr. l[ i^; ^lOuTnIed^ 
I on the north-west, by the county of Tyf or *f \ on tlia 
' north by Lough Neagh; on the noHh -oast and ea-s^; 
, by the barony of East O'Neilland i on the south^' 
west, by the oarony of Lower Orlor; on the soutJi^ 
by the barony of Lower Fews ; and, on the. U'e*t/!>y 
the baronv of Armagh. Its length, south Iby wx^siU 
ward, including 2^ miles on Ltni-jh Neagh, U 1 ti 
miles ; its greatest .breadth is ^ \ and ini area J£ ' 
59,502 acres, 28 perches,— of w hi rh 2.424 *cre3* s. 
roods are water. The northern dlHri(^t is lo^ v?C 
flat, and contains a large proportlrsn cif hog ; hui iw! 
central and the southern districts are tumuTated, un^ 
dulated, richly \'8ried in character, very opulent lyy 
soil, and singularly ornate in wood and culti^ntibif. ^ 
The river Blackwater traces all the boundivy wiA 
the county of Tyrone ; and the riv^r Calian traGw' 
all the lower part of that with the barony iff ^t-'^ 
magh. Bv far the greater part of the water-arba is 
in Lough S^eagh ; and most of the remaindqt is \il 
Loughs Annagarriff, Gall, and ISt. Patrick'— jphif, 
barony contains the whole of the parishes of Dnim^' 
oree and Tartaraghan, and part of the parishes of 
Newry, Armagh, Clonfeacle, GranGre, Killyoian.^ 
Kilmore, Loughgall, and Mullaghbrack. The'towni^, 
and chief villages are Richhill, Louphgal], Th rn - 
scollop, Maghery, Millto\vn, and part <*f ForUtIu\vii, 
Pop., in 1831, 43,588; in 1841, 47*173. tlovi^^^ 
6,461. Families employed chiefly jn ligricultureiV 
4,217; in manufactures and tradtv 4.036; iti Qihft 
pursuits, 442. Families dependent chle% on prp^ 
pertyand professions, 176; on thedirt^rttngofbbour, 
4,672; on their own manual lahour, 3,7^; on (inj^sis 
not specified, 62. Males at and ^bove .^ years of «^ 
who could and write, 8,255; who cfpulfl read Vui'j 
not write, 5,055 ; who could neithi^M rt^ad rtfjr wnUv 
6,747. Females at and above 5 jeAr.t (if *gf wha 
could read and write, 4,540; who rould renrl Vut- 
not write, 8,042; who could neilTier read nor write, 
8,534. — West O'Ncillwid i& distributed aniong tlitj 
Poor-law unions of Lurgan, Banbrirlge, oiid Ajitingh, 
The total number of tenements vnlueil is 0,144 ; ai^ii 
of these, 5.&50 were valued undtr £5,— 1^850, un- 
der £10,-822, under £15,-338, under £20,^20*' 
under £25,— 9a» under £30; 120, under £40.-^^ 

under £50 and 87, at and above XoO. The ne^f^ 

annual vahie of the property rated h £-J5,0l8 ^fe^ 
lid. ; and the sums levied under the grmid wiffimii 
of spring and summer 1841, were £3,106 I7«* 3fK» 
and £2,718 13s. 8d, . 

ONOFGHT, or Onaoht, a village in tlie islkfid 
and parish of Arranmorc, barony of Arran, co, Ctjitrl 
wav, Connaught. It stands on the north ep8«K 
and near the west end of the island^ 4^ miles weit't*^ 
north-west of Kilronan. Adjacent to it are' tbi^ 
hamlets of Crecgacarreen and SruiTuun, and j^f, 
ruins of a castle ; and half-a.mile to the south-wm 




it the lull of Bun-Onought, whose summit ba^ vn 
altitude of d54 feet above 8e»*Ievel. Pop. of the 
Tillage not i^cully returned. 

OXREAGH. See Ovksrsach, 

OOLA, ULLA, or Clloe, a parish, containing a 
▼illage of the same name, in the W ony of Coonagh, 
3} mien east-souib-east of Pallas-Qreen, co. Lim- 
erick, Munster. Area, 6,859 acres. Pop., in 1831, 
•ccordipg to the Census, 2,952, but according to 
Ui« Ecc1e«Ustical Authoritieg, 2,735 } in IS41, 3,377. 
Bouaes 470. Area of the village, 24 acres. Pop., 
in 1831, 192 ; In 1841. 398. Houses C4. The sur. 
&oe lies on the east margin of the couuty, is part of 
tLe rich plain called the Golden Vale, and possesses 
BBore wood than much of the neighbouring portions 
of that plain. The chi^f seats are NeivtOHm-l^llard 
ar.d Ca«t]e-Lloyd,— the hitter the seat of H. Lloyd, 
Ei4{, The rojd from Tipuerary to Limerick pa&iies 
throu^ the interior; and the proposed railways from 
Limenck to Dublin and Waterford, pass so near the 
north boundary, that, if. formed, they would be of 
great value to the inhabitants. — This parish is a 
licarage, and a separate benefice, in tne dio. of 
Emlj. Mcarial tithe composition, £168 I7s. 2d. ; 
gUbc, £139 15ft. Gross ineoine, £.308 12s. 2d. ; 
iiptt, £'JBT. 6s, 8d. Patron, the Earl of Kcnmare. 
The incumbent holds also the united benefices which 
QlNi^titute the corps of Kilpeacon prebend in the 
cathedral of Limenck, and is resident in Kilpeacon. 
The sectorial tithes of Oola are compounded for £90, 
and are impropriate and reported to belong to Mr. 
lfa«aey. There is no church; the Protestant in- 
habitants attend the church of Cullen; the occasional 
duties of Oola are performed by the curate of the 
adjoining benefice for a salary of £10 ; and a room 
in Castle- Uoyd-house is sometimes used au a par- 
o^ialplace of worship, and has an attendance of 
40. The Roman Cjatholic chapel has an attendance 
of 60; and, in the Roman Catholic parochial ar- 
langament, is united to the chapel of Sollohid. In 
1834, the Protestants amounted to 15, and the Ro- 
man Catholics to 2,839 ; and a daily school was par* 
tiallv Mipported by Captain Lloyd, and had on its 
booKs 26 boyt and 16 girls. 

OOXT, a small lake in the parish of Clones, 
faarony of Dartree, 1^ mile west-south-west of 
Smilthborough, co. Monaghan, l*lster. 

OPHALY, or Offai^y (East), a barony in the 
eoanty of Kildare, Lein^er. It is bounded, on the 
north, by Carbery ; on the east, by Connell and Kil- 
coUen; on the south, by Kflcullen and West Ophaly ; 
and op the west, by West Ophaly and King's county. 
Hi length, north-west by northward, is 12^ miles ; 
its tztremt breadth is 54 ; and its area is 47,029 acres, 
3 roods. 20 perches. The greater part of the bog of 
Xkidenstown is in the south ; the greater part of 
the r^rj )Mrg% bog of LuUiamore is in the north ; and 
th« wbole if the Curragh of Kildare is in the souths 
mU, The hi^est grounds are a height of 539 feet 
above i^leTel, 2^ miles east of Rathangan, and the 
vaptfit^round of the Currafb, 404 feet of altitude 
ahoiTfc s<»4erel. The rest of the surface is either low 
asd featiix«leas tableau, or flat and tame valley along 
tJbe cytfirse of the streams. The Mountmelbck and 
Xijkf branch of the Grand Canal passes through the 
iitcrior.. — This barony contains part of the parishes 
</ Ballyshannon, Feighcullen, Kildare, Kilmeague, 
Mooiia,' Rathangan, and Tully, and the whole of the 
pvisbes of BaUymany, Ballysaz, Carn, Cloncurry, 
DuniBiirry, Graiigechure, Lulliamore, Pollardstown, 
and Thooiastown. The Act 6 and 7 William IV., 
ap. 84, transferred one townland of the parish of 
31oone from I'pper Philipstown, King's co., to East 
Op^y, CO. Kildare, — pop., in 1841, 97 » 17 town- 
iafdds of the parish of Rathangan, and 7 townlands 

of the parish of Bally -iax, from West Ophaly to East 
Ophaly, — pop. 3,207. The only towns, or evcA 
considerable villagcri, are Kildare and Rathangan. 
Pop., in 1831, 7,072 ; in 1841, 10,581. Houses 
1,780. Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 
1,323; in manufactures and trade, 376; in other 
pursuits, 201. Families dependent chiefly on pro-> 
perty and professions, 54 ; on the directing of labour, 
6U0; on their own manual labour, 1,204; on means 
not specified, 42. Males at and above 5 years of age 
who could read and write, 1,838; who could read 
but not w^rite, 995 ; who could neither r^ nor 
write, 1,858. Females at and above 5 years of age 
who could read and write, 1.177; who could read 
but not write, 1,349; who could neither read nor 
write, 2,155. — East Ophaly lies partly in the Poor« 
law union of Naas. and partly in that of Edenderry. 
The total number of tenements valued is 1,714; 
and of these, 1,100 were valued under £5, — . 
213, under £10,^82, under £15,-44, under, 
£20,-42. under £25,-38, under £30,-48, 
under £40,-29. uuder £50,— and 118, at and 
above £50. 

OPHALY, or Offaxy ( Wbst), a barony on the 
west of the county of Kildare, Leinster. It ia 
bounded, on the north, by King*s county and Elast 
Ophaly ; on the east, by East Ophaly and Kilcullen ; 
on the south-east, by East Narragh and Rhebau ; oi\ 
the south, by East Narragh and Rheban and West 
Narragh and Rheban ; and, on the west, by Queen's 
county and King's county. Its greatest length, north- 
westward, is 13^ miles; its breadth is from £to5i; aiid 
its area is 40,603 acres, I rood, 14 perches, — of which, 
21 acres, 1 rood, 26 perches are in the river Barrow. 
Alost of Ummerus bog is in the north-east ; about one- 
third of MonavuUa^h bog is in the south ; a part of 
Maddenstown bog is in the east; and several smaller 
bogs are in the interior. The three highest groundi^ 
in the barony have altitudes of only 361, 3U8, and 
239 fetrt above sea-level. The Mountmellick and 
Athv branches of the Grand Canal pass across the 
north-west district ; and the river Barrow describes 
a considerable stretch of the western boundary. The; 
Act 6 and 7 William IV., cap. 84, transferred 17 
townlands of the parish of Rathangan, and 7 of the 
parish of Bally sax, from West Ophaly to East Ophaly, 
— pop., in 1841, 3,207; 14 townlands of the parish 
of Ballybrackcn, the whole of the parish of Harris- 
town, 9 to\iiiland8 of the parish of Fontstown, and 
one townland of the parish of Dunany, trom Upper 
Philipstown in King's co., to West Ophaly in co.; 
Kildare, — pop. 2,661 — The barony of West Ophaly* 
as now constituted, contains part of the parishes of 
Ballvsbannon, Fontstow7i, and Rathangan, and the 
whole of the parishes of Ballybracken, Dunany, Har- 
ristown, Kildangan, Kilrush, Kiiavinstown, Lackagh, 
Moiiastereven, Nuniey, and Walterstown. The only 
town is Monastcreveu ; and the Ofily tolerable vil- 
lage is Nurney. Pop., in 1831, 12,055; in 1841, 
11,213. Houses 1.840. Families employed chiefly 
in agriculture, 1,289; in manufiictures and trade, 
311 ; in other pursuits, 367. Families dependent 
chiefly on property and professions, 56; on the direct- 
ing of labour, 5<3; on their own manual labour, 
1,297 ; on means not sperified, 41 . ]&lales at and above 
5 years of age who could read and write, 2,070; who 
could road but not write, 1,084; who could neither 
read nor write, 1,908. Females at and al>ove 5 years 
of age who could read and write, 1,346; who could 
read but not write, 1,366; who could neither read 

nor write, 2,209 West Ophaly is distributed aiiMUg 

the unions of Athy, Edenderry, and Naa». 
The total number of tenements valued is 1,(X)9; and 
of these, 8^)6 were valued under £5, — 272, under 
£10,-123, under i:i5,-.73, under £20,— 61, under 




£95,— U, under >£30,.-^. tmd«r HM,—^^ gnder 
je50,-4md 92, at and above 4:50. 

OR AN, a parisli in the barony of ^aUyicoe, 5^ 
miles north-west of Rosconimon, co. Kiiscommon, 
Connaught. Length, south -east wan! . 3 J mile^^ 
bre&dth from | to 3; area, 5,181 acres., \ rqoii, 8, 
perches, — of which 11 acres,. 2 rooda. 24 perche^i 
are in the river Suck. Pop., in 183lt accoj ding to 
the Census, 2,136, but acodfding to the Ec¥U'!>i<iscicul 
Authorities, 1,660; in ^84JL, 2,114. Hqi^fls 3^10. 
The surface consists for the modt part, of ^^od Und|\ 
lies all at a eomparatiyely small altitude abov^ i^ii^ 
level ; and is traversed by the road froci Ro^oujuion 
to Ballymoe. . The rivulet Suck traces* a siimll part 
of the western . border, an4 expaudis, vii^jiu't^iiLtdy; 
afterwards, into the small lake called Lough Ptter. 
The seats are Bally doolev-lodge and Teinp-house. 
The chief hamlets are Islands, Emlaghruigrct?, an^ 
Church park. Oran was. originally e«lleil Huaraii* 
Hicblavach ; and is alleged by. uionastie writi-r^ U% 
have been the site of4>ne of the churcht;-^ founded by, 
St. Patrick, and the place in which -this mortal re* 
mains of its alleged first bishop. St.. Cc^begus^ wece^ 
interred. The ruins. of ap old church ^^till.eidist ; a^ 
cemetery, ad|j»ceot to the high rpad, is ^tiU fi^voqrite 
plaoe of burial, and fprms a re^prt.of Roriian Cdtlialic 
pilgrims.; and a piece of » pilW-tower s^twjub ivithja 
th« cemetery, and is noticed, in the Cp.llovvuig t^mi^^ 
bj Mr. W^ld« *' The tower at..Oranr ^bout 12 feet 
only in height, seeinc4 to nae ^her to \vaar the 
araearaace of , not having been ever cou) file ted, thai^ 
of having fiUlen, or been thro.w'i down. Tht^ diainete^ 
of jthe interior js 11 feet 3 inches, ami lie vv*n» are 
4 feet 6 inches in tnickness. Tibe c^t^Tu^t, Uid m 
regular even courses, ;9xe< extremely vrU r^ut^ aiid 
fit closely. T^?*c wt ,tbe lower par f r 1 1 I ; i>f ve I- 
lular and stalactitlc limestone.; whilvt ii] 1 ln^ upper 
Qoorses, they.are of a more conipact texlure. Th^ 
q^arrv from which they are supposed t^ have been 
ruped, is situated at a naoderate dbtance, in the 
slope of the hill towards the Suck." — Thi^ parhh 'u 
a rectory, in the dio. of JEHphin. Tithe compo&itloiif 
£146. The rector v. of Oran, and thv vicafii^,'e of 
Dexmteicpls [see that article], coiistit ute the kitie- 
fice of Orao. Length, 5 miles ; breadth, 3. Pop^* 
in.l83l, 3,d43. Gross income, £179 (k. 8d. ; nett, 
£159 4s. Id. Patron, the diocesan. The church 
is situated in Drimtemple, and has an stteTidarire of 
40. The Roman Catholic chapel has an aitend^iice 
of 1,000 ; and, in the Roman Catholic parochial ar^ 
rangenient* iii luut^d to the two nearest chspelct. 
In 1834, th^ Prutei^t^iti^ of Oran .paridh amounted 
to 12» and the EoiQan C^holica to 1,64s ; the Pro- 
teatants of the imloii to 60,.wid the Ronmri. t^athojics 
to 4, 166; a M^n-i^ehoul in the parish httd or} H^ 
books 42 boyj» and il2 ^tU ; and o daily ^dioob in 
the union had od their books^ l&4'^yB <uid 99 girk. 

ORANBEG, a vilLuf^c in the parish of Oranmor^ 
barony oC Dupkellin, co. Galwef « Conriaujirbt^ ll 
st^s 1 mile east by north of the town of Oraii- 
iBore,iOn the road thence to.Athenry. Imiiifdiat4^1y 
north of it are the haqalet and the mandon of 

ORANMORE, a parish in the barcmiea of G&l- 
way and Dumksujv, co. Gal way, Conimu^bt. The 
barony oi Gal way section contains the viltage» iif 
Menlough and Glaneoe; and. the Dunkdlin f^t- 
tion contains the town of Obanmore, ajid the vil- 
lages of Renviu;.e and Newtowm-Bdtlbr : «ee 
these articles. Length of the parish, we^t-^Ktrth- 
westward, 9 miles; extreme breadth, 4j, Area of 
the barony of Galway section, 9,349 acrea, 1 rood, 
23 perches,~«f which 1,638 acres, 3 rooda are in 
Lough Cor rib, — and 193 acres, 2 rood^, 22 perches 
are in small lakes and- the river Corrib. Area of the 

DunlwSiini section , 0, 96S -acres '1 2 rpolifc* ! )i Vereri^JT 
P(ip. of ,t^e wlwta, in 1631. 6,99^; m\BiV'fjm/ 
Houses 1,327* Pqp. of Uie rural distrietn of the Bit" 
on J pf G iU >vay section , iii ,1 84 1 , 2 , 1 96.' '[ 1 1 oti st*;* Wil ^ 
Pop* 0^ the r^iral dikiiriotji of ilu^ Dufiltelibi ^t^rdoH,'^ 
jri i^l,B,Ql7V. Houstf^ 481. The (mri^i <-xtt"i]W 
from the ht?ad of Rcnvillt] bw;^ fo the fbi>i if T^ou^J 
Corrib, aJ^d frotu u putnt ii uiilej ea^^t of (ial^My ipa 
poiji^ 1^ ivtle.earit of prunWg. Tlif diiitrfqt in thil^ 
north-w^!*t or ftdjactjnt Xo Luiigli Corrib i? pfcvi^i-* 
iiigly morass Tii refy lo^v, 4iijtf AaU m^ *vot ti littfif 
repulsive; the idiatrkt ij^ tlic &oiitIi-west or upon. 
Cial\tay liay la j^leaJiiu>tly div^^rslfipd, yet fio>yhf^^ 
BtrictJy hilly ; und uU t}ie dtstrkts. e](crpt thaf Ufio" ' 
Ljough Corrih^ cojiKHt, for the mu-jt part, of virr 
good land. B rie r 1 U I ! , o n the sv t^s t bo r d e;^ n (J^lt GaT- 
wftj hay, ha^ an aUitmio abyve sea-level cff 234 U^H 
Most of the ^ea-boHid territory commftiiiU briUiiiiii 
vi^^Ti over 'the ho^i^m iind ifcthvi^art the sh^n^s anrf^ 
Bcreerui of llslwaj^ bay, j and rioine parts o^ it^ fMirfi^ 
cuLarlj m fht wetit, are rirh iij elos-e view5 of woml 
a^id park scefiery^ Thi.' Corrib river how^, in a dJi 
vided cbiuiDel, alori^ the ^lorthi^rn part of t^<^ H'^^t^^^ 
bpuDuarjr' t and Oranmore bay prmecta a^^ ra^id^^ 
ironPi the north-enivt extremitjf orOalvvay hAy^ ancL 
gf^tly enlivem the Jauils^rape nrouritl tha to^-ri 'of 
Or^rt^ore. >!ertiiJ-Fark> the seat uf Mr, Tilaki?, fij' 
a Wj^ni Hf ] d . pleiLsan t £t>at ki re on t he 1 10 r t^ &fa dr^^ of 
Qalway bttj ; and Renvijlej flie i^cat ^f Mr, Asl^jfi 
ig ail ugfet;*l)le feature on thf< past «!]Ore, , . The oth^ 
&eats are Uraii-qostic, f reiiebfuTt, Rchville^fodj^ 
RockhilI-hoy*et Moui|t-V"eriioiueottaj?e, Ro*&- HTu? 
hoU!?6, Killiwn-hoij^e, ai\d a uu 111 her ci n^JiX vtll^ 
and eottftii-ei^ orn6eSk. The hamlefa are liranti^i^ 
F rench fo rt , M, m ey rno ro^ Kn ock»u n na*t ligi?a un, PtiriC 
roe, Cartron, Glenafii:u1l, KiUuUa^'h, Ik^ughir^k^ 
Ballliiietnplet Br^andai^haui>. Cgola^h, ^ru-on}iI|^!| 
dl t^h J CI ooiiiwaiiriee n , Car ro \\h WVti te , BaTl i 11 il ooln 
and Ballygarraun, The ijiail-roads frbt|i Gnhvay i^ 
t)ub]u» ar^ Limerick^ and the road from Titiini to 
Gori and 'Enniis, pass thryui^h the inferior. Ttfe 
quarries of G;ilvvay or >fen laugh nmrhle lire ^rtuiit^li 
in the north'' vvt^t . See G a t w a y , — T Ms p a ri:4t il 
a rectory, and part of the b^jtv^t^'. W£i^deriship^'bTtd[ 
peculiar juri^<;tioii of Gal \V^y . Tithe c^Mitposiitop| 
^0O« let Oauunore^ \t\ another view, lb a vics^l 
a^fi and a s^epiirate beuefit^o, ib'ttie dlo.. of. *ra|lin,J 
and^ m thii vievk% pu Metises tthat are (iatled the 
quarter |>ari^ of the li(he3. Title i?ohfposhiQh an? 
grow; uicoiue^ £9p ^^. 3d. patroii, the dioctfeiiSl 
The vtcuiTihHent U also tuie of the fbur^^curf of Gap 
way. Tlie ehureh U a ueat s^tfuetui^e, built in iSSJl^ 
Attefidatice, from 35 tt> K). The llotnan CutLolitf 
chapel at the io>vn«f Ofanmoret and, a private !l6u^ 
at jPrenehfuft, iUfCd a* a.RqMiiu^ CatWlit rHapel, 
have an attendance of rei^pefrtively ^i,OdO, arid ffd^ 
\isa to XSKi I end, i» the Rottiiin Ciitholio ^Wbdim 
frrriuj^emefiti are united to the chapel ^f Biclht^ 
^m^ty* A private hooise at MeiilOuL'h, n-.'it !l< s 
Roman (^atholi€ chapeli has an attenniirn^' \*( tr.irft 
300 to 400; ftud, in thelioman Cfttholir ^mrtn;hial 
arrange merit, k united to the chupt'l of Ciir^iTe^al^,' 
atH^ a chapeJ is the parij^h of St. Kie^ola^. , 1:0 16^* 
the Pryte^tint^ arnodnte't to 7^ andthe fofidUii 
Caihblii^ to 7} 450 ; % pay daily Eciio^l!^ had oti' tli6$ 
hooKi 96 boyti and 48 |irlit ; and anbthe'r f^aV A^f 
school was usually attended by about 60 thil^re^, 
III IP4'2, the NfLtional Board had a buyu' fiichpol iiuL 
a girU iiCliOol -at Oraiuliore. • -V/ 

OR ANMORE, a small post-town In tlie 'pu^w 
Oranmore, barony of DunVellin, co. OalWay; iCWr 
naught. ^ It stands at the head of Oranmoi^^li^, vt 
the forking of the road from Galway tcfiira)^ MJM^ 
tively Athenry, Dublin, and co. CliGrei jgatt fn "ufil 
road from Tiuun to Ennis, 4} mflei Mat of OalwMy, V 




t<it£#«4 pnjicipiitly vvHh (iiiV^ifi!!, it has ft bojjijsnirai 
tiv^Tv H*:Hri^' m^au ^Md ordf^rly &ppe!imH6el TFk 

te^tfp ly i^t e , Tli# lilf t fkf t he v il la^* i ? sf a 4i e<i km 
ei|ttv«iS VytliL* rabifiert ,l>[iif' OF rfoiLt of OrHnindrti 
■i»<»ii^tiwn^ flianiiilif^ v^^M'^ (tf th? bny of Galwdiy. 
'ffis cfeet is'sTmllow and fockj, rtrirt niitit t6 aditiit' 
]|^^^ Ml-^orhe vii^M>ls ; blLt a ^mafT qiljiv^ the pH^' 
i^J^^ property of Mi-. Biftltei and ^^rtii»»cd m ihi? ral^i' 
tilt, (K?CH[>mn.i*3daie's ttnirilJ t'c^jiol--, Fifid i-; tin; scene 6f 
a cQQddar^Me ajtn>uj]f of stir sutd tr^fiic, in thu land- 
ing i?C t+irf (iiiil sedL-manuff. The toftii posse,?*;!^? 
UretiW^f infl >forrie prosperity from beinif so ^^^^% 

f?rou^hf;ir*^ ; a/^d it commands a little intL>f*?sf 
it) •lo ii-tiprie*, Fairsii ar*^ l^eld oU Ti^ay^SG, and 
b^ir iO, Thb oJi^tlt* df Ohinidbre ft>ritiL*rTy ht^ 
Touted Ut t!if Kift nf Ctanj^irard'tN firid was a utjt un- 
illlj>9rtl^t u)jlSli^rv strfdgth. It) 1(141, ^t was ^trcvngTy 

g^rrifooed l^v the Kai*!; In 164<'^ it \va^ surl-t«TJiltrt'd 
y. Cofit* If^IUoiighJjy ^-^fbout tht* t-'al-r^ rans^nt €r 
lii^»ie(Ji^V flndt Jti ffhSt, after having ht^n a^ain 
gsrri^ii^l, itMiiii take?!! !>)' Sir (^'harli^^.Cocii^, T%i' 
Vt^wii jpve» t tte title of Ritron, i[i th*5 {peerage of Tre- 
land, to ,tli£ iio^le fanuly of Brownt? of Ctt!i;tle AUc* 

STrei Mil t^e (^biitity uf .Mayo; tlit Etj^ht }\m\J 
tiffiiiiklt BCQWn« of ratilJj^-Mirgarrct Iravin^, in 
Il^36h hfc^ creatPiI Baroii Draitiflort and Kro^Wjc, 
A j«f^ of the t« wt /i4 a r re« , Pop ! , m t f*3 1 , iX7l^ ; \ \i 
1044 ^ 6f jf. n o as« ij J 3(i. I^a n i ill eu em pi r jvp d c h r e fly 

iq otber pilt-sulUt 19, Fiuiilie* depetident chiefly 
ob propeity and pr^jfei^toJis^ 4; on' tin? dirorting oJ^ 
labour, <>1 !; 6Tt {tietr dWn i^anual tabour^ 7*^^; ^h 

OE£CA>\ a parodiliil tiiJ^n 6r eede^fastjc^^ 
tkeaefice^ in Que|yi'& eo.^ ai^d diO. af Ktldare. 
ti^mfiier. tt ooni^kta of tli« \1carages of lto^£k- 

IJM rn ; *ei' tb e^e a rt i rU s . Lti i ^t h , P »u fe^ ; b readt h , 
5. F^p « f B I ^ 1 , 1 ^ItChT . fi ross in coiti e , £fJ57 t fe . 
r <L i is^tt 'i^O* J 53 . 1 d , y'at TO n, Tfio^f . K e mmes, 
E*q.\ «* iShaei*^ XTit* plWsj of worship belbn^ng t6 
it^l rnt v?achar<:h In Ro^enallU, a(?bap4?!- 

«r,c . ' i ■iJhtriwTlf<:^/ai1d a diur^rli m t be per* 

petuajl cauriCjS ^'f ^'liMMislet- i the pSkH'ci of Worship 
W**i^*p^ to OtTj'pr bodieri of rrotj'^-tants are d 
OiM^erf* ineetmg-touse and tliree We^leyaJi. 5Tctbo- 
di«t iDiwtmg4ibu^»i aii^l tli<; cluipcU Ijelorjgin^ to 
Eonittti fftVooir'"* are two in Knscnalll^ and one iJ> 
C**tlcl>r»ek. , In 1834. l?ie inhuTjitnnt^ eprj^i^sted of 
%mS Chiifi^rfwiv l^ Pr<>l4?*iant dtjjientera, and 
)Q,014 Botnwi CitTiplio* ;. and 2\ dMly -ichools liad 
Oft llkflijr tK*y]cj* <!?2ti W^ and ^H girl*. ^BtJt fhi;^ 
|li^riif£-|)L *^ fit a« It ri^^rd« at once t!]^ numbk^r 
laf c|l|KtiJic£tion of tlie iubiibitiuit:!^, the' dU^^enTif^ 

(ST^e pcpttiuiJ cur»cy orCti>"ai=lt-**?i " 

i»liMW <4^ the eA«t !i»de of t)ie epuGty' of Ann|^b| 
]Jkt«r, It i»Wunde*J, on tlie jio/tK-^frfst, by "H'est 
03c*l^i^,$ it^ t^« borlH^ by KaM U'NeilW^il; on 
t^ «•»!* by tfae county of D^^mi ; on the foulbi by 
rpfwr T'ew^ ; wi3 on the we*t^ hy. Lower fcwv and 
jfir^ 0'H?ieiU»Titd. U^ t*^gth» M>utlt^^d* ia |0| 
It* jg[T^t««t Vea4tbr h 54 i anif Us area i^^ 
\ aeix^ I ryod, 31 perclii'«j- — of H^liicb Um 
^ 3 ro£i4>?* 30 perches •re i/^i^ti?r. Thu surfac*? 
' , andutatfid, rkhf and beanlTrul ; and the ioU, 
%|it mod not very c«lctTi^^a^ b ^fj^l^ ^'d 

fertile, aiid yielil* excellent crops under the stimu- 
lant of lithe, fife Nc\rry itti\ngktibn ik ncaAy coJtir-^ 
cident u-ith the whole of the eastern boundar}'. Thr^ 
AiH 6'aiid 7 William IV.. cap. 84, tranrferred tWo 
touTilands of the parish of Kllleryfro'm LoTi'er Oricr" 

to Upper Orier,_pop., in 1841, SSfl The baroWV ' 

of Low^r Orier, as at present const ituttid.cdntainV 
the whole of the imrish of Ballvmore,' artd part of 
the parishes of Forkhill, KSlclooney, Killery; KiK' 
more, and Ldughrilly. The only tcJwiw afc T*art-' 
deragee artd jWt of Poynt*-Pass ; aiid the chief vfl/ 
laws are Acton and Mount- Xorris. Pop., in J 851,' 
25.052; !n 1841, 28,705. Uous<^ 4,837. Familifet' 
employed thiefdy in agriculture, 2,391 ; in manufiic-'' 
ture« and trade, 1,81(5; in other pursuits, 257 " 
Families dependent ^hietfy on t)ropertT and profps- ' 
sions, 95 ; on the direrting of labour, 2,i54 ; on thcif; 
ownmannallAbour, 1,^79; ori means tiotft|Jecified, 36; 
Males af and above 5 years of age who could read 
and write, 4,417 J who could read' but not write. * 
2,^; who could neither read not write; 3,349!' 
Females at and above 5 years of age who could read 
and write, 2,274; who could read but rtot write,'' 
4,008 ; who could neither read nor write, 4,357.— 
Lower Orier is distributed among the Poor-lafr 
unions of Armagh. Banliridge. una Newry. Th* 
total number of tenements >'al«ed is 4,724 ; and of 
these, 2,440 were valued under i'5,— 1,095, undef 
£T0,-.56fl, under £15,-246, under £2p.— I5fl- 
under £25,-67. under .£30. —78. under ^^40,-^^ 
under £50.— and 40. at and ab)ove £50. The total 
nett annual \'alue oif the property rated is £30,2^ 
8s. 5d. ; and the sums levied unuer the grand war^" 
raiits of spting and sftmmer, 1841, were £1,573 Itf. 
2d., and £1,896 15.4. 5d. ^ 

ORIER, or Orior (ITpiper). a "barony in thift 
south-east ctf the county of Arriiagh, I'Uter. It h' 
l>ouj)ded, on the north, by the barony of Lowef 
Oritr ; on the east, by the county of Down ; on the 
south-east and south, by the county of Louth ; and 
on the west, by the bardtiy of Tpper Pews. In 
length, southward, is 10 miles ; its greatest breadttr 
is li i and its area is 45,81)7 acr^s. 3 roods, 24 perches ' 
—^f which 371 acres, 7 perches are water. A law 
portion of the surface is mountainous, cont^m'ng Xw 
lofty summits of the Slievcgullioh and the Newry 
mountains, and the spurs and ofl^et^ of both groups : 
and the remainder or the surface has, for the most 
part, a light yet generous soil, and is in a rompara^ 
tively high state of improvement and cultivation.* 
The Act 6 and 7 William IV., oip. 84, tranftf««rred 
9 townlands of the parish of Loughgillv from Lower 
Fews to Tpper Orier;— pop., in 1841, '1,080'. And Sl 
townlands or the parish of Killevy from Lower Orier 
to trpper Orier,— pop. 520.— The harcmy of Ubper 
Orier, ay at present constituted, contams the whole 
of the parish of Jonesborough, and part of the par- 
ishes of ForVhill, Killevy, Loughgilly, and Newrr. 
The only town is part of Newry ; ana the chief vil- 
tfligesare*rorkhiIl, Jonesborough, and Belleek. Pop., 
in 1831, 29.378; in 1841, 3;},647. Ifwises 6,147. 
Families employed chiody in agriculture. 4,34th in 
manufactures and trade, 1,485; in other pursuits, 507. 
Familjes dependent chit* fly on property and protwi 
sious, 128 ; on the din-cting of labour, 1 ,t^ ; on their 
own mainial labour, 4,490: on means not specified, 
81 . Males at and abovt? 5 years of age who could 
read and write, 3,922 ; who rould read but ni»t write, 
2,395; who could neither read nor write. 7.919. Fe- 
nialoit at and above 5 years of age who couid read 
and write, 1,855; who (x>uld rend hut not write, 
2.922; who «^uld neither read nor write, 10,267. — 
rpper Orier lies partly in the Poot-Iaw union of 
Newry, and partly in that i»f Oa-«tlc-Hlaney. The 
total number of tenements valued is 5,424 ; and of 




these J 3.700 wt? re valiM^d umler £d,^J7^t >twkr 
£10;— -295, linger ^^ts;-!*^, un^ei £20.^GQ/^*<ief 

' ^3tJ, ^ifi (! ^2, A * ''m tl al>^ !t'<^ £^J , TM ^ (J t al ji^t t 
'i&i)t|ftl'v'fiNie of the proptTty r^ttjd i» X29 J37 S^^fti ; 
Mfl ' iht sru in s^ VA' k- d u ri ^lo r t ii o ^[;'j. in] w p r r hti t s tit 
•itoi^ ^nd snrrtptjr [Hi, vp^r*^ .l'l,3H3 ti> (fJ- afii 

£I;MJ li^.M"':,, ,■■',.. ■ .. i ., . , ■ 

'' ORITUR, , ^ Vnfi^ '^H'tlie' psfl^i yf KfJ^rosfii 

tidrtir of Ctiok^towh, mj the rotifl from that to ?vi^,ti> 
Kewto«ti'SteWjirt. A iair i? heU, ttfj iliq^^ftond 
tlfiiiteay of ,tul V , A li rtkM o t h g \vc si a rf a jiiii^U 
'in|:li o ij fetf an A^ t h c st* n t v*' \Vel I VfM^k , ^ Pijtj,, o4 , -it^ 
'Vlliiig'L^ ret timed with the parisU, , \ , , uiio 1 
' pRMtTA r. tbo <l*'i!ip*|iii of (Jw >m4iiKpf^I>pHe* 
CtlTt iTi the ^';^r]^h (>f jCiujekbrcEJar tiot/OJij' uf T^t>[icc 
Ciftstlt Totiifh, ^'^^. tlvw,^]], iKftT. , Jt is flit LLutt'cl ml 
'tbd rivcf Liu'-iFis Lirih'jiMli-itfty jiIJio.vlj th^ tuwri of 
■''Bl^f^i^t ; lnjtf "i[L ^j'ito uf ith pjif^e^iing a luxmltLnt 
^i\y liofistiitg El rjohlp proprifttjr* 4ii<l pri^ylui^ uvcr 
»irii^ of tK(5 mo.Et, liriinaiji ^l51llt^l^s JU Iretjimi, it iii n 
'Vefy pUiii piece" of narfc sceueryi sikT (rLSfilny& ^ sur-. 
']|^Fin^ly pitiin, grc^f mtiii^iriD, ,prn;it»Uj in iti'|irw- 
"nrieto^al relftt ! Q n to ^ h e , U(|Io in ing^ ; t u wi ^ e^ hi b it s J* 
TflfWl <?onV(7f^ to sllmost aft other uoblti or ftrifto- 
'Stt^C fe^Jdenrc* of IrtliiiHh md in^^cndof ^i»yig 
^StHjr' itnp<3r^nce to tlie t4>vyTij vrry larfj^ly, borrowat 
^fmf)ort4n(?u from If, Xt^t j^o pi^riiinQMnt is the iiitiu- 
Wttial po^tioTi of the nri^h^ fjwner tha^ — to Wr- 
■tpwtW rather ooifrt^ ^in.ih- of Mr, AtkiiHuiL.. ''it 1- 
'■tf matter' pf"\*^ry liitir ipiumont tu LonI J^LJiiLL.-;^! 
■*^elbt?r the bgd}- clotli^fsJ, ^f ,prrp[ejiu h^^ j^nQliriiidf it^d 
ttt the Sparnsh f^^hibnj' or ii!s'p[pjn|^ tho?e pf a lati' 
ee4ebnit<!(l fcarrUter/^'^v^ ^iojitiiJriil wp, i^gt.rowbpii 
■bf St f ^'4^*^ ^ ■ ^' ^ * *^ f "^ "^f ^t* ; nic rel^iji; rft^ WJ t.'^ [ ai>'" T^i^ 
tongue of it^ ^i4gii* ]M>wers, by a leiif d of ftmr ilav*' 
IjrtiF'wth, or a t'OsUinie {hi»t W0l4<l have jruitctl a poor 
Win^ it] the M^rkiow pjgunUin:*.^' 
" 6!lMi)ND^ iiTi Wnri^yit pniicip.allti, or pe^ty 
Ijittgdorn, on tht^ left ]w\\ of the ^^fi^fjlo ShaJHiojt, 
ktid in the rnldcHe <if Hu^ Jiorthcm p^t t>f jMiin.vLer. 
It ti en r I y -or r e -.piji lukd wTt h t] t e p es$ u t haf Oii iu a of 
tapper UnnoiKt, Lawer Oni'ond, atnl O^vuey iip4 
Atrii; in the county of Tipptr.riiry; but it li^ureJ ior- 
pHs§iti^\V Ics^ li^ a principality^ of iho Iri&h perio^i 
thrtVi ft» au jf:aj-ltl<jrn t)f th*^ penofi of the jijiiflo7^.0fr 
hiint ; sttid In thL* latter coll^lrctiQl^, ita historv i« 
i^i t'( ly tdc I] t i eiil wi t fi t h a t of tli tj Ka rl* m i <i Duk«# 
iifOtinoJul, a brief ,oiiftin^ of. ^:hich i^i >kctdicd in 
oiir art i de On the city oi' K Ilk erii ty ^ , . ij^i^^B J>,xi<n 

^OH^lOyn .tt'.^*)pp[j,'y barony j;) iii'^lje^'liiii^ 
lif^rih^we^t oFlfie eounty w Tipperiry, ^lnjiitjerj , I^ 
IS bmiudeil; on the nqrth tjnd t^iitt, hy fciJDj^'ico^fi^yj 
(ki fhe sfmth-ea?il and wiutli, by the hivrimv pf t^ppftf 
Orrt^ond ; on Iht; eoiith-Cftsti by thebarujjy t^i U^vjify 

23 ifis^toheii are wiite^. The rivt-r ShaJUjpp ,»iMi itta 
^hfid €XpJiosi[>ii of L^Ligb Derg eousljuite the whole 
of the w(?^terp boundary; and thty e(.niUiM3 vtiry 
lieatly bH the? grei^t vvatx^r-area. T}if!,f,i;t]e Bfiisua^ 
tftmdea ti i*ttge ijortioii gt tlie .homidarv; >^ith KiL^ s 
coitMy; tarn tn<i. N^nagh rivulet aiid 0h^r Evtiti]] 
^tfeaoi* drain tt^ mterior .xvtifctward to Ijo^ghliorgrf' 

Srterrltonat surface of tlie barony is o|i« of tb^ 
e&t and inos^i beautlfLtl ^h^nip^ii^^i lU^t^iets in 
f hdalrid ; it i| enlUened^fdung ail the wnAi border by, 
gleajiaat tie\yi» Of^^ou^h JC^eri^ slluI it^ lofty \vi?^Ur^) 
^r^^i^'i arid It prei^aili^pg-ly lies u^On a ^a^ti of io 

( ibU ^miniij- i^j^iidp, or iutV i«p« Hr« tJimtlin i ie: 
i^ppetively tbi' north, the vv<^&t, aad:th« fitet^sithlth 
, (^ Y*; ajti Uu 1 1^ alfo v js ^4^^k^ v ul.of r p«{>e cti ft 1 V Ki8>4e4* 
A^\a 694j Jt%'t..rn-!rh^ ]^:Lrouy t^tt^inu part ^ ihu {rar- 
i;i.he& of Kilbarron, I^^Irua^^, Mof^sf^s, $i\d Keii^rht 
iUiil the whob; of t^, pafiihf^s p( .Ag]i»h^Cli3^hait^t^ 
Af d e^ony „ . llal U^'arry , ^ J^ld iHO'f^ka w\ ClOgMn^rt 
l>cirrha, Drotpim'^ri J''i«nno<?, lu^lodtemiat Ktugii, 
tf r r b a* Xo ug b k«(? J ■> ^^(oc) r€« J ly t Terr y^fras ^ •! id, £k- 
ki^rie. l^e to|w;]?^ ^^ ^bi^Vvillf^i art Borti^'- 
ll^ne, ^oatatywut iPiiclcaui^ .,l/orjha« BaUykiagfb-K 
naj ) (^ ^^ ^ff iij urd^ t fu td pwt of , Nqi j sgli « j Bop j j in 
;iS31, 45;Q6i>i iii.l&41, aO.OOL _ Ht^e«ai37i. Fwh. 
jUeM ^npployed dbietjy in ^ricultvifrfii 0^612 }' m ihaMi- 
ft^ctprf^ and t^f<^ J^til^^, iij oihe; ^uj^uiu^'Sa^, 
t'^rniil\ea d^ptndj^nt dji*i^y e?*'pri)perty and pro&B- 
doi\*^ '2^i <^^$hf^dir<)q|ti|i^oliiUM>ur, £^CiM>^ oatbar 
<i w t L luaj 1 u «1 Lobourp. ^><>8ji p - fjli a^ t^ m\6 ^ ridt i^pecifiid « 
^H^. ]Vb^^ lU; fj^d , nbo at 5 J «ar^ of :ii|tii > ir^u £aaJd 
rend ,afl4 W ''i^*' &i07< ; I u bo cnubl i^d but iitA wi^ilx, 
3,D0t i,^iip. fOf^d, ii^hff i^ead >itor wntv^ OJ!;^, 
r«[i>alc^ Hi aQ4 iibov^ a y^iir^ of tv^t ^Im cdtild iiHd 
a;i d wf i tu > 4> S^U5 ; ^ ho coitl4 reud but ji o t AVriae , 
^iTT-li.wlio comW ndk^ef n^adpor* writti* 12*31 L 
^^ovter Orn^aiid Mef ,fi^ti^ IhtL/s l^txt^Aa^x unuii 
i>t SmiA^hj aiyi} par t ly 1 1 ■ \k^t *d Paxbanfitoiirm^ Xh l' 

tlitiii^ JJ»^ W^n&^hftl^&d iWi£lia'.X^H^l,l84v ondtr 
£10,^^1. «nder,i:i4.— ai^, under JEia— 2Uv.lw- 
der £^,^123, unvtir 4;SO.^ie6. under XiO.^*-^, 
uTidir XijO.-^^id :3lJt, lit faKiai}ovti.^50, < ' i Imui 

ii-M N [.* ( f u^ f Kit )» ^ bii#ony ; of llio ^isaxAf *f 
TippexarVj >^Bni>t4*r. i it b botiuikd* on itbch^di- 
Wk^^l. and iiorih, by l^oiver Oimond^. on tl», nait^ 
e;i>t, by Kiiv*;!^ tyjuatjf i , on tbi^«isti by Ikdrrui ;.l^ 
the south-eiu^t m:d s^iith^ by lipper Kilnerouia|fb*; 
apd ,<in ,^ft ^utb-M'f»t .and. )*p*t, hy^ Oiitl^Jf tiTid 
A^rra, i lii^ lengthy, ^tp^^ ww/d, ie Itlmilc^t : it!» i$f eAt* 
est brtMuith j^ U|i.»tid iu ux^^k. ii'SM'ihvafx^^B 
rood^ 2G j}4'ixd^eiiL„ 'Ji^hc loutbermiktTirt, iatheci- 
l^^t Q|'^0Ut:36 square I ngabi^ ii ao viety moiwtMiidlii 
a^ to lie o» a bcu^ of iJ^ot lea^ tbaunhoul^TUU £eot«f 
it^eaiieWatiou abtnc i*&ft-kvel; itcoii»iat« of a Idrfe 
^eeaian of th« f^Aslcni portion of tli^t MocpAt" nnige- 
ne» of looi^ntaifu^i ^idit^eudt uf>four luairinti of 
re^*;4air«b' ^^^Wi it^iA. K2ia *rid UfW. feiet tf 
jUtitu4f ^^jpi'i? aua-WvfL. Tb# centralond thenortW- 
erq di&tncf^f, tbovgk (M>Me«B)nE ttotiie waate Iiii4ii^ 
and ij'JJJg- fgfPeg«4*<ly WDflrlBOfett h%lttr* thantlJ^ 
bft^opy f^ Lowt^rOn^oi^dg^iichtb^ nmcti re^ipblanc* 
ti> th^t WAftitkll t«rriAi)ry,,ia &t onci^ dmnM:ter i>f 
i^rt^, rif;;biue^i of , 4oily.ajMl, Lamlianec ot^ v«get&^ 
tipui.^IIj^p(;r jQriutoifl icontftim put of the pkiith^^ 
of i\il^iiu^«« t^nd ^i9i?»gbb^antl tb£ whale uf the' par^ 
i t^h^iL of n Agb rpme^ e « lial I ) ^\ bban, B ally nmek^y^ 
lialiir^clougli, ,X>(>Uu, Kilki'uy^ Kilfnorei Kilink* 
ijpv^, Xattt^r^bi M^budiiy^ T^^u^pledcrry, wid Te»^ 
pled wi^if.y . Tb^ %o \wt^ vro XoonjH vanif 8 i 1 vnrf^mi nvm^ 
ai^d part *>*'Noringh* P^p.^ ill 1831, 24.8iJ(7l in lS4lt 
2l},i»W., iW<jqe4 .4fl27^k Fuotilies ciaplAy^tj cbtif^ 
in a^rix-uUurtf 3^431 ; m marmhttam^ atid trails, 4^1 
iil^h^r pnrapitt^p 67K ' Fwnili^ depeotlf^nt r:hie#r 
OTi,propqcty^k4 p>rotVAiionEj» T^?. on llic dirtfrtin^of 
labai^rj l,ItH>; mi their owti !niaiiital labofir^ k^ltM^ 
00 n^uauj^ MOt ^^imdii^i^l^ "Mi, MnU;:li at and ubiove^ 
ycar» uJ;^ a^o ^vho <.'f>uld' rifid and :iiTifti?, 4i^iT7'i yfih& 
loM rpad but lot «fitc,,2,lOTt who cviilti fieittBrt* 
rcitd ijqr writu, 5*137t Females at and aboire 5 y««n^ 
olti,^ whu Qoukl read and vii-ite^ SittiHL;. who c(Mi]dl 
rep4 but not Writ*t ii,7iM; whtt *5olild niitber read:! 
TiQrArdt^?, ^i6(tet,^Tki* bart>ny Itus who I Ir in lh*| 
Poor.)^w,o[Hon of ZitftmjLtb^ The totaJ nuinhaf ^1 
WJi^mt'iiU vdiu^dii ii.tW^i and of these, 1^448 ww*^ 
valued under £^.^^]ii% und«r £11K'^27^» aiidcr^ 




■t ana dbove J&SO. 

• ORRERY, Ml ancient bsrorijr in the north of the 
eounty'of Cork, Monster, It is now unjted id the 
btfonjr ef KiLxcmtf [mte next article] ; iiid, in con- 
M^omce of kaving, for a lotif? period* chiely ^>. 
lonjced to tl»e fanrity 6f Bterry, it ^ms formerty called 
Orrrria Bairia. U ^ve* tlic title of Earl to the noble 
fiiDiiy of Boyle; but this thte it n()w united to that 
of Earl of Cork. Rofffer, the fifth seh of the first 
Earl of Cbrk, oomfaionly e«ltled the Great Earl, wm 
cnsfled Lord Broffhil while an infant, and is l^ioi^n 
bf that title in taany a stirring scene of the civil 
wan whiek coinmeneed in l€A\ ; he resided long in 
Seothmd; and, at Cromwell's d^atfa, he took an lu;. 
Cive part in the restoration of t^faorlcs 11., and wu.^ 
■draaccd tothe dignity of Karl cjf Orrery. Roger, 
tkc aenMKt'Earl, ini son of the first, succeeded to 
tte title in 1079; Lionet, the third Earl, and son of the 
aecond, lOeetfeded in I6B*2; Charles, the fourth Earl* 
cod- brother of the third, succeeded in 1703; ai^d 
J^ii, tfat ilHi Earl; and son of the fotitth, succeeded 
«■ 1731, and also inherited the earldom of Cork in 
17U. Both the fourth and the fifth Karls were |kt. 
'MOB of eoiHiderible literary celebrity ; and the (or- 
mfcr, is paniealar,!<levdted the later years of his life 
tairiuloiophical iiif««tigaeionft, and patroniced nn in- 
ganioua itatehuiaker,' «if the' name of George Grahaip, 
who' iiiveiil«4 the weH-knowki machine or instru- 
maat'irkicii represents the composition, motions, 
and phast^ of 4be planMwy system, and called it, in 
koooHr of kit pirtron and benefactor, an 6rrerv. 
Boviey, m natkccaatieian of Litchfield has often, in 
timaoqvenca of a mistake of 'Dr. Jolmson and ^r 
Rirkard Steele, been regarded as the inventor of 
Grakam'a adcl^. < 

ORRfiBY iA3a> KILMORE, a barony in tl^e 
aorth of the-eooAiy of Oork, Munster. It Is bound. 
ed, oa the iwith and nortk-evt, by the county of 
Linieriek ; ontke east and south-east, by the barony 
of F^enmr ; aad on the south- west and west, by the 
karoo)' M.Duhallow. it* length, south by eastward. 

ia iJ iiniler; ita gneatest breadtii is 9; and its area 
m.6»^S4d Boiteaw The aurfiice is hilly, tumulated, 
■id^heiwise mwh diTersitied; and it presents, for 
the aioal purt, • fertile and beautiful appearance. 
Tha wkole andently belonged to the O' Kiefs' prin- 
dpaiitj of Fearmutgh: see FEHXor (Barony of): 
Tkc Aft 6 aari 7 William IV., cap. M, transferred 
one t^walaiid of the parish of Hackmrs from Small 
Gowffy, GO* Limerick, to Orrery and Kihnore, co. 
Caek,^— pop., ia 1841, 2&; oiietoHiiIand of linphrick 
fin.FrnAoy co Orrerr and Kiianore, — pop. 191; 
mm tovidands of Castle-Magner from Orrery and 
KiUBora to Dukallowt— pop. Ml; «nd one town- 
Imd^f BaUyioy froaa Orrery and Kilmore to Per- 
■ay;.-^pop. ^ftl-^Oir^ry and KUmore barony, as 

eoMtjtutcd, oontaina part of the parishes of 

toltugk* Bftllybov, Churrhtown, CDr«omdiide, 
kmym^ loi^riek, kilbolane, afid Tvlfylc&ie, and 
tkctrbwrofthe parithosof Aglishdrina^h, Bregogue, 
Btottev«it« CooUney, Droadowney, Kilbroney. Kil- 
pufao, Kiknadonine, Laekeen, liscarrol. Rathgog- 
g«^ and ttbondniBs. I'he touiis and chief villages 
«e CkarlaviUaw Lisoarrol, Batte%vit, Ballyrlough, 
CkareKtiHWli, AliUford, Dromina, and Newtown. 
P«f., in iHaJ, 3E2,a'U: in 1841, 31,134. Houws 
<4BJ. Kaasilies ciBplo}'e<l chiefly in agriculture, 
3,GyU; in nnanufactures and trade, l,02(j; in other 
puTMiita, 40ii. Families depemlent chiefly on pro- 
perty and prtffrssions, 106; uri tlie directing'of labour, 
Iji^JU; on their iM\vn manual labour* 3, 146; on moans 
am sfccitird, Jokl. Malea at and abore 5 yearn of age 
wao co<ild riiad and write, 5,8*2:) ; who could read 
hut not write* 1,748; who coukl neither read nor 

write, 5,042. Females at and above 5 yiears of age 
who could fi^ and write, 3)096 ; who could read 
but not write, 1,868; who could neither read nor 
write, 9,2l5..r-1^t^i<> baronv is distributed among the 
Poor-law unions of KilmaJ^ock, Kanturk, and AUl- 
low. Xhe total numbec ^f tenements valued is 
3,394; and of these, 1,^49 were valued under £^<,r- 
3H und^r XIO,— 183. und«r £15,-144; pnder 420, 
—133,. under £25,-4^, under JC3P,-rl72» uivlpr 
£40,^139, under £50,— ^nd 521, at and above £50. 

OR.RlSBEGr, a hill in the barony of Ballinahlnpli, 
CO. CJalway, Connaught. See next article. . / 

ORRISMORE, a large, boggy moor, profusf^ly 
spotted with lakes and ponds, m.ih» parishes of 
Ballindoon and Moyriis. from 2 to 7 miles sottJt)i« 
south-east of Qlifdei^ baronjr of Bal]ipa|iincb>, co. 
GaUny, Connaught. ** This tract," sii^'s Mr. Nim- 
mo, **iB about 7 miles by 4> ^d Keneraily speia(- 
ing, is a plain, not much elevated abov^ the sea;, it 
irt, however, intersected by man^ low ridges of twf^ 
slate, and in the hollows between them are a. multi- 
tude of lakes, I have an exact survey of the moQf, 
and find the number of lakes to be about 143^ pf 
different sizes, n^y of them baying numerous ^ind 
intricate arms. XVhen viewed from an eIe\'atioo> 
tkis appears to be a complete labyrinth, in. which it 
is difficult to perqeive tbe direction of the drainage. 
A low ri^e of rough groimd passes nortliward from 
the hill of Orrisbcg to hear Imlaghmore, and {rim 
thence turns westward to tJie.b«!y of Ardbear. 1 
kit6w of no limeidone baring l^en found to i)ie 
south of that ridge ; nearlly the whole of the tract to 
the west of it falls b^ the stream of Halliiiaboy, 
collecting the u'aters of numerous Ukes into the bay 
of Ardbear. ' The iirevtem side falls partly into mi^ 
Bunowen bay at Emly bridge, partly into Mannin 
bay at Oerr^glmlah. The ridges af<^reiiaid prevent 
any navigation from being easily led into these lakiss 
from the limestone tract, but m the. event of an ejb 
tended cultivation, something of that kind ^gHbe 
eifeotedj for ea»mple^ a dam upon the stream near 
Ballinaboy would tkrow It into one narrow sheet of 
water to the upper end of Lough Fadda, with various 
arms penetratnig the moor, so that limestone or cal» 
carcous sand loaded at BaUinaboy, might be trans- 
ported over most of a tract of about 2 mileii long. A 
similar instance occurs on the itortb of Orrisbeg hill, 
where a great congeries of lakes are all nearly on 
one level, and from which a navigable cut might Imq 
brought very near to the Roundstone bgy, where 
lime, roral, and sea- weed may be easily procured s 
other lines of junction might appear if the tract were 
levelled over. With the exception of a/ew-of the 
smaller hikes* which are mere bog pools^ and may be 
easily bled, the roost of them are h^;:h m the bauk» 
and have rocky mouths, so that they caimot be drained 
at a moderate' expense ; and where so nmch land ia 
still Ui be 'reclaimed, such an application of labou^ 
wouldat prenent be unadvisable. The best purpose 'to 
which they ran now be applied, is, by the judicio'ua 
pOMrion of fiutn-steadings, to derive all the benefit 
possible from them in the way of water -carriaget 
through the arable grounds. And in the meantime 
it 18 obvious that they greatly fanlitate the busiiie«a 
of drainage and endot'urt*. A similar obsiTvatiun uuiy 
be applii'd to all the great flats ot Cumiemara. The 
4uantity of red bog in Orrinuiore iu 14,000 Irish acres." 

ORWELL, a hamlet aWout 3 uiitcs south- weat uf 
Stranorlar, baxony of Rapboe, co. Donegal, L-l»tcr. 
A loan fund here and at Burleigh serves for the 
estate of Sir F3dmond Hayes, and, in 1841, it had a 
capital of £812, circulated £3.527 in 1,372 luaiia, 
realized a nett profit of £1G 8d. Id., and expended 
for charitable punposes £35. 

OSBERSTOWN, a quondam parish in the bar- 




ony «f Noiih lbift« 14 mile. AoriAi by • weAt T«f t^e 
to«vn oC;NaM».cow> Kilnire«J>iwter. Ibrmu 
the iMwChem dnirictof tl^ parish -of iNMBi;:it Jir^ 
9B itsnortii mai^n a pari of ihe village of £^a11«4i3i 
« is traverMd by tbeNoee bmncb of- the iG rsnd 
Ganal» luul by ike road f coin ^N«ag to Clonci. /T wo 
localities, which still retain the parochial uaam^ arti 
Osberfltown-houie and Osbenstown-haU* ^Pop., in 
1631,518. HousesBl. 

OSSORY, an andieiit principality ob p^tty kiitg-. 
dom, tB the south- west^ni part of the.- p^esest^ pro. 
Tinee of -Letoster. It Jiuctuated in f^xtent^ and mm* 
not be y€Ty accurately defined ;but may* in a gene rcU 
view» be regarded . as ideotienl witb the soutb^wi^t 
district of (dub present Queev'a county, and the north, 
district of the present cCMintiy of Kilkenny. Tkn 
principalities of. Oseory- and i^ix were, strictly in 
mutual alliance, aiid-inade..« stronger resistance iq 
the Anglo. Normaos than any orthur terntoris^ of 
eitbec Leinster, < West^Munstier, . or . South- Uk u r ; 
aMk atthetime'of the Anglo- MofmiVi invasioii, they 
wero raled principally Vy the scpt« of Mac-Gltilti.^ 
Phsdfuig, O'Morcj and O'Dempseyk^Mie fitii t)is 
Servua; Servoriu^. Sanoti.' Pki^cii^ afterwards > con- 
verted into' the Anglo- Naroian FitEp«trick,-^and 
subordinatelyby tfae< tributary toparebaof O'Dunni}* 
a'Began, 0*Dallany» O'JUawJer, 9'Redy, MacfiiU 
foyle»«ad MacHafFfw -M-The Strongboaianiinvadf r^," 
sii^s Mr« Brewer, ^1fouii4 it a more periloua n}id 
dilHcult task to dbtain a footing in thia <tifitrict tbiuu 
in. any otAMsr quartc* of the island t m the inhabitant a , 
naturally warlike^ <we^ gi^atly fikvouted in rthf if 
resistanecf t)y the; bogg^ intricacies of the territod^s: 
thoy defended* The Fitagerald&and tbeJ^ Bermiiig- 
hams, partly ib^ foree^ bu.t ff<orey perhaps, through 1 Tie 
policy of efiectiU^ ijltenilavriltges wilib the natire se pLu, 
acquired posaesmoti of certain portipps of land wht?re-i 
on they speedily drocted caitlea* On the other hn n d , 
the Caret^a, barooa of Jdrone, the Mortimers, lEurU 
oj? March, and oUibf distusguished lEngilish £»reuUJ[^, 
obtained repeated grants, ^From itJhe orown of larg^f 
tracts Of land in I«eix and Oasory, which -grants ivf4 k 
rendered nugatory bjr.tba intrepid and perseverjrig 
resistance of the anfcient proprietors. ^The power- 
ful family of Butler, towairdS'the latter par^ of t.liii 
fiftecath centvry, made a welUorganieed and.succut^ti^ i 
ful attempt to wrest from the: torbulent -Fitzpatnc k^, 
their most ^trouUeaome neighbours, the terr-itory ut 
Osaory, comprising at that period the most valuf^^k , 
parC'of the diatrict now deaomiiiated tbe Qufseh'u [ 
county. Open war wa3 accordingly commonced titv 
tweei Peter, Eoel o£ Ormonde, and iJbe dynast of 
Ossary»tbe focmer btting supported by bia nelati<Mtt^, 
frienda^ 4ikd fbllowera« • and the latter raided by timnct 
cBte ti g mi us soptt wbidt bcUeTed their' own ssouHty tinvolred in the iatiieof the I contests 'She Enk 
waaaUy aai&ted ^ bis Gountesa, the Lady Mar» 
gmret'FitEgecald, <>nfl of the most celebrated femiilc^Et 
of |i4r ago,: who possessed amadcuUoe >geBius «d«1 an 
intfiaciUte eonrage, toi which qualities. nui«t:be adil^df 
hy ihls. inlpaitiai histekttan<' & ccnmcienee of grt^it 
bimtudev wielb -suited to the exigeslcies of the Um^ 
with those who< aspired to an. iaerdase of posaesiiioii 
and dignity. . /This lady bad augmented the atrength 
aptt-rdsoarces'df her.fainiJ[v» by contracting aUia{u-i>« 
between! her dnldreit and thd most potent of the 
nobility !eesinected with IrctlaQd' To adrance the 
object of his triumph over the Fitzpatricks, tho 
EsjpV wboatood in faigfaf favour at the' British oocir4, 
prapoaed tti partition fairly.between the friends vrbo 
assisted him m the undertakirig, such lands and j^Kitw 
sessions aa mi^t be yielded to their united arinh. 
To prevail over opposition was, however* found ni/^rc 
duy-thaa to retain possession of the tract nominally 
conquorbdi; and -it woaU appear that the onerous 

taek;«9^ ketipmti 4ffym ik^'Vii^ip^cU^ j^fh 

volved, a^xording to .the ^rmft ot: his,%[^l|;. ^Qij^^ 
with ike Eiurlj upoo-^ir QJUver >fQr.r€>s,^»%j^qtj^,QM^ 
iH'<coBieq«Atn%« onfl,oC:thO:^0st .ccp9^(\uQ^ "^-^ 
annals or Oasa^y TdMiff to,,:t|iia i4i^turiwd' 9U 
sanguinary era,?*. Os^ory.lEorinerly:inTe W ^^i^i95 
Eiirl, jarst to a b7aa4:h and o^xjt tO/tl?e.maju9 ^U^ip^ 
the Orawnd family t ^sfe Kiwti^NffT^ ,j^ 1 ; nj^idit 
OS80fcy> a diA>(!eae in the €Ccleftst^fi^.flrf>)5iMff 
of Diiblip> «iitl civil province ^f heipjiUr^ ^.^t'.^t^, 
prehends v^rj ncdfly iliQ whcil^ of, i^v Qpu^ty ,f^, 
Kilkenny, a coiisidwrftljle .pwti of. ^Jiiern'j* couit^-, 
and a small part of Ring'* rourty, Dr, Bcjuifurt, 
estimating it^ iu-«u at 340.*300 Iniii tiCN-.-i, auU lony, 
putiflg it t-q poiit*qn 13G p*«^i«l=*'^ f^n'^ -^^^ t^imKe^j 
as»gns aSUiliXl acr^*, 120 parish u>. a\m\ '^^ chun:}i|^ 
to the county of Kilkeimy, fliXUUi aiire?^ 1j j!;u:istifet^ 
and? churchi^is t^ Quti^^ii'a iumiity, ajajd,4.1<Jl}^re4i 
1. parish, aoij 1 ohurtk to Kiiip'i cij^i^ity^ ,.:X*5 
diocese ia alli'^tfd to buvii been tpi<i>fW, la ^b^ 6f^, 
centtti?y, t>y St. Kmriui, »,t ^aigar w:^pr; *ud ij^, 
seat-.ifi said to liiive \^^t\ Ktm^y^i iui;f^4£uvrl|^:pta 
Agbaboe a^id to liirtseiiiir* , Tipe <allFi5^4 &eil«^ ^ 
bishops ait Sn i fiiu* and A ghtiboe , h^ifif vcr, a mp^*^ 
aecordbi^.1^> iu o*n mivo<iate», to fHiW **a,iio5ti.ff 
succession, not perftft/" ^id ij* ^vot;keu iajto .ft^^^pr,w^ 
rather into f.-^iiitente« only h^ tjbe mil ^ a.; <;d^(^ 
attempt- to rnak£ ' \ tbt; %e^m ^ abbot an d 1 bi shppl, u 1 
used by ancient Wii t e r«, »y r^ on y mou4 tetin f /'^ '^^$t 
bishops who have oat at Kiikfnjnyi ttJ^rtljcr H;ii|i 
the date of tbefr respflcuv^ appoint mentii^ ure ^i^j 
O'Dullany. IJT^^; Hugh Ituiu^ 12[)2j PtjtBj 51Iwh 
nesia,.12lBi ^^Wmm ofjiKiik^iuiv, .I229;i M'a 
De-BfacMl, lau^ ^ Uenfov o^ XkirT«4 l| 
Hugh I>e J^fapletoiv Vi5J i ^Hugh Thifi,, Ig 
Geoffrey St. Ug(?r, l*2ilO; lU^^erof Wi?^ford, 12( 
Michael of >:KtJtflr, 12S[J|. >VilLi**u Fitijobrii. J^ 
Richard Ledrtjd, \Z]Hi Wur pf tjitoijaU. I3/j6,.. 
Alexander BaL^rot, UJl ; ^ieWd Korthalk IZS&i 
ThoraaaPt'VfHjil, \m; ^lohu (irimn, 13«*?; ^hn 
Walthara, ia«y> Kc^er of Anp^by, I4W:. J**hiit 
Volcan,. l4iMi Thon^u^ $iidl, NOd;; I'mi^ Knk-i 
gQ^, 14l7l Dt?nm4 Ol^ee, H2h Tliow* Barxy^ 
1428; DaviJ Hfitk^t^ UiiOt John O'H^dUn. X4^Hu 
Oliver CaJKtw^J, 1 4m ^ Mil o Baron, 15-27; John 
Bale, 1652; John Xhomjry, ii5^ .<i:brUto(thLf . 
Gaffbey, 15^164 ■ Niello 1 0* Wpkb^ 1^77 r a farancy, fd^ 
9iM>nths< in 1586: John ilorsfalL 1586; l^cWfl 
Deane, 1600 1 Jonwj MWImj. lef^: G^]f1^tl^ ^^i^^ 
liams, ICih John, Parry. 107'3; Jieiyifniii ^f¥#| 
1677;- Michst'I Ward, 1676?. Thoiim Ot^'»y, JO.j, 
John Haf(*itorvg4j, 16S3;. l?ir Thomas Vcsey, paj^*, 
17J4; Jadwfifd 'XeitPefrfJM, 17^1 J t Larks E>^tcv I735f^ 
Anthony, pop [iiwg, l74Qi iMi«li3^] Cpjs. IJ^^JjJjfJt* 
ward Morrij*, 1764 j Rirhafd Poq]^cfe,,;i7 
Charles- Dodg«on. 1 7^4 )l^lil}an» Ni^tsif<ea;^t ^ 
John Hothain, 1770* Um. Will mm Bt^rL^ofd. t>-^ 
Thomas J^owi^ O'B^irnfv. 17^^; tfn^ H^uDLlf^^^; 
1799; John KearntVi ItM; and KobtTt |*ow](eri', 
18ia Th& Bjct q£ \^ uiu wd the dlo£«i^ pf Oaso^j; , 
to .the dioct^rOH of ]j«jghUitund Fenm; and ,t^,^^, 
of all the thrf^ diore«i'^ 14 nr>w the epj&cgpal |n^ai^^ 
and StJOsini^/ cudiedral at Kilkenny. Tjo^ pir^ni^ 
bishop is I)r' Jhhu;^ Tbomaa O'Un^n. , ,tviQ.i^t$h§,. 
bishops of C>i^»ot^y wer*; Loni-jiiftice^ol* Ir4*latvdi fqnf; 
were Lordi» CbaiiCeilorf j three wc;re Lai;v^*ji jE«^. 
suBerat one was an AmltaMatlor ; onu ^1 rhfnffJjtM|, 
of the Exchequer; 4ind ihrrt' Hftre traa ^kte d tiO)i|^| 
bishoprics. Biidiop Ku^h Be J>l;t['ilton lavi-^hvi^ »j> 
nHwh ezpe^ina on tii« ojith^dralof ^ L * :i liix , .i^ ulCil- 
sioned hint to bt^ a^ted tbi^ founiUr »i the UUrirtf 
Bishop Geoffrey St. Leger tinUhcd uhat Bishop De 
Mapilton lufj incotnpli?ii\ luul Ims bm^n rulli^d thf 
second founder of the cathedral}' Bl^^ibfo- IjtdrAl^ 
prosecuted some persons to the death Ofi' tfae'iiJb|iiQ|K!* 




tion of MTcerj, And waif hifrmelf «til>jert«<l to hnprilU 
onrarat and other inconveiiienetM Kt th« irmtanci* ^ 
vome' of Ms intended vietirA4 ; Biftbop Bale* is bbubIW 
Mtyled the first Prote^ttot occupier of the sec, and 
was a rery voluminous author;* Bishop M'illiams 
experienced frreat privations arfd sutftfin^ during 
t\e rafe of tbe civil warn ; BishofV Otway founded a 
library in the churchyard of the cathedral ;' and 
Bishop Pococle i* popularly and fa vouriihly' known 
ai the author of a * Deficription of the Kaftt aiAl 
some other Countries/ in two folio volumiv<. 

The gross and the nett amourrt of ppisoonttl income 
connected with the see of OssOry, upoa the averspv 
of three years endinfr on Dec. SI. 1881, are JCS.SSA) 
Os. 0|d.» and £3,822 lis. O^d. The dignitaricH of 
the cathedral, together yniih the grosft artiooiitof iti. 
come connected with the benefices which constitute 
the corps of thefr respective dignities, are the dean, 
£2,236 3s. UA. i the precentor, £213 I3«. lOd.; the 
chancelhMT, £455 lOs.; the treasurer, £1H0; the 
archdeacon, £700 ; th* prebendary 6f Aghoure, 
£800 I«». lOd. ; the prebendary of Killemory, £286; 
the prebeiidary of Tiisooffln, £2U0 ; the prebendary 
of Cwneamery. £365; the prebendary of Blackrath, 
£120 tOs.; the prebendary. of Muyne, £250} and 
the prehendary of Kilmanagh, £^3. 

Length of the dioeese, southward, 36 miles; 
bre^h, 23. Pop., hi 1831, 202.U37. Nnmber of 
parishes, 12B; of benefices, 59; of benefices contest- 
ing emch of one parish, 3^; of beneficeit consisting of^ 
nrochial anions, 27? of resident incumbentp, 3H. ' 
Titbe combositnms bMonging to the benetices',' 
£22,454 lis. M.; glebes;' £4,310 lOii'. 4^. Gtw9 
income, £27.246 149. 2^.; nett, £12,^ 10^. <M.t 
P«rroD ci 10 benefices, the Crown ; of 60, Xlie dio-' 
cetan ; of 2, incumbents; of 12, laymen ami corpo> ' 
rationa; of 5, alternate parti'e?.' Appropriate tithi/ 
compositions, £'i,871 Is. Id.; Impro|inatetlthecom' 
posiffonf, £5.856 16b. 8|d. Number of i^tipendiary 
curates, 30; amount Of ^heir 'salaries, £2;5(K) i:ls^- 
1^., exclusive of additional advtuitiiges enjoyed b^ 
4. Number of benefices >i^th chur<fhue{ 46, without' 
churches 19. Total of churChcff, 49; sittings* 0, 170. 
Cost of building 35, building and eiihirging 1. and 
etilvring 2 of these chur(ihes, £*iB,092 lOs. llAd. \ ' 
ofwlnch £12,073 16s. IO)d. v^ere giAed bytlielatet 
Board of First FVniM, £12.767 U. G^d. wore lent- 
^that Board, £2,175 were private donations, amT 
£1.087 li. 0|d. were raised by parochial a«f«ii<siiment.' 
Bat nnce the date of tUe report whence the statis- 
tics are derived, three choncbes har^ been ^uiltat' 
iHTerbine, Slerkynm, and KeHs, and the <«hiM!h at* 
KileallifaeM has be^n enlarged, chi^y by means of- 
aid £rpm the fiind« of the Ecinetlastieal Coinmisfdon'^ 
cTf^ Totd of places of worship* Kelongrng'to Pro- 
tcimpt d lMcu t e r^^ 4; of lloiMm Catholic' Irbapeln, ^ 
m. In M4. tile inhabitants odnsi^ted of 12,361 > 
Cbvitoen, 8 Presbyterians, 168 6ther Protectants 
diswnters. and 209.848 Roman Gatholicf**, 4 bcne^' 
ficei eonttdned no inember of the 'K:^ablished church, ' 
mrh of 5 contained not more than 20 mcmbera of 
1^ Cnahlished church, each of 12 not more than 
50, each of 8 not more than )00, each of '15' nod 
more than 200, each of 12 not more than 500, each 
of 4 not more than 1.000, and each of the remaining 
2 not more than 2.000; 277 daily si^hook which 
made returns of their attendance had on their bookn 
11.449 hoyn, 7.198 girU, and 221 children whose sex 
wi«not specified. — 31 daily schools which made no 
retores were computed to be attended by 2,108 
children, — 220 of the total number of vrhooU wen* 

• A >>f lU*lwi> Itiilr* «i>irks u civiw iuhU biivk ' 4 ri|». 

snpport<id wholly by fees, — and of the remaining 68^- 
which wete supported or aided- by endowiAent of 
snbscription, 18 were in connt^etion with the National 
Board, 5 tiith the As^ciution for Discountenancing* 
I Vice, '1 with the Board of Rra<m«s 8inith, 3 with- 
the Kildare Place Hociety, and 3 with the Londoil 
iiibumian Society. 

The Roman Tatholfc diocepc of Owory is still 
unanncxcd; and is divided iirro three districts, ami 
KUbdhided into 31 parishes. The hishop'd i^esidt^nre 
is at Kilkenny; and his parish is St. Mary's of Kil- 
kenny. "IHie number of |Hirochial clergy is 30, and 
of coadjutor clergy or c«iratcs .55. Tlie monastic! 
establishments are a l^reHentiition convent at KiK 
kenny, a Presentation convent at Oastlefomur, a 
Presentation convent at Moinrotn, a Capuchin coiU' 
vent at Kilkenny, an AugUhtinian'conwnt at C'allan, 
a Carmelite convent at Kiiocktopher, and a Doniim- 
ican convent at Kilkenny. The designations of the 
31 parishes, aif<i the sites of the chapel or chipelH in* 
each, arc, 1. Onlmoir, — Gulmoy, Johnstown and 
CroSHpatrick ; 2. Otferlane, — Cnmmoris, <^i<tle* 
town, Kushalt, and KilKnbre ; 3. Darrow; — Durro^ 
and Cullahill ; 4. Aghavoe, — Fox rock," tiorris," 
Rnockrue, and Cool ; 5. Ballyragget, — Ballyragget 
and Ballybuskill ; 0. CMtlecoiner, — Cattlenoiner r 
7. St. Ryrans,.^^t. Kynuiit luid Fancraft ; 8. Li-i-' 
doviiiey, — Lisdowney, Clontubrid, ami White^ate?' 
0. Clough,— Clough,'<;aEeho,ahd (kinahyi 10. Rath-- 
downey, — Rathdowiiey. <rro<>in, and KilsmiKthe; 1 K 
Urlingford, — I'rlmgfofd. <jrane, and Clomanto; 12. 
St. Mary's Kilkenny,~-8t. Mary; 13. 8t. Canioai'' 
Kilkenny, ~8t. Cunice; 14. Muckalee.-^Muckalec^ 
CoOn, Ballvlbyle, Smithstnwii, and Lisnafuncheon } 
15. Ballycallon, — Ballycallen, Kilmaniigh, and KiU 
laloe r 16. Freshfiird, — Frenhford. Tullaroan, and. 
Three Oistles ; 17. l>aiiesfort,^~l>anesfort, 'I^ys«> 
well. Grange, Kells, and Boi me t'«- Bridge; 18. C^l- 
Isn,-.l(rallan, CV)6lagh, and Newtown; \9. Uownm, 
— Oowrati. Pitt^i. l)ungarvan,and Pivneystown ; 2U 
St. Patrick's Kilkenny, — St. l^itrick's. and Foulkes^ 
town; 21. St. John'H Kilkenny, — St. John's. Johns^: 
well, and Dunmore; 22. Mooncoin. — Mooacoin, (Vin 
rigeen, and KilKna<pug ; 23. Innistioj^ic — Innis- 
tioeue. Rower, and tionemorey; 24. Dunamagin,-^: 
Danamagin, and Kilmagnnev ; 25. Windfrap,— Wind:* 
gap. and Tullaaght; *M. Ballyhale.— Bally hale. Hug.' 
gtnstown, Newmarket, NewChapel, and Stonoyford^ 

27. Fiddown, — Owning, PilUown, and Templeomm \ • 

28. Kihnacow, — Kilmacow, Mullinavat, and Bii^.. 
woo<l; 29. Hliewruagli,— -irleninore, Siievemagb, / 
ahd Slip Chapel; 30. Rosbercom^KullMntaon, Tull^ 
olier, and MulKnergill ; and 31. Thomaitowiiv*i.' 
Thoniastown, Tulloheme, KilminaHi and Along. -' / 

OSSOli Y ( UprKR), a «|aondam barony in i^imiV 
county, Leinster. It i« boanded, on the north, by 
TintfH^hinch^ <m the cavt, by Weat Maryborough 
and by Oillinagh ; on the south, by the ^uaty of. 
Kilkenny } and, on the u-e^it, by the county of Tip« 
pevanr and King's county. Its greatest length, 
sd<ith by we«tn'ard, is 18 miles; uiid iti» brcudch i* 
from 3^ to 13.^. It u-us n*riiitly divided into tlw 
three baronicH of rpFEHWoooa in the north, ClaR'- 
MALLAGR in the south-ttast, and CiaAndonauii in 
the smith-weiit: see these articles. Pop., in 1^31, 
37, l<)7. Hou!(e4 6,U;i. Families employed chierty 
in agriculture. 5,i>S4; in niaiiutacturvs and trade, 
798; in other pursuits, (Hy 

O'SI'LLIVAN'S C ASC A l)E.RCclebrBtcd water- 
fall, in the parish of Knookaiie, barony of Dunkerrin, 
CO. Kerry. Mun^ter. It occurs in the tiiniultuous 
cciurse of a little rivuU't on the eastern di»cli»it> ot* 
Tomirx inmuitikin. and on the weHteni s<*r<un of tho 
liower Lake of Killurney, 14niile we<«t by south of 
InnisfalU'n. and 3^ wesu^outh-wcbt uf killariiuy. 




A toumt, . approaching it from tlie bosom of the 
laklB, .Ifurxb on a smku rude (^uay at (he hekd of a 
little bay^ and a3e;iends a Winding pfcth, along the 
bank of a foaming torrent, and throUgh an almost 
impenetrable forest. ** The roaring or the torrent 
dashing with violent agitation from rock to rock^ 
kindles expectation to the highest, and the water-lkll 
retires fo far into .the bosom of a wooded glen, that, 
though almost deafened by its roar, you do not catrli 
even. a glimpse until It "bursts at once upon the view 
The cascade consists of three distinct falls; the up- 
permost passing over a rid^ of rock, falls about 
twenty feet perpendicularty into a natural basin bo- 
neath, then^ maldng its way between two hang in ;;^ 
ropk«, the torrent hastens down a second precipice 
into a similar t^eceptacle, from which second depo<!i- 
tory, concealed from the vieU', it rolls over into tIjc; 
lowest chamber of the &11. Beneath a project m^,^ 
rock, overhanging the lowest basin, is a grottu, with 
a seat rudely ci^ in the rock. 

Fronte sub aidvena scopulU ptrndentibus antrum 
-; vivo<{ae MNlllla saxa 

From this little grotto the vie^ of the cascade h 
peculiarly beautiful and interesting : it appearii a 
cymtinuea flight. of thr^ unequally etevated foamy 
stages'.' The recess Is encompassed by rocks, and 
overshadowed by an arch of foliage, so thick 9& itt 
intesrupt the admission of light; the height of ihf 
cascade is about seventy feet, and the body of watiT 
so .cbnnderablc^at the poise soon becomes intoler- 
alofe. Such , a combination of circumstances raii 
hwdly fail to produce the effect of grandeur and suh- 
limity in a ver^ striking manner. The stranger not 
uhfreauently sits down to rest with>n the grotto of 
0*Sullivan, to contefnplate and reflect; upon thv 
beautjes and the works ' of , nature.; and, unless hiA 
nerves. be of considerable strength, he may chance to 
be. somewhat startled bv the sudden appearance of 
visitors on each side, of nira: these are the inhatn- 
tants of the glcha and valleys in the mountain ^f 
bpsom, who, perceiving the boat making for the 
shore, hasten to greet the stranger in the rustic 
cav.e,'an4 present lilm vitb the wild fruit of their 
happy vales. The appellation of VO^Sullivair h 
bestowfsd upon this fidl, from ah illustrious family ^i 
the name, who were proprietors of the barony of 
Dunkerrin, formerlj^ calked O'SnlUvan's country, 
atn^ Wer^ styled pnnces by the' Irish.'^ [Guide to 
KillarneyJ ' .' 

edilv near Old Weir Bridge, and on itie nioist rapid 
pfa't of tlie riyer betWeen the Upper i^Jce and ;;he 
Middle Lake of 'killarney, cd. iCerrv, Mnnster. ft 
clpsely ^sembles the WhiHpools called the Swillie^ 
in itie Viclnfty of* Ban^r Ferry. 
OtTG ATRNCF;, or OwE]roAR5]6r, a small rfver of 
the ^astjern (lifitrkt of co. Clarei Munster. It ri^t^s 
a'^W ^^('(^ho!^ iuuth of LoOffb O'Ofrady, ami run6 12 
n^jte^s *outh"^utli-we^t pasft Si3t-Mil0.BHd^ to the 
siiahnoTT, lit i point verf' pearly opposite the moutii 
of the Mni^;, 
_6ttGlIAVAL, See AtjtiUAVAL. 
f ITtttlTER TLotrcH), a lake in the baronies of 
'^tjl!(^lionoho, t'lfpeV Lou^htee and Lower Lough- \ 
to J c<i. Cavaru T' Inter. Its length is 3) mil^; its ; 
brt^dth U 3 uiilesi; and its area com p^-iMs 74.acri;s^ : 
19- perches in the parish 0^ Kille^handM, ^,lf54aci-eri | 
in 'the parish of fCilmore. 452 acres, 3 roods, 13 
perches in the parish of UrKey, 043 acres, I rooil, 
2. parches in the parish of Dnimlane, arid lOacri^s, 
d roods, 9 pervhes in the parish of ' Kildallon. lu 
surfaoe-elkvation above sea-level is 160 feet. It g%* 
pands along the course of the river Erne ; but, on 
the one hand, is to far and often intersected by bold 

headlands, wooded promontories^ and Um (ertHe . 
islands, and, on the other, is so cloaeiy flanked by 
the series of small lakes which give so liUiyniithin^e » 
character to the country around Kille^lianara, Cross.,/ 
doney, Fartiham, and Kilmore, that it looks bptli to 
the eve and on a map as if it were a numerous .^Vf* 
ter ot lakes. Its shores are, in the litest degree, in- 
tricate; and its scenery, thpugh neither powerful 
nor strictly romantic, is interesting and beautifiiU, Its. 
principal islands are Inch Trinity and EonialL.;^4 
the residencies on its shores, or within a mile of it» 
margin, are Castle- Hamiltpn, Garttionaill-CQttage. 
Druin^oon-house, Lahard-bouse, Portaliffe-housc, . 
Danesfort-house, Kilmore-palace, Richhill-bowse^ 
TuUy-house, Nixon-lodge, and Asb^ve. . In l23r '. 
or V249, an abbey of Premonstratensian canonajvas. 
removed from an island in Lougfa Key ia co. Rpa- 
common, to an island in I«ough Oughter; fnd, in 
1570, it was granted by Queen Elizabeth to Fugh ' 
O'Reilly for 21 years at the rent of £2 58. 6d. IriiSi.' 

OUGHTERAGH. See Outragp, 

OUGHTERASY. See Ikeathy, 

OUGHTERARD, a small market ai^d post town 
in the parish of Kilcoinmon, barony of Mojcullcni 
CO. Gahvay, Connaagbt. It stands on the rividet 
iFeagh, on the west shore .of Lough Corrib, jmd oil . 
the road from Galway to Clifden, 8 milea so'uthi' by 
west of Cong, by boat across Lough Cornb, 14 
^Orth-west by north of Galway, 26 east by soutb ,oi , 
Clifden, and 119 west of Dubun. The ^urroui^diiu^ 
country is wild and romantic ; the portions of n 
immediately adjacent to the iown have recently un-, 
dergone much georgical improvement; the nearest 
shores of Lough Corrib, though low and ta^ie^ forpi 
the foreground of an extensive and very pleasidg, 
landscape ; and the perspective toward the interior 
of Cunnemara is grand, powerful, and impoang. ; 
The town itself straggles at such length along fhe . 
Fcagh, as to lose all compactness, and t^ cofstityte 
two parts or divisions of powdering and uttfeKiiqgs^ 
of houses ; but it is clean, airy, and, far so very re-^ 
mote a plaqe, not a little agrepuble itrid pretepding. 
The Feagh forms a series of rapfflE., almost mitouiit' 
ing to cataracts, immediately above the tovin ; it 
trots and dances, in the most limpid current, mid ln\ 
the merriest mood, f^^om end to end of tW toii'n : , 
and it finally dives into the earth, and possie^ tht^ii^' 
a natural tunnel of limestone into Lgt^gh Corru>l 
!Near the series of rapids is Clitrcvllle, the lodg« of, 
A. P. St. George, I^sq., fte proprietor of the Uimi j^^ 
immediately below the rapids it; tlie Ur^e Roin|ua^^ 
Catholic dhapel ; farther dowTi is tha sjimlfT, Ijut ne*f' 
parish-church ; a little riorth of the foot of IJie tq>d 
IS a considerable infimtry' barrack ; aiid in the ncwr 
wcinity are the seats of Corribdult?, Rol>trt Miirtui* 
Esq.,— liemonfleld, T. H. OTlagbcrty, Estj.;V 
Conribrifew,— Portacaim, Mr. N&laii^ — aod Saridjv 
fcnount. Fairs are held in theto\^ni on Jsji. 1, Macch 
125, June 24, and Oct. J5. Tradi? ^&ii be earned m 
with Coiiff and;G8lway by small boat na vijci^ation u^ 
Loogh l^rrib: Some good marble occurs in the ' 
vicinity, and might be largeHy quairicd. A <?cmrt of 
petty-tessions is held' on the scconft Thursday tf^ 
every month ; and courts of qtiajier-5Cii|Aio)tft4|LrcIieliJ^ \ 
for the west riding of t)ic county. Tbc ^owti U ' 
the residence ■ of a stipendiary magi$tfi|_te, and :t^e' 
head-quarters of both the t«^hole W(rsrri()ing^f and ooe ' 
of its 7 districts, of the constabulary f'orcuy ^ , ^ 4^ 
pens^ry in the town is within the Poo/, law iitiibn of, 
Galway, and serves for a district of llftSpOOD ^crEs, 
with a pop. of IdyOOO; and, in 1840-41, U expeudttd 
£131 103. 6d., and made 4.330 di:^pi?nsa;ioni of 
medicine to 3,201 naticnts. Oughterard gives tiaoie ; 
to a Roman Catholic parish in the dHo. Of Oalwmt. * 
Area of the town, 57 acres. Pop., fai IS41, 718. 




Ifnu«cs 1 15. Familict employed chiefly in agricul- 
lurct 50; in mHtiufiirturei* aiid trade, 40; in other 
purKuit^, 3f>. Fninilie«( dependent chiefly on pro- 
porfy and I rofewionH, 17; on the directing of labour, 
49 ; on their oviii manual laltour, 58 ; on mcaim not 
siM'rififd, 8. 

OI'GIITER A UD.ii parish in the barony of South 
Salt, 5 miles iiorth-ea<tt of Naag, co. Kiluare, Lein- 
Ktcr. Length, westward, 3 mile^ ; extreme breadth. 
*i|; area, 2,919 arreA, *2 roodn, 22 porcheft. Pop., in 
|J«1, 223 ; in 1841. 4(». Houses 73. The surfiice 
lie4 on the eastern margin of the countv^ po&^esdcs a 
divetsified contour and character, and is traversed 
by the mail-road from Dublin to Limerick, Cork, 
and Waterford. A height on the eastern boundary 
ha.-« an altitude of COS feet above <tea*lcvel ; and a 
height at the old church and pillar-tower has an 
alrituile of 456 feet. The seats are Bishopscourt- 
hou^. Castle warden-house, and Iliittonroad, — the 
second thv re;iidencc of Mr. Palliser, and the first 
the hahdsoine residence of Mr. Ponsonby. A town 
railed Cloneglif^h is saia to. have formerly fltood in 
the vicinity of the church ; but, j'f it ever exitttetU it 
hat completely disappeared. The church in small, 
and a ruin ; it is stated to have been rebuilt in 1G09, 
unon the rite of a very ancient chantry; and under. 
the west end of it is an old crypt, useil as the bury, 
ing- place of the Ponsonby Cunily of Bishopscourt. 
A mutilated pillar- tower stands not more than 30 
feet from the ruins of the church. •* The door 
faces the east, and is 10 feet from the ground. The 
bead of this door w, round, and the ar^ i^ funned of 
9 massy blocks of stone. At the height of 20 feet 
on the south nde is a window of the same shape and 
dimensions as the door, "^^'ithin are the remains of. 
brackets designed for the support of lofts." — This 
parish lies witnin the dio. of Kildare, and secnu* to 
haTe been at one time a rectory ; but it is not now 
recognised as a parish in the ecclesiastical dinsioits. 

OUCHTERLEAGVE, or Bill, a parish 3* miles 
north by west of Golden-bridj|^e, and partlv m the 
baron}' of Clanwilb'am, but chiefly in that of Lower 
Kilnemanagh, co. Tipperary, Munstcr. The Clan- 
wiTliani section lies detache'd from the Lower Kilne- 
managh sect ion half-a-mile to the east . Length of the 
ClanwOIiam section, southward, l^mile; extreme 
breadth, I ; area, 735 acres. 1 rood, ;» percios. 
Lengtb of the Lower Kilnemanagh section, south 
by eastward. 31 miles; extreme breadth, 1^ ; area, 
1 .8RI arre^ 1 rood. 22 perches. Pop. of the whole, 
in 1831, 975; in 1841, 1,100. Houses 164. Pop. 
of the Lower Kilnemanagh section, in 1841, 677. 
Houpca 97. The surface consists, in general, of 
good land; and that of the Lower Kilnemanagh rec- 
tioii is largely adoniedby tbo woods and the demesne , 
of Killtfaure-castlc. The other seats are Knocka^i 
ilHi-cottage, Ballyalter^house, and Grovestowiu 
brmw. The Mutton rivulet doscribes i\ large extent 
nf the boundary of the Lower Kiloemanagk section. 
— Thi'* paritth is a rectory, and jwrt of the lienefice 
nf Ball I y TEMPI ji [whidi seel, in the dio. of rashel. 
Tithe composition, £^42. The Roinan Cntholic 
rhapri has an attendance of 970; and, in the 
Cathalic parochial arrangement, is uniurd to the 
rhapel of BBllintemple. In 1834, the ProtcstwiU 
•Rifrjrircd to 43, and the Roman Catholics to U84 ; 
and 2 ptt^- daily schools had on their books 135 iKiys 
ird 5) fTirN. 

01 (IHTM ANA, a parish iji the extreme north of 
:te barony of Bur ren. and the county of Clare. Mun- 
►Trr. It contains the villages of Ai'oiiininii nnd 
F»«TAnnA: >pe these Hrticle<. It consists <»f 4 
I rjirjpiJ Lfortioiis. two of which are in<«iilutcd, mid 
t«u a lit»ii- dt*tached. Lfiigth, wci^t by northward 
•••tf t!'ie iatcraccting belts of land and water, 3} 

miles ; extreme breadth, 2^ ; area, .9,843 a^es, 1 , 
rood, 14 perches,— of which 34 acres, 3 roods, 27 
perches are in Lough Murree. Pop., in 1841, ^074. _^ 
Houses 325. Both the Census and the Kcclesiastical . 
Authorities state the pop. i|i 1831 at 793 ; and they 
appear to have omitted certain townlaiids noticed in 
the article Aubet : which see. The surface consi- 
derably projects in^to Galway bay, contains the two ' 
hcadUmas of Aughinish Point and I^inavarra Point j 
and QonsUts, for the most part, of tolerably good 
and rather low land. Abbey-hill, on the ea>tem. 
boundary of the most easterly district, has an altitude' 
above sea-level of 795 feet. Two batterien are on 
the coast. The seats arc Scaveen-lodge, Marine- 
lodge, Mount- Vemon-lodge, and Finavarra-house ; 
and the hamlets are Carrpwntobber, Behagh, Car- 
rownabranra, and Carrowdrumbranagh. — This parish , 
is a rectory, and part of the t>enefice of KiLcoRSfANis 
[which ieel, in the dio. of Kilfenora. Tithe com- 
position, £120. The Roman Catholic chapel has, 
an attendance of 560 ; and, in the Roman Catholic 
parochial arrangement, is united to the chapel of 
Kilkenny. In 1834, the inhabitants of the town- 
lands included in the parish, as exhibited in the' 
Census of 1831, were all Roman Catholics; and a! 
pay daily school had on its books 80 boys and 20 

OriL. See OwnsL. 

OCIiART, a post village in the parish of Mil- 
lenagh, barony of Ballaghkeen, co. "V^exford, Lein- 
rter. It stands on the east n»ad from Wejrfbrd to' 
Gorey, 9 miles north-ngrth-east of Wexford, IH* 
south-south-west of Gorey, and 55 south by west of. 
Dublin. Fairs are held on Jan. 6, Feb. 28, ApriOf 
17, May^. aiKl Sept. 29. A court of petty-seS;.^ 
sions is held on the second Tuesday of.every month. ^ 
The town has a Roman Catholic chapel, aconstabu-' 
lary barrack, and a fever ho>pitiil and dispensary.) 
Tlie chapel gives name to a Roman Catholic parii»b' 
in the dio. of Ferns ; and is parochially united to a. 
chapel at Ballaghkeen. The fcver hospital is. 
situated a little north ^ of the village, is within tho 
Poor-law union of Knuiscorthy, and serves for a dis- 
trict containing a pop. of 12,161 ; and, in 1839-40, 
they received X175 10*., and expended £206 IB*. . 
8d.. and the hospital admitted GO patients. Oulart 
made some figure in the appalling scenes of the re- 
hellion of 1798. Si»e Wkxfoiid (County of).' 
Area of the village, 5 acres. Pop., in 1831, IGI i 
in 1841, 28.1. Hpwses W. 

OULER (LoroH), a small lake in the pari>h of 
Derryloii^rVf H °ules north of Glendalough. barony 
of North jBallinacor, co. Wicklow, Leiiister. IjU 
lies at an elevation of 1,829 feet above sea-lcvel ; 
and its su[K'rfluent waters form paft of the cascaffe 
at the head of GleninacaniiHs. 

OURRID CLot'oii). a lake on the mutual border 
of the baronies of Movctdlen and Ballinabinch, co. 
Galway, Connaught^ It measures 1| mile in length ; 
lies immcdiat«)y west of Ualfway-hou^, and closely 
adjacent to the road from Galway to Clifden ; and^ 
ha«5 a surfiice-elev-ation of 15H ft»et above sei^level. 
Ourrid-hill i^ «ituiiti'd in the inu'ii'h of Kilcoinroon, 
24 niile:» south of tho lake, and has an altitude of 757 
fi'et above sea*lcvel; but a viountain which over, 
hangjt the north side of the lake ban an altitude of 
2.128 feet. 

OTTRAGH, or Out:ftiTf:KAr.if. a parish in the 
barrtn^- of Cwrigallfn, co. Leitrini, Conniinght. It 
contains the town of Hallin\mobk : which >ee. 
Length, south-eastward, 7J mile> ; exiremebreiidth, 
4^; area, 2l.(J81) acres. 3 roods. 20 perches — Jif 
which 4S.> acres. 30 perches are water. Pop,, in 
1H31. 8,440; in 1841. y.2.M, Houses l..i57. Pop. 
of the rural districts, in lb:U, 8,137; in IMI, 8,3C)9. 




Houses 1,411. The surfarc is v«ry diversified in 

contour and character, and rfmsii)t4i, in a f^cneral 

Tiew, of Riiddlc-ratc land. Bencrov, the highcirt 

ground, is situiited on the northern* boundary, and 

has an altitude of 1.707 feet above sea-level. Lough 

St. John's, the largest lakesi, lice on the south-west 

boundary, and has a f«urfarc-e1evation of *i05 feet 

above sea-lerel. The other = lukesi' af^ G«ofge*a, 

' Cainma^h, , Gallow-HiU, Dromore, BblMUiard, Cor- 

gtir, ArdmWrYian, and Drumlonan. Tlw prindpal 

seats ar^ TVillowfield, CioverhiU, and' RircrdMe; 

and the chief hamlets are Edcfrtinny, Lahard, Cas- 

tlerogy, Grea»;hff1a8S, DrumkeeA, Creaghrerai^hr 

more, Stulongford, and Potteroe. The road from 

Carrick-on- Shannon to Belturbet pasMs throngfa the 

interior. — This parish ia a vicarage, and a seplirate 

benefice, in the dio. «f Kililiore. Vicarial tithe 

rompositioh, £65; glebe, £240 59. lid. Gross io- 

comc, £488 ^. I Id. ; neft, £407 16». Oid. Patron, 

the diocesan . The rectorial tithen are compounded for 

£183 ; and are appropriate to the diocesan, but are 

received by the vicar for a payment to th^ dioce«aii 

of £9 13s. 10} d. A curate receives a ralary bf £75. 

, Tlie church is situated at BAlUnamore, Und \his built 

in 1787 by hieaits of (iarochidl aMessment, and verv 

'recently enliii'ged by means of a vontribation of £48 

12$. 4<f. frtm the funds of thc^ Eeclesiasticitl Gom- 

Tnissioiiers. Sitftlings previous to the enlargement, 

240 ; attendaince 200. The Roman Catholic chapel 

is also situated at Ballinambre,'and has an arttendaftce 

' of 1 ,400. Iii 1834, the Protestwit* Counted to 

':l,117, and the Koman Catholics, io 7.3.t2 ; and 19 

daily schooh— one of wMch aif WiUifbrook was 

,*^aUiried widi£8'from the London Ladies' Hibernian 

' Society, ^A a gradofttcd alfOWibce from the London 

' niberniaA Society— blia on their bocAcs 569bbvBand 

isSgirK . ■ 

'7 Or^TRAClj.' 6t Ovrt^tiMtik, a parish in the 

^;barfjn> df Mlddlc^ibird» 3 mile;* riorth -north-east of 

^ Cnhlr* CO. Ti[>[Jt?TJtry, Mtinsti^r. Length, \<fest by 

^' pouilinjir^, 2 mill'*; extrctm^ breadth, 1^ ; area, 

'1^,747 a ^*rc-i. fi roofls, t*4 pcrrht*^, Pt^pi, 'in 1881, 

" mi i ij] 1 81 U 5,54 . Ho use !* Ifl*. A cmi fii|crsb1e por- 

' '.tjort of the >Tirr[ic(? 15 r3i(!fHcnt mcfedowiand gmzing 

''''liftta ; and tbt- r^itjnliic^i' i« gfiod tiltrij^ groudd. 

^'I'he Onlj/ seat is Onttaifh-hotif^ : and the intiquities 

'''^e mirta of A chyrrh mid acaiftie. The road from 

'Y'CjiJiir t(i Cashel ptL-H's t^mi^'^Ji the fiVterior This 

"parish U 11 re^-rorv, in ih<? dit>. of Li?itiore. Thhe 
-'i-ompai^itmTu £9-2 3f^. 8d. t gWbe, X:JO. " The reo- 
' tbHes cif Out nigh and '^^foriTLBifif f*wv [see that, 
^^'artidpt/conj^titutf thi- bcncfift' cif Out high. Length, ^ 
>i Viiili's; Lire^idth, 2. l\tp.. in 183t, 1,176. Qt<m 
; ncti. £2^4: i\h.HA,' Patron, 
Protc-^tsTitft aftt'fulthe chiifch 
■' ' D f Nt' W' Inn , di^itttti t 2 miJo s . Irt J KT4. the PTotea- 
; 'fants of pQtmj^h parish jKnourrte^ to 6, and the 
;■ Rortwin CatfroUcs to fi30 ; the Protestants of the 
ll'nnitin to 15, anil the Ronnunf^atholie?* to 1/224; and 
' II (Ifiilj' :?rijoil irt tho parish and the htuoti wasMlarred 
'\yith £5 a-Veur from Col. PallU(?r, £2 from the 
cufatis Jintl £p ffoin D'r, Bcll^ and had on Its Wks 

: " ^ ru' T K A 1 ' n : ^ pnfm i t\ th e bkron y of Shflldo- 

/^ glH'r/24 riHlp4^cnitf^ by s^t^t <jf Kilk^-Tiny; tfi. Kilkenny, 

! LcUKtor- Lengths stuifli-we'^tiVfiird, 2^ miles ; ertreme 

" 'hreiJdth, 2 j rtfea, %\m iicrt^s, 2li perches. Pop., in 

1831^ ncturding to tj\e t'^rijin!?, 057, but Urcording to 

^^hi? "fefoleaiaibc^Jil Authoritii ^ f ,^if> : ' in 1841, 599. 

TfousCs 88. 'rhe surface cpntvists of tolerablr good 

}cj\^ ; aiid is traveiined by the road from Rilkdmiy 

to Knocktophc'r. The only sent is Prospectt -house ; 

- • Thii reoMii of tbf diff«nmci; butwcso tbc tno aiit)ioritic9 
Kuem^to bi^^aL th« Uisthiit uf Ui-Rii^e i» ti-cato<l jxlitirall.v 
as a 8e]»arato jtarisli, ami ecclckiaKticaH; an part of Oiitrath. 

ti Viiili's; LireJ^dth, 2. 
'■*^tf\f diocesan* The I 

the chief hamleta are Upper BAdaliooEa. and Lower 
>Badalioore( and the pnncipal antiquity i« the ruin 
of a church.-~^Thi8 parish ia a rectory, and/ part of 
the benefice of Incbiholoban [which see], in tkfi 
dio. of Oasory. Tithe compoaition, £200. The 
Roman Catholic chapel of Grange has an attend- 
ance of 700 ; and, in the Roman Catholic parochial 
arrangement, is imited to the chapela of Danesfprt, 
KcUa, LMlyVvrelU and BenBet'a^Bricfaie. In 18M, 
the Protestants amounted to 10, and the Roman Ca- 
tholics to 1,545 ; and a pay daily school was usually 
attended by about 49 children. 

OUVANE (Thb), a mountain rivuletof the barony 
of Bantry, co. Cork, Munster. It rises among the 
Sbehy mountaina, at tlie north>east extremity of the 
barony, ^d runs 7^ milea south-weatward to the 
head of Bantry ba^, at a point 2^ niilea north by 
east of the town of Bantry. . . 

OVENS, a hamlet in the pariah -of Athoowen, 
barony of East Maskerry, eo. Cork, Munster. It 
Btanda 6 miles west by south of Cork, on the road 
th<<Ace to Bantry, on ihe river Bride, amI on the 
route' of the proposed railway from the Dublin 
and Cork line to Berehaven. It ii the site^ of a 
dnircfa and a Roman Catholic dupel ;. and in its 
Viditity i« a limestone cavern of some intoreat. 

OVOCA, or AvocA, a saperUy acenie rim^. m 
the county of Wirklow, LciiMter. It is fonncd by 
the confluence of the A vonbeg and the AroniBore at 
the junction-point of the three baronac* of Arklow» 
South Ballinacor, and North Ballinacor ; iml it 
thence flows 3^ miles southward to -the oontaenoe 
with it of the Aughrim river, and 4 miles aOivkh-cast- 
'ward thenoe to the sea immediately below Arklow. 
See AvoNBEO, Avonmoks, and Auobkuiw The 
Ovoca's place of formation by the oaoflnence of the 
A vonbeg and the Avonmore ia now tepo^vaphiadly 
as well as poetically known under thoocmgnatiion en 
The Meeting of the Watent'and'itsplhUe'oficon- 
fluence M'ith the Aaghrim riwr ir knoWn **i»The 
SecoAd Meethig of the Tfatoi%. Th« pfkicipal 
places of interest on the banks or oterhanging Ae 
course of the' river from the Mfeetihg of' the wiiters 
dovrn to the «ea are Ovoca-cottage, Castlc^Howard, 
Ballvmurtagh mines, Cronebhne minetf, Ballyga- 
han-hous^' Cherrymount-hoiiae» TinnehiDCh-^house, 
MiHmount • house, Bellcva&.hou8e, Newbridge^til- 
JagA, Ovoco-lodgc, KnocknamohiltbduM, B^Uaa- 
'pbrk-honse. Wood vale, Parknashaw-houM, Bally- 
arthnr-boQ«p, Portland^inns-botel, Olenart-caade, 
Sheepwialk-house; Shelton-«bbey, Baliymu»^oBse« 
Wobdmouht - hoose, Lambertin - hodse^ Kflbride- 
house, CiV)ghan-KinfthelA, and tfa« town of Atfklow; 
and our 4rti<yic8 oii the more importtst of those 
locdlStii^s cohtain notices of whatever U moHt inter- 
lestlng in either the menery, the associitiona, or the 
mineral treasures of the val^. ** The banka of ffhe 
river, hi this relebrated vkle,*' says the aotho^ of the 
Qrtideto Wicklow, **are about ^ of a linle in breadth, 
ami their inclinations nearly equal, and far • diatahee 
of almost 4 miles so closely wooded that there ia 
only seen one contmued uninterrupted awrfaea of 
foliage, over which it would appear ahnoat. ■raati 
cable toti^alk,- and through which ihe tun can hndlj 
be supposed capable of penetrating, while* in liie 
iirternil between the opposntg forerti^ tIcf'Ovoca 
■rolls Sta dark and murmuring tide." " We now 
enter the Vale of Ovoca," fpays Brewer; ••■nd 
here the attention of the lover 'of the jpictureaqae, 
and we may add. the respectfiil paune of every man, 
duly conscious of the l>enignity with which the great 
Author of nature ha^ adorned the painfal human 
travel with beautic:* which soothe the carea of Hfe, 
and elevate the imagination, are HrKt demanded by 
the point at wbich takes place the jimction of the 



■ i 








Ardarra. The riglit of fishing in the stream is pri- 
rate property. 

OWENERRIVE (The), a rivulet of oo. Mayo, 
Connauffht. See Erritb. 

OWENOARNEY. See Oitoarwer. 

OWENMORE (The), a rivulet of the barony of 
Morisk, CO. Mayo, Connaught. It issues from the 
small lake LugacoUiwee, at an elevation of 791 feet 
above sea4evel ; and runs 2 miles north-westward, 
I nortb-eastward, 5^ east-south-eastward» and 24 
south -south -westward, to the formation of the 
Errivc, at the conftucnce of the Owenduff. Its 
whole course is %vithin the parishes of Aughaval and 

OWENMORE (Tmc), a river of the barony of 
Erris, CO. Mayo, Connaught. It is formed on the 
east verge of the barony, by the confluence of a 
stream of 5^ miles of length from the south, with a 
voluminous and ramified stream which brings down 
from the barony of Tyrawley the rivulets of AH- 
derg, Inagh» Fiddaunmuinggeery, and Oweniny ; and 
it runs 10^ miles westward to the head of TuUogh- 
aan bay, receiving in its progress the tribute of the 
Munhin, coming southward from the great lake of 
Carrowmore. ** The river Owennu>re," says Mr. 
Griffith, *' is by much the krgest and most important 
in the north- west of Mayo ; its principal suppty of 
water is derived from the northern sides of the Cor- 
lieve and Ne{^inbeg mountains ; the course of the 
river is short, the mstance between Tavnaughmore 
(where it may be first said to assume the character 
of a river) » to the meeting of the tide in the Gul- 
lamore river, is but ten miles> yet the quantity of 
water that sometimes runs in it is prodigious; its 
waters also rise and fall with unexampled rapidity. 
At the base of the mountain Knocklettercuss, I 
have known the water t^ rise ten feet in the course 
of two hours,, and fall again nearly in the same time. 
The valley of the river from Tavnaughmore to 
Knocklettercuss is extremely narrow and deep ; and 
the noountains rise from the surfikce of the water very 
abruptly on both sides. There is an excellent sal- 
mon fishery at the mouth of this river, which is at 
present very mudi neglected ; this is of great disad- 
vantage to the country ; if it were attended to as it 
deserves, there would be employment for many per- 
sons in the fishing season^ wnich would increase the 
population, and consequently cause the improvem^t 
of a proportionate quantity of the present neglected 
land ; for when the fishing season was over the 
people would find it necessary t» cultivate the 
ground for subsistence.** ^ 

OWENREAQH, cos. Tipperary and Kilkenny. 
See KiKo's Ritbr. 

O WENRE AGH (The), asmall and early tributary 
of the river Roe, co. Londonderry, Ulster. It rises 
among the Sperin mountains, on the southern margin 
of the county ; and runs about 4 miles northward to 
the Roe, at a point a mile or two above Dungiven. 

OWENREAGH, or Onrbaoh (Thk), a rivulet 
of the baronies of Clogher and Omagh, co. Tyrone, 
Ulster. It rises among the mountains, 2} miles 
south by west of Fintona ; and runs 34 miles west- 
north -westward, 3} northward, and 3 east -north- 
eastward, to the Drumragh, at a point 2| miles above 

OWENROE. See Moywalty. 

OWEY, an inhabited island in the parish of 
Templecroan, barony of Boylagh, co. Donegal* Ul- 
ster. It lies half-a-mile west -north -west of the 
nearest part of the mainland, 2 miles north-west by 
Mrest of Mullaghderg, 3 north-north-east of Arran, 
and 3 south-west of Gola Island. It has a low sur- 
face, and measures about 3 miles in circumference. 

OWHEL, or Ouel (Lough), a lake partly in 

the barony of Moyashri and Magherademon, bnt 
chiefly in that of Corkaree, co.Westmeath, Leinster. 
It extends south-eastward, from within | of a mile 
of Bujibrosna, to a point 2 miles from. Mullingar ; 
and it is politically distributed among the parishes 
of Leny, Portnashangan, Portloman, and Mullingar. 
It sends from the south-east end the new -bom . 
Brosna,. and from the north-west end a stream to 
Lough Iron, and thence to the river Inny; and it 
serves also^ in the direction of the Broana, as thegrand 
reservoir for the summit-level of the Royal Cuial. 
Its length is 3} miles ; its extreme breaath is If ; 
and its area comprises 175 acres, 3 roods, 18 perches 
within the parish of Lcny, 904 acres, 1 rood, 31 
perches within the parish of Portnashangan, 707 
acres, 2 roods within the parish of Portloman, and 
739 acres, 1 rood, 36 perches within the parish of 
Mullingar. Its surface-elevation above sea-level is 
326 feet in summer, and 3^ in winter. The highetfe 
grounds on its shores are Cullen in the south-east^ 
444 feet ci altitude above sea-level, and Frewin ia 
the west, 568 feet of altitude. The islets in the 
lake are very small, and bear the names of Church, 
Sindarra, Lackhouse, and Brown*s Islands. The 
seats upon its shores are Portloman-house, Leving* 
ton-park, TuUaghan, BalHnagall, Woodland, Chan- 
hugh-lodge. and Lakeview. ** Lough Ouel," says 
the Rev. Oesar Otway, *' is, in my opinion, one of 
the prettiest of Ireland's lakes. It is of a lowland 
character, and partakes of the soft pa^mgt ttyU of 
picturesque beauty ; no one would presume to com* 
pare the gentle naiad of Ouel vrith the magnifioent 
deities that preside over Killamey,. or UUeswater, or 
Kathrine ; but, after aU, it isi a precious Hjcm, of » 
lake ; and though there are no sublime peaks from 
whence tumble the thunder-riven rock and the ave- 
lanche — though no clouds rolling in awful mamri 
break on the mountain side, and send down the 
tumbling cataract, — yet here are the smooth, verdant 
bfcwns— the softly swelling sheep depastured hills-, 
the wooded banks — the island, timbered and eonse- 
crated by all the mournful associations connected with 
ruined churches. * * Playful and fiuitastic was 
the being who once dwelt and had power over the 
sweet valley through which the waters of Lough 
Ouel now flow. The times alluded to were tlKMe 
when the Tuatha-Danans possessed Ireland^when 
magical power was then prevalent— .and a fine towa» 
older still than Kilmallock, and worthy of its andent 
dwellers, covered the bottom of the valley. The 
fisherman, as he in modeni days pushes his boat from 
the shore, and is disappunted in his venture— by tha 
heavens becoming sunlit^ the wind still, ano tka 
calm mirror of the lake assuring him he will cast hit 
line in vain — it is then when he looks down, for want 
of something else to dov into the translucent deep^ 
that he sees stacks of chimneys, ridge polca, and 
gables of houses, and even a round tower-*Jrelaad'a 
most ancient edifice — and he calls to mind the ditty 
that his nurse has sung about the drowniiv of Old 

OWNEY AND ARRA,^ a barony in the west of 
the county of Tipperary, Munster. It is boimdad* 
on the north, by co. Oalway ;. on the north<»east» bf 
Lower Ormond ; on the east, b^ Upper Ormond; «B 
the south-east, by Upper Kilnemnagh ; oo the 
south, by CO. Limerick ; and on the west* by co. 
Clare. Its len^h, southward, is IS miles; ita «a»> 
treme breadth is 10^ ; and its area is 89,671 ) 
2 roods, 3 perches, — of which 4, 176 acres, S i 
33 perches are in Louffh Derg and the river 81yL 
Lough Derg lies on the northern and western I 
daries ; the Shannon continues the western bonodaif 
downward from Lough Derg; and the Newtown. 
the Kilmastulla, and the Mulkem rivuleta an th» 




pri nri pal jtreams of tV inferior. Tlie north- west cni that wliicli cpri*titutp3 the shori?;* an/ltlie. 
rnir <rreeos of the lo\<P«;r part of liOii-^h l>er;j, is 
inountunoud, and sends up siimiintj; to t^ie altitudes 
of 1,206, 1,517, M-27, aud l,0«i?, feet above sca- 
level; and the soyitb-east dis«trir*t coJ»tuui«* the al[)irie 
nucleus of the Keeper group of inountauiss, with au 
altitude of 2,278 feet aboyc sea-level ; aiid Jia*;, on 
the ea<*tern houndary and in the interior, summits 
of l,eu7, 1,204. and 1,7S;J, fi-ct of altitude. The 
north- West district produces the cclehrated Killaloc 
friates ; and both it and the soufh-wist ili^trirt are, in 
a Ki»neral"vje\v, good mineral fields. The other dii- 

tficts are ft^rtile, di^vcrsifled, and beautiful Thi"* 

barony contains part of the pju-islies of Abirigton and 
Monsea, and the \\Oio!c of the pari<h<s of ftnrge«<- 
1»CK, Castlefownarra, Kilromenty, Killoj^rully, KiU 
nuKtuIla, !^iTnarath, Kilvoluno,' Yonghalarra, and 
Tcmplcocfaallv. The chief villages are Newport, 
llallinu, a^jd l»brtroe. Pop., in ISIJl, .12,454; in 
1S4!, 3l,2U2. J3iAi<es 4,941. Families eniploybh' 
chiefly in agriculture, 4,404; iti inanuifHCtures and 
trad^,' f>W; In other pursuit*, 'J8D. Purtiilies de- 
pendent cfciefly on property and profecsio^s, 77 ; on 
the dircfctjng of labour, 1,440; or their o.w^ thaniml 
labour, 8,670 ; on mean* not specified, 111. Males at 
anil alKnre 5 years of age who could read an<TwritP. 
5.*^ ; who could read but not write, 2,5t?0 ; ^vho 
coirtd neither n*ad nor write, 5,72H. Female^ at 
and above 5 years of age who could read and write, 
"2X191 ; who could read but not >mte, 3,^1 ; ^vho 

could neither read nor \Vritc, 7.517 Owp.oy and- 

Arra barony lies* wholly -within the Poor-law ui:ion 
of Kenagh. The total number of tenements vHlticd 
if !*.488; and of these, 1,824 wtre ^-alued under £5, 
^772, midcr £10,-325, under £15»— 177, under 
£20,— 51R, under £25,-66, under £:10,_75, under 
£40.-39. under £50,— and 112, at afnd above £5. 

OWXKYBEG. a barony In the north of the 
county of Limerick, Munsfer. It is bounded, ou 
the north and east, by Co. Tippcrary"; on the ?outh, 
by Coonagh; and on thift i<outli-eart and iHist, by 
i'lanii-iUivn. Lenpth, WTstward, 10^ miles; cx- 
trenie breadth, (JJ ; area, 27,211 acres." The greater 
part of the jmrfece is occiipied by the heights, the 
^ens, afuT the declivities of the Slieve-Phclini moun- 
tains TWs baroiry coritains the *wbofe cvf the par- 

Hh of Toogh, and 'part of th^ parishes of AWngton 
and Doon. The chief A-illatjes are Cappaglmiore. 
Mofve. and AMngton. Fop., in IWI, 10.0ft2; in 
l«#l. 10,782. Hcxi»e9 !:(M0. Families empldyW 
rkir^ m a^ciilrore, 1,4115; in niamifnrtutes and 
f radt*. ttl ; m ot^er piirsnits, T^. Familje*' depend- 
rtif cWefly on property and proftssions^ '15; on the 
directing of lal^aar, 614 ; on f heir own manual labour, 
1,108; on mMns not specified, 37. Male«» at and 
■iiOTe 5 %-eani of aw who could read atid wrib^, 
I.d08; wlio rould read but not write, 723; who 
coiiM neither reatl nor write, 2,094. KemaU-^ at 
and ahove 5 years of age who coiild read and write, 
ftjil; who could re.'d but not \Yrite, HIO; who eonld 
wihrr read hdh M-rite, . 2.77T. — < >wiie\ U^x ■ lies 
wholty within the VVJor-law finion of LJinerirk. 
The't'ptal numl>er of tcwnlents valued i^ 7i^'2 ; atid 
ctf The«r, 25fi Were \Til«ed iind».r X3,- Ml*),' under 
£10.— ll«. under £!&,=— 54, under £20,— 5 i, under 
£23.— ^1. umler £;M»,-^2, under £40,-^7, under 
zJi}, — and 74. at and above £50. 

OWMISO, OoyiNc:, llKAiMKr. or F^rwi.KT, a 
f«ri«b in the Iwronvof fverk, 2i mile.-* iiortli by we»4t 
frt Pilltown, CO. Kilkenny, lieinster. Lengrh, '«(Mith- 
•ttnth- went ward, 4\ miles; extn'me brcjidth, 2j ; 
»r.'a. 4'>,0-1l> acre*,' 2 rood*, 13 perrhes. Pop., in 
Kll. 1.2^1; in IKII, |,.^V2. Houses I'U. The 
i.'.rrh*»rn di.-trict, af.d a small part of the north-wc^'t 


border, Are mountnf^o»?q ; but the other districts con- 
sist of, tolerably good arable lai.-d. . A smu^jt in the* 
noi-th has an altitude above sea-lc'ycf rtf 1,00^ feef ; 
and rtne on the north-west boun<)ury has an altitude 
of 7!^ feet. The seats are Kanniiig«itot\'ri-h6ufiC, llal- 
lyhenabery-housi*, flarrynare- house; find' Anhfield-. 
bouse; and the hamlets arc Ou^rydWfr; Knockroe; 
and UwTiing,^— the hilst \yith a pop., hi lf*yi, of 50. 
'I'be cbiircJi of Owning still survives in rulri'; and" 
is traditioniilly alleged to have bew'i built by t'rni 
Walsh, arid to hj^ve taken from her it-* laune of Una . 
or Owning. In'tHe soutK ronieK of the church- 
yard stood recently 'a very old yew'tree. 19 feet in' 
girth, and >(>. hollowed in the centre that, 3 or 4 
|)er.sons could .'ifjuid, upright in it;" rinH ;ibout *JlK) 
paces to the north is a pro»rtr.ited •TOtnW'ch; WhO'Sc ' 
rovcring-stone measures OJ fret in l^Mgfh, 7 in 
breadth, and 2 in thicknes*: — This parish is a rec- 
tory, aiid part of the. benefice of FrDtJoT\N^ [whicfi 
sop\ in the dio. of Ossorv. 'Htlife com])ositir/n, 
£1W); glebe,' !i- 45. The 'Roman Catholic chapel 
has an aftendfmcc of 1,0<H); and, fn the Roman Oa- 
tbolie parochial arrangemdfii, is united to the chapola 
f)f Tompleormn and rillto\vn. Tij Ift'M, the Pro- 
testants amounted to'40i and the Rinian Catholics X6 
.1,272; a Honian CatKolie f^unday school whs usually ' 
attended bv about 120 childtrn";' ahd 2 daily schools 
were'aideci froni the funds of the National Hoard 
and from subscription, and had on' th'eir books 83 
l)ovs and 00 giris. 

OWKKGAHE, or rafifiAar, a>irish, 2 miles 
FOtith-cast of Bhiff, and partly ih the bsrnjny of 
^^'.nall County, but chiefly in t\iaf of <'o.'4htrta,' co. 
J/imericfc. Munster. Area of the 5*maH Coimty *!cc- 
tion, 1,^40 acres; of the Cosh ma section, 3,0i>4 acres. " 
•Pbp. of the wholc.-^n 1851, 1,8?>; inl«4l, !,{««.' 
Hou«<es 2t?4. Pop. of the CosHtiia sertibn, in 1831. 
1,1P2; in 1^1, l,l(W. ITnuses \^.' The sutfiice 
ron.sists of Tei*v gdod land, and i* Vatcrcd by the ". 
■^foming-Star nvnb«t: Among the seats is Oreefi-" 
pari:. — This parish is a nc;i'rage, ipht a i^aratc 
benctice, in the dio. of Lbucrtcic; Vicarial tithe 
rrimpO"«ftion and groiss income; £12B 8*. Id.; nett, 
£116 8*. Id. Patrons, the 'Duke *f Buckingham, 
the Earl of Ranfurly, and the archdeacon of Lim- 
bricfc. The incumbent hobh also tbe rtipcntfiafy 
hiirary of Kilitiallock, and resides xniMii ^ h miw ' 
hf Owregnri'. The rfrtoriul trthft* are roni|»oundt'd 
for £258 IDs. 2d. ;'and are ifnproptAite in Sin*. Gradv 
of Elton. There i«< iro church ; and the occasioifttl 
Hnties are dlst'harpl^d by a Wrute for a sidary t>f £10. 
In IK'H, the Protestants amounted to ^5. and'tfrt ■ 
Honian Cafh<Wcv* to l.flfir ; and th<«w Wm* mMM. 

0\ MOI'NTAINS, a mnge.ofwnJ«t}di«t1r/\ht''^ 
county of Sligd, Counaught. U cMffiWienWtit'tRi 
nouthlwt'^tern vicfinity of th^ \'i<lagt? wf Bkllysadere ;■ 
extends west-south-westward, Rl(m|rfhe*muV(mlboN 
der of the Iwrnnies of* Tyreragh an* !^?nev,"to llw 
extremity of the cotmfy ; and e(rtineets with th^ ' 
Lurgsm hills. In Vhe tHJrtntrof -Mayir. ' ^tv^iVA<^AV. 
The priiK'ipal summits named inau or«h»r from en«.K 
north-ea«!t to we«t-south-we«f. havealtitnik'^ above ' 
sea-Wel of <W2, },2:\^. l,7i>*, 1.»*<.1, r.332. I,44<S, 
l,2tW. 1,047. aifd l,3f»3fret. The dfrliritie.^ are 
pn'vailini»ly brokvn, irtt'ictMl. arrtd nK4iH»»h*, IhW they 
an? s:reatly diviT-iticl l>4iMinu'rou«i pat( lie^ of tillage*' ' 
land ; Lout;h E;i>.ky lie* aiirm!^ the moantmrh), at »^i 
altitude of r)J)7 feet; and vari»MH small takt>saNo lil 
high upon their aerliVittes aiid t able-Ian (h; 

<-n'L(?ATK. See Otmjatk. 

OYNA. See Evhihtymos. 

OYSTER-HAVEN, a large Imy, or lone and nar- 
row rreek, in the baronies of Ki^i«Hle and Kinnalcn, 
CO. Cork, Mmtwter. It open* '1 of a mile ea»it of the 
entrance of Kin-ale harbour, and pi-net rates the laiid 




2^ miles northward ; bat a ramifijcation of it deflects 
at a point 1| inile inward from the entrance, and 
penetrates the land 2^ miles north-westward. High 
rocks, called the Sovereign's Rocks, lie off the en- 
trance; but they arc never covered, and, in conse- 
quence, are not dangerous. Good anchoring ground 
occurs 1^ mile above the entrance ; but the bay is eo 
near the excellent harbour of Kinsale, as to be little 
frequented by vessels. The Oyster-Haven dispen- 
sary is within the Kinsale Poor-law union, and serves 
for a district containing a pop. of 15,592; and, in 

1639^40, it expended £122 60. 7d., and administered 
to 2,^7 i^tients. In 1836, thjere were employed in 
the nsheries, within the district of the coast-guard 
station of pyster«Haven, l6open sail-boats witJb 162 
men, and 8 row-boats with 96 men. 

0YSTER.1$LA.ND, an island in the parish of 
Killaspicbrpwne, baronv of Carbery, co. Sligo, Con- 
naught. It lies in the bay of Sligo, 1 j^ furloiig from 
the nearest part of the mainland, and 3| miles west- 
north-west of Sligo; and it is the site, of a beacon, 
and of two of the three lighthouses of Sligo. 

PACE-KILBRIDE. See Kilbride-Pilatb. 
•PACKENHAM. Sec Pammham. 

PAINSTOWN, a parish, 2^ miles north of the 
tOMm of Carlow, and partly in the barony of Kilkea 
and Moone, co. Kildare, but chiefly in the barony 
and coutity of Carlow, Leinster. Length, south- 
south-eastward, 2} miles; extreme breadth, 1^. 
Area of the Kildare section, 286 acres, 1 rood, 15 
perches, — of which 6 acres are in the river Barrow. 
Area of the Carlow section, 1 ,855 acres, 1 rood, 8 
perches, — of which 15 acres, 30 perches are in the 
Barrow, and 20 acres are in New Lake. Pop. of 
the whole, m 1831, 177 ; in 1841 , 202. Houses 31 . 
Pop. of the Carlow section, in 1841, 185. Houses 
29. The suriace lies along the left bank of the 
Barrow, and is partially watered thither by the 
Griese ; and though the land is naturally of an indif- 
ferent quality, yet, in consequence of its vicinity to 
the town of Carlow, and especially of its high state 
of cultivation, it produces excellent crops, and brings 
a high rent. The large and well-wooded demesne 
of Oakpark, the seat of Col. Bruen, occupies a great 
portion of the area; and has, in the east, an extensive 
and beautiful deer-park, and a race-course. The 
other principal residences are New-Garden-house and 
Evington-lodge. The roads from Carlow to Athy 
and Castle-Dermot pass through the interior. — This 
parish is a perpetual curacv, and a separate benefice, 
in the dio. of Leighlin. I'ithe composition belong- 
ing to the curacy, and gross income, £29 I3s. 4Jd. ; 
nett, £28 Ss. S^d. Patron, the diocesan. The in- 
cumbent holds also the stipendiary curacv of the ad- 
joining benefice of Urglin. The tithes of two-thirds 
of Pamstown are compounded for £59 6s. 8d. ; and 
are appropriated to the dean and chapter of Leighlin 
cathedral. The church was built m 1834; and a 
private house, previous to that time, was used as 
the parochial place of worship, and had an attend- 
ance of 55. In 1834, the Protestants amounted to 
50, and the Roman Catholics to 135. 

PAINSTOWN, a parish on the north border of 
the barony of Lower Duleetk, 2^ miles south-west 
by south of Slane, co. Meath, Leinster. It contains 
the village of Yellowfurze: which see. Length, 
south by eastward, 3j miles; extreme breadth, 1|; 
area, 3,511 acres, 30 perches, — of which 17 aci-es, 3 
roods, 13 perches are in the river Boyne. Pop., in 
1831, according to the Census 1,184, but according 
to the Ecclesiastical authorities 1,154; in 1841, 
1, 127. Houses 207. Pop. of the rural district*, in 
1831, 1,038; in 1841, 1,000. Houses 184. The 
surface lies on the right bank of the Boyne, consists 

of good land, and is traversed by the road from Ni^ 
van to Drogheda. Beaupark, the charmingly ntu« 
ated residence of Gustavus Lambart, Esq., is a plain 
square mbision, crowning the summit of • high tmnk 
which rises boldly from the river, and eommandhig 
a fine view of the' majestic current of the stream, ita 
richly wooded banks, and nearlv all the plantationa 
of Slane- Castle demesne. The other seats are 
Thurstainstown-house, Dollardstown- house, Sen- 
eschaltown- house, GreenhiUs-house, and St. dond- 

house This parish is a recto^, in the dio. of 

Meath. Tithe composition, £27o 18b. 5|id. ; glebe, 
£27 138. lO^d. Thfe rectories of PaihstoWn and 
Ardmulchan [see that article], constitute the ben- 
efice of Painstown. Length, 3^ mfles ; breadth, 9^. 
Pop., in 1831, 2,206. Orossinoome, £568 9s. 9|d.; 
nett, £466 1 Is. 10|d. Patron, the Crown one tarn, 
and the diocesan two turns. The incumbent holds 
also the benefice of Innismot, in the dio. of Meath ; 
but is resident in Painstown. The church Is ai vety 
old building; and, in 1823, it received the itddiikm 
of a gallery, and its steeple was repaired and roofed 
by means of a loan of £369 48. 7id. from the late 
Board of First Fruits. Sittings 150 ; attendance 100. 
The Roman Catholic chapel has an attendance of from 
700 to 800; and, in the Roman Catholic parodd«l 
arrangement, is united to the chapel of Black-Lion, 
in the parish of Ballymagarvey. In 1834, the IVo» 
testants of the parish amounted to 88, and the Ko- 
man Catholics to 1 ,080 ; the Protestants of the union 
to 207, and the Roman Catholics to 2,026; a daily 
school in the parish was aided with £8 a-year fV^MH 
the Roman Catholic clergyman, and had on its books 
34 boys and 12 girls; and there was also ft dlAy 
school in Ardmulchan. 

PARENHAM-HALL, the demesne of the Earl 
of Longford, in the parishes'of Blaine and Rathgarve^ 
barony of Demifore, co. Westmteth, Leinster. < The 
mansion is situated in the former of these parishes 
l^ mile west by north of Castle-Pollard ; it w^, niHt 
many years ago, enlarged and improved, under the 
direction of the architect, Mr. FVands Johnstone $ 
and it has been pronounced " the only mansion in the 
country which contains anything like 7^ JSToi/initi 
internal arrangements." The demesne is of great 
extent, richly wooded, and well kept ; it stretches 
down to the vicinity of Lough Dereveragh, airid there 
connects with C^l. Conolly'h fine demesne of Coolora, 
which sheets a large portion ef the hike's shores with 
wood ; and it has, along its ^irt4 and upon its <^ 
cumjacent estate, Such comfortable eottwes for the 
peasantry, and fisirm-houses for the agriculturists, as 




proclBini to travellers upon the public roads the pre- 
nding care of a spirit of Uberality and kindness. 
Tb« rakenham estate, together with other lands in 
Westmeath, was granted to the Pakenham family 
toon after the rebellion of 1641. The well-known 
Mr. Edgeworth is stated, by his talented daughter 
in ber Memoirs of him^ to have spent at Pakenham- 
Hall much of his time, both in his early years and in 
his more advanced life. 

PALATINE, a hamlet in the parish of Urglin, 
barony and county of Carlow, Leinster. It stands 
S miles north-east of the town of Carlo w, on the 
road thence to Graney. It is a constabulary station, 
and has a fair on March 26. In its vicinity are the 
demesne of Burton and the seats of Burton-hall, 
Ruft!«elstown-park, Rutland-lodge, Rutland-house, 
Oak park-house, Knockardy-house, and Thomville- 
house. Pop. not specially returned. 

PALE (The English). See Leinster. 

PALLAS, a hamlet in the parish of Killosolan, 
barony of Kilconnel, co. Galway, Gonnaught. It 
stands in the vicinity of Cultra [which see}, and 
was the site of a friary of Carmelites, founded m the 
I4tb centiuy, by the fiunily of Bermingham, Barons 
of Athenrv. 

PALL As, a demesne and a lake in the parish of 
Killoogiiyt barony of BaJlyboy, 4 miles south-west 
by weat of Tullamore, Kind's co., Leinster. The 
denesae is well-wooded and handsome, and is the 
residence of Mr. Malone ; and the lake covers an 
area o€82 acres, 2 roods, 29 perches, and has a sur- 
laee-cleration of 248 feet above the level of the sea. 
On the north diore of the lake stand the ruins of 

PALLAS, CO. Longford. See Palucs. 

PALLA8GREEN, a post village in the parish of 
Grease, barony of Coonagh, co. Lmierick, Munster. 
It flCands OB the road from Cappaghmore to Bruff, 
1 1 mile aouth of the road from Limerick to Tipper- 
ary, 1] aoutb of the route of the projected railwavs 
him Limerick to Dublin and Waterford, 2 north- 
BortlM Lit of Kilteely, 4i south by west of Cappagh- 
more, S north-east of Bruff, 84 north-west by west 
of Tipperary, I2j east-souUi-east of Limerick, and 
109 aoatk-west by west of Dublin. It is pleasantly 
fitaated among beautifully wooded hills, and the 
best §naiag grounds in the county. Fairs are held 

00 Jmt, U March 10, Mav 10, and Nov. 24. A 
co«rt of petty-sessions is held on the seco\)d Wednes- 
day of efcrjr month. A dispensary here is within 
the l\Mir-Jaw vnion of Tipperary, and serves for a 
diitfkt eoateiniag a pop. of 21,992 ; and, in 1839-40, 
it expended £198 13s. Id., and made 5,947 dispen- 
sitioaa of OMdicine. A small but neat church, con- 
tHMg •eeoonmodation for 80 persons, was recently 
bdt aft the village by means of a contribution of 
£470 18s. 5d. from the funds of the Ecclesiastical 
CoBonasioners. A Roman Catholic parish in the 
db. ef GaAel and Eroly takes name from Pallas- 
grcoiv and bas chapels at Nikker and Templebeaden. 
Afca of the yillege, 10 acres. Pop., in 1831, 379 ; 
m 1841, 201. Houses 34. 

PALLAS -KENRY, a small market and post 
rova in the parish of Chapel -Russel, barony of 
Keory, co. Limerick, Munster. It stands 6 furlongs 
north of the route of the projected railway from 
Uaerick to Tarbert, 1 mile south of the Shannon, 

1 aortb of the road from Limerick to Askeaton, 5^ 
(Ml euilh fifft of Askeaton, 5} north-north-west of 
Adart* 10 west by south of Limerick, and 103} 
Mwth-weat by west of Dublin. Its vicinity is 

I with the demesne of Castletown, the hand- 

resadenoe of Mr. Waller, and commands bril- 

I of the estuary of the Shannon, and the 

kboard of Clare. A fiur is held on Aug. 

15; and a court of petty-sessions is held on the 
second Monday of every month. A dispensary in 
the town is within the Rathkeale Poor-law umon ; 
and, in 1839-40, it expended £1^ 18s., and admin- 
istered to 3,796 patients. Area of the town, 32 
acres. Pop., in 1831, 630; in 1841, 783. Houses 
132. Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 63; 
in manufactures and trade, 65; in other pursuits, 
24. Families dependent chiefly on property and pro- 
fessions, 5 ; on the directing of labour, 7l ; on toeir 
own manual labour, 70 ; on means not specified, 6. 

PALLICE, or Pallas, a hamlet in the parish of 
Forgney, about I \ mile east by south of Ballymahon, 
barony of Abbeyshruel, co. Longford, Leinster. It 
possesses celebrity as the birth-place of Oliver Gold- 
smith ; but is now a collection of mere cabins, and 
retains not a vestige of the house in which the poet 
was ushered into life. The honour of being Gold- 
smith's native spot **has been disputed," say Mr. 
and Mrs. Hall, ** by no fewer than four places in as 
many counties ; Drumsna in Leitrim, Lissoy in West- 
meath, Ardnagan in Roscommon, and Pallas in Long- 
ford. The question, however, may be considered 
as settled by Mr. Prior (Life of Goldsmith), who 
examined the family bible now in the possession of 
one of the descendants, in which was the following 
entry of the birth of Oliver, the third son and sixth 
child of the Rev. Charles and Ann Goldsmith. 

' Oliver Goldsmith was bom at Pallas, Nov. ye 
10th, 17 — .' The marginal portion of the leaf hav- 
ing been unluckily torn away, the two last figures 
of the century are lost; the age of the poet is, how- 
ever, sufllciently ascertained bv the recollection of 
his sister, and by his calling himself, when writing 
from London in 1759, thirtv-one. In the epitaph, 
written by Dr. Johnson, and placed on Goldsmith's 
monument in Westminster Ab^y, are these words: — 

' Natux in Hibemia, Fombe, 
Lonfbrdientii, in loco eui nomen Pallas.' 

Here, however, the day and year of his birth are 
recorded as Nov. 29, 1731 ; and in the statement 
given by Mrs. Hodson, elder sister of the poet, to 
Bishop Percy, the day named is Nov. 29. • • The 
Rev. Charies Goldsmith, the father of the poet, 
married Ann, daughter of the Rev. Oliver Jones, 
master of the Diocesan school at Elphin. Both 
were poor when they began the world ; and the Rev. 
Mr. Green, uncle of Mrs. Goldsmith, provided them 
with a house at Pallas, where they lived for a period 
of twelve years, and where six of their children 
were born — the remaining three having been bom at 
Lissoy. The list of their children as copied by Mr. 
Prior, from the family bible referred to, cannot fail 
to interest the reader. The entry stands thus: — 
* Charles Goldsmith of Ballvoughter, was married to 
Mrs. Ann Jones ye 4th ot May, 1718. Margaret 
Goldsmith was bom at Pallasmore, in the county of 
Longford, ye 22d August, 1719. Catherine Gold- 
smith, bom at Pallas ye 13th January, 1721. Henry 
Goldsmith was bom at Pallas, February 9, 17 — 
Jane Goldsmith was bom at Pallas, February 9, 
17 — Oliver Goldsmith was born at Pallas, Nov. 
yc 10, 17 — Maurice Goldsmith was born at Lissoy, 
in yc county of Westmeath, ye 7th of July, 1736. 
Charles Goldsmith, Junior, born at Lis«oy, August 
16, 1737. John Goldsmith, born at Lissoy, >e 23d 

of , (month obliterated,) 1740.* " 

PALMERSTOWN, a parish in the barony of 
West Balrothery, 3^ milen south-south-east of C>Mr- 
ristown, co. Dublin, Leinster. Length, south by 
westward, 21 miles ; extreme breadth, 1 ; area, 1,580 
acres, 2 roods, 34 perches. Pop., in 1831, 321 ; in 
1841, 285. Houses 47. The surbce consists wholly 
of profitable land, and is traversed by the road from 




Garristown to Dublin. The only seat is Jordans- 
town^bouse. — This parish is a vicarage, and part of 
the benefice of Clonmethah fwhich see], in the 
dio. of Dublin. The vicarial tithes are compounded 
for £45, and the rectorial for £90 ; and the latter 
are impropriate in the vicars choral of St. Patrick'^ 
cathedral. In 1834, the parishioners were all Ro- 
man Catholics ; and there was neither churob, chapel, 
nor school. 

PALMERSTOWN, a parish, formerly in the 
barony of Newcastle, but now in that of Upperoross, 
CO. Dublin, Leinster. It contains the village of 
Palmerstown, and part of the town of Chapel- Izod : 
see Chapel-I:;oq. Length, east by southward, 2| 
miles ; extreme breadth, I ; area, 1,317 acres, 3 
roods, 7 perches, — of which 22 acres, 3 roods, 6 
perches are in the river Liffey. Pop., in 1831, 
1,533; in 1841, 1,411. Houses 260. Pop. of the 
rural districts, in 1841, 737. Houses 140. The 
surface is a luxuriant, ornate, and beautiful portion 
of the south side of the valley of the Liffey, and is 
traversed lengthwise by the great road from Dublin 
to Connaught. Palmerstown demesne, the property 
and residence of the Earl of Donoughmore, occupies 
the eastern district of the parish; and blends its 
woods with those of the Phoenix Park, in the vioinity 
of Chapel-Izod, The mansion of this demesne was 
erected by the Right Hon. John Hely- Hutchinson, 
ancestor of the E^n of Donoughmore, and secretary- 
of-state for Ireland, and provost of Trinity College, 
Dublin ; and it is a spacious pile, situated on ele-* 
vated ground, and commanding extensive views over 
a most luxuriant expanse of country, Attached to 
the demesne are a farm-yard and very good gardens. 
The other seats are Newtown- Clarke-house, Mount- 
Sackville, Belle view* Glenmacroom, Ha^re-lawn, 
and Brook- la ^vn. The hamlets are Newtown- 
Clarke and Quf^ryville. The village of Palmers- 
town stands on the road from Dublin to Lucan, \\ 
mile west-northowost of Chapel^zod, and 4 west by 
north of Dublin-castle. A fair is held on Aug. 21. 
Area of the village, 7 4cres. Pop., in 1841, 201. 
Houses 40. This village gives the title of Viscount, 
in the peerage of Ireland, to the noble family of 
Temple, who daim descent from Algar, Earl of 
Meraa, previous to the Nornoan conquest. In 1722, 
Henry Temple, Ks^., was created Baron Temple 
and viscount Palmerstown; and. in 1802, Henry- 
John, the third Viscount, since then so well known 
as a statesman and a nunister of state, succeeded to 

the title Paln\erstown parish is s^ rectory, and part 

of the benefice of Chapel-Izod, in the dio. of Dublin. 
Tithe composition, £170 ; compensation for glebe- 
land, payable by Pord Palmerstown, £27 13s. lO^d, 
The Ronvm Catholic chapel has an attendance of 
from 350 to 400 i and, in the Roman Catholic pjir- 
ochial arrangement, is united to two chapels in tljie 
benefices ojTlfUca^ and Clondalkin. In 1834, thie 
parishioners consisted of 90 Chufohmen, 3 Protes- 
tant dissenters, and ^,440 Roman Catholics ; and 3 
daily 8chools..«two of which were in connection with 
the National Board, and all were aided by private 
donation-nWere usually attended by about 1 10 chil- 

PAI4MEHSTOWN, a hamlet in the parish of 
Templemurri^, barony of Tyrawley, co. Mayo, 
Connaught. It stands 2 miles west-north-west of 
Killalla, on the pretty rivulet which flows into the 
creek or little estuary called Rathfran bay, and is 
separated by that rivulet from the parish of Killalla. 
It is a miserable place, and has its nauie from the 
principal proprietor of the circumjacent district. Sir 
W. H. Palmer, Bart, of Kenmare-park, near Rush. 
Adjacent to the hamlet, but in the parish of KilUlla, 
are the seats of Castlereagh and Palmerstown ; and 

adjacent to it in Templemurra^, are the ruina of Sir 
W. H. Palmer's family mansion of Palmerstown- 
house, which was destroyed in 1796. Pop. of the 
hamlet not specially returned. 

PALMERSTOWN, the demesne of the Earl ol 
Mayo, in the parish of Johnstown, 2^ miles north- 
north-east of Naas, barony of North Naas, go. Kil- 
dare, Leinster. It stands in the vicinity of the 
Grand Canal, and of the villages of Johnstown and 
Kill; and has been greatly improved by modem 
plantations. The Earl of Biayo's ancestor, who set- 
tled at Palmerstown about the year 1680, was a de- 
scendant of Bourke or De Burgh of Moiwcrower, a 
member of the powerful ancient fiunily of Mac- Wil- 
liam Oughter, Lords of Mayo. 

PAPS (The), a cluster of mountain-summits, in 
the barony of Magonihy, co. Kerry, Munster. They 
are situated on the eastern border of the county, and 
on the north side of the glen of the Flesk, 9 miles 
east-south-east of Killamey ; and they form grand 
fiuitures of the scenery on the road firom KiUitmey 
to Maoroom. 

PARBLES, a quondam parish in the barony of 
Costlea, near Kilmallock, co. Limerick, Munster. 

PARK, a hamlet in the parish of Tullylish, 1^ 
mile east-north-east of Guilford, barony of Lower 
Iveagh, CO. Down, Ulster. Pop. not specially re- 

PARK, a village in the parish of Upper Camber, 
barony of Tyrkeeran, co. Londonderry, UUter. 
Pop., in 1831, 132. Houses 21. 

PARKGATE, a village in the parish of DoncgOfe, 
barony of Upper Antrim, co. Antrim, Ulster. It 
stands on the road from Antrim to BallycUrt* %^ 
miles west-south-west of Doagh, and 4 A east of An- 
trim. Fairs are held on Feb. 7, and June 12« A 
court of petty-sessions is held on the second Monday 
of every month. Pop., in 1831, 162. Houses 81. 

PARLOUR (The), a magnificent cavern in the 
vioinity of Benwee Head, on the north coast d the 
parish of Kilcommon, and barony of Enis, co* 
Mi^o, Connaught. It is situated m little west of 
the pretty little harbour of Portadoy, and near tbf 
extremity of the lofty and almost insulated pfonoo- 
tory of Doonvinalla. Its entrance is overhung by » 
cliff of about 60Q. feet in height, and is wide enoiij^ 
to admit a row-boat, and about 30 feet high; and 
its interior expancls into a spadous circular apart* 
n\ent, with a lofty dome-shaped roof. In the vidp* 
ity are th^ kindred obj;ects called the Abck aiid 
Moisxa-Sound: see these articles. 

PARSONStOWN, lyngs co. See Bha. 

? ARSONSTO WN, a parUh on the coast of tW 
barony of Ferrard, 4 miles east-south-east of Dim* 
leer^ co. Loujth„ Leinster. Length, eastwacd. 1} 
mil^; ea^treme breadth, ^; a^rea. ^ acre^ 6 pmb- 
es.. ?op.^ in V831, 26;; in 1841, 237. HouMt 
38. Some of the land vl very good ; and aoois » 
cold and clayey. The hamlet of Paraonstown cos* 
tained, in 1831, a pop. of 168. — This parish if » ne- 
ara«;e, igid part ot tne benefice of Dunaht [widcli 
see}^ in the dio« of Armagh^ The vicarial titJMa aw 
compounded for £19 6s., and the reetorial lor S/9 
78, ; and the latter are impropriate in Mr, HiU^C 
county Tipperary. In 1834, tne parishiooen wen 
all Roman Catholics; and there was neither cbuic|i» 
chapel, nor school. 1 

PARTEEN, a village in the pariah oC St. Fi^ 
ricks, barony of Lower Bunraity, co. Clarc^ Math 
ster. It stands 24 miles north by east dT ^%ttT|ifr, 
on the road thence to Broadford, and on tht ii|jht 
bank of the river Shannon. It contains aehvnk 
and a Roman Catholic chapel; and its vicMnty k 
adorned with the seats of Parteen-house, MaijrtifiWB 
Fairy-hall, Ballyglass-house, Sprin^U^hoiuea, Qv* 




tlehaiik. Stream- mount, Ballycaraion, Quinville- 
bofHe, Qutnsborougfa - house, and Whitehall. A 
Roaoan Ottholic parish in the dio. of Limerick takes 
name from Parteen, and has chapels here and at 
Ardnacnisha. Pop. of the village not specially re- 

PARTICLES, a parish adjoining the narish of 
Kilflyn, barony of Coshlea, co. Limerick, M unster. 
It contains the village of Glenosheen : which see. 
Area 8,497 acres. Pop., in 1841, 2,431. Houses 
961. It is a rectory in the dio. of Limerick, whoUv 
appropriate to the dean and chapter of Limerick 
caUiedral; and its occasional duties are performed by 
the incumbent of Kililyn for a salary of £20. No 
other statistics of the parish are separately returned. 
P ARTREE, or Partrt, a vilU^ie in the parish of 
Ballyovey, barony of Carra, co. Mayo, Connaught. 
It stands on the road from Ballinrobe to Castlebar, 
aad on the peninsula between Lough Carra and 
Loagli Mask, 5 miles north-west of Ballinrobe. A 
d iy e n iary here is within the Ballinrobe Poor-law 
«nion» and serves for a district of 27>622 acres, with 
a pop. of 14,025; and, in 1840-41, it received £96 
Ob. 7d., expended £40 14f. ll|d., and made 4,9S3 
dispeiifations of medicine. A Roman Catholic par- 
ish in the dio. of Tnam takes name from Partree, 
and has du^wls here and at Bidlybannin. Pop. of the 
TiUs«e not specially returned. 

PASSAGE, a small post and seaport town in the 
nwisk of Kill-St.-Nicbols, barony of Gualtier, co. 
Watei;^9rd, Munster. It stands on the eastern verge 
of tke prorince, and on the west shore of the estuary 
of the Suir, or upper part of Waterford Harbour, 
akaoat directly opposite Ballyhack, 5\ miles east by 
aaoth of Waterford, and 81 } south by west of Dublin. 
The tideway in front of the town is about half-a- 
■ttle fcroad ; any number of vessels may here ride in 
■ifetjr daring storms, and a regular ferry has long 
Wen aataUished to Ballyhack. The site of Passage 
is the nearest spot below the dty of Waterford, on 
the Waterford bank of the Suir, on which a town 
caaU be built ; the whole sweep of shore being a 
cbaia of roekv hills, dropping almost sheer down to 
the wirtcr't edge ; and even this spot is so narrow as 

aaon Passage to be inconveniently packed be- 
an overhanging hill and the tide. **The 

" tays Dr. Smith, ** is situated under a hill so 
; few care to ride it up or down ; however, 
inta make nothing d it. Yet their situ- 
\ to be none of the most comfortable, as 
this rocky hill, which is six times as high as the 
b i§li a H booi^ in the place, hangs over their heads. 
Ob I^ tap the churcn is erected, to which the in- 
biiilaiiti have no very easy walk ; and as the hill 
'i and south, they have but little of the sun 
v, espedall v in winter ; which, with an 
I, must make the place verv bleak and 
The streets are confined; and the 
and neglected, and exhibit evident 

( tbat the town has ceased to prosper. A pier 
al the town is suffidentiv commodious, and projects 
tela a toAcseat depth or water, to afford large ves- 
aels caoTeaicnce for loading and discharging. A 
blackhoose mounted with several guns, formerly stood 
aa the site of the pier, and was under the command of 
the governor of Duneannon fort. In 1649, during 
Cromweirs siege of Waterford, a parliamentarian 
force, eonaifting of 6 troops of dragoons and 4 of horse 
■HTched against Passage, and took it with some 
dMfeahy ; and afterwards a ro^-alist force marched 
to retake it, but were turned from their purpose. 
See WATUFoaD (CiTT ov). In 1663, the Duke 
af Onoood was made governor of Passage for life. 
A Boamn Catholic parish in the dio. of Water- 
ford and LJMBCire takes name from Passage, and 

has chapels here and at Kilkea and Fatthleg. Area 
of the town, 37 acres. Pop., in 1831, 696; in 
1841,624. Houses 108. Families employed chiefly 
in agriculture, 12; in manufactures and trade, 44; 
in other pursuits, 107. Families dependent chiefly 
on property and professions, 6 ; on the directing of 
labour, 48; on their own manual labour, 37; on 
means not spedfied, 72. A portion of the town 
which, in 1831, contained 352 inhabitants, formerly 
belonged to the quondam county of the dty of 
Waterford, but was transferred to the barony of 
Gualtier by the act 3 and 4 Victoria, cap. 108 and 

PASSAGE, a village on the east shore of Kinsale 
Harbour, adjacent to the town of Kinsale, and within 
the baronv of Kinsale, co. Cork, Munster. Pop. 
not spedally returned. 

PASSAGE (East), a hamlet on the east shore 
of the east channel of Cork Harbour, 3^ miles east 
by north of Cove, barony of Barrymore, co. Cork, 
Munster. A ferry here connects Great Island with 
the mainland of Barrymore and with Imokilly. Pop. 
not spedally returned. 

PASSAGE (West), a post, market, and sea- 
port town, in the parishes of Mannulkme and Monks- 
town barony, of Kerricurrihy, co. Cork, Munster. 
It stands on the west shore of the estiiar^ of the 
Lee, opposite Great Island, 1^ mile north of Monks- 
town, 3 north-west of Cove, 5| east-south-east of 
Cork, and \S\^ south-west of Dublin. The envi- 
rons are both romantic and beautiful ; and they pre- 
sent many interesting features, both natural and ar- 
tifidal. The southern vicinity leads out the new 
and elaboratelv cut road, past the face of the Giant's 
Stairs to Monastown ; and the northern vidnity is 
sprinkled with villas, bathing - lodges, and other 
pleasant residences. The town itself consists chiefly 
of two central, irregularly built streets, about a 
mile in length; and possesses a parish-church, a 
Methodist meeting-house, and a new Roman Catholic 
chapel. The quay was built in 1836, is a sub- 
stantia structure, and affords accommodation to the 
steam- vessels which ply on the river and down the 
estuary. Near the quay is a dock-yard; and at the 
south end of the town are large and convenient baths. 
Passage is the port of Cork for all very large vessels ; 
it is, as its name imports, the grand tnorough&re or 
ferry-station between Cork and Cove ; it is also an 
increasingly frequented place of at once commerce, 
ship-building, sea-bathing, and landscape- viewing ; 
and, in all these capadties, it is the scene of much 
resort and of considerable bustle. '*The disadvan- 
tages and difficulties of the navigation of the river 
between Passage and Cork," says Mr. Windele, "are 
much in fiivour of the former. In the channel the 

Seatest depth is 16 feet, but at the neap tides it 
Us 13 and sometimes 11^^ feet. It cannot be gen- 
erally used with a north-east wind, and very fre- 
quently sailing vessels are detained at Passage by 
the tides. To reach Cork from Passage after the 
first hour of ebb would require a fast vessel ; and 
after the tide has retired for a couple of hours, the 
transit becomes very doubtful. The upper part of 
the river is not, therefore, practicable at all for large 
vessels exceeding 150 tons burthen; while, on the 
contrary, at Passage there is a great depth of water 
in front of the town, with a safe channel, which, 
added to the necessity of large vessels unloading 
there, are fadlities from which Passage derives con- 
siderable advantage." A proposal was made a num- 
ber of years ago, to construct a railway from Cork 
to Passage: see Cork. The Passage and Monks- 
town dispensary is within the Cork Poor-law union, 
and serves for a district containing a nop. of 39,06; 
and, in 1839-40, it expended £119, and administered 




to 2»156 patients. A court of petty.sessions in held 
at Passage on every Friday. Area of the Monks- 
town section of the town, 16 acres ; of the Marmul- 
Une section, 4*2 acres. Pop. of the whole, in 1831, 
2,141 ; in 1841, 1.721. Houses 247. Pop. of the 
Monkstown section, in 1831, 1,153;* in 1841, 372. 
Houses 52. Families employed chiefly in agricul- 
ture, 3; in manufactures and trade, 45; io other 
pursuits, 27. Families dependent chiefly on property 
and professions. 1 ; on the directing of labour, 44 ; on 
their o\m manual labour, 19; on means not specified, 
11. Pop. of the Marmullane section, in 1831, 988; 
in 1841, 1,349. Houses 195. Families employed 
chiefly in agriculture, 45; in manufactures and trade, 
104; in other pursuits, 136. Families dependent 
chiefly on property and professions, 16; on the di- 
recting of labour, 101; on their own manual labour, 
107; on means not specified, 61. A Roman Catho- 
lic parish in the dio. of Cork takes name from Pas- 
sage, and has chapels here and at Shanbally. 

PASS-IF-YOU-CAN, a hamlet in the parish of 
Rathconnel, barony of Moyashel and Magherademon, 
CO. Westmeath, Leinster. It stands 3 miles north- 
east of MulUngar, on the road thence to Collinstown 
and Old-castle. Pop. not specially returned. 

PASS-OF-KILBRIDE. See Kilbride- Pilate. 

PATRICK'S (St.). See Dublin, Kilkenny, 
Wexford, Limerick, and Waterford. 

PATRICKS-ROCK (St.). See Cashel. 

PATRICK'S-WFJ.L (St.), a village in the par- 
ishes of Kilkeedy, Killonahan, and Mu^grett, barony 
of Pobblebrien, co. limerick, Munster. It stands 
on the mail-road from Limerick to TraJee, 3 miles 
north-east of Adare, 4^ north of Croom, 5 south- 
west of Limerick, and 99 south-west bv west of 
Dublin. In its vicinity are the seats oi Attyflin, 
Mount- Earl, Elm-park, Greenmount, Fort-Etna, 
Richmond, and Jockey-Hall, and the ruins of Mun- 
grett-abbey. A court of pettv-sesiiions is held in 
the village on t^e second Friday of ever^ month. 
The St. Patrick's- Well dispensary is within the 
Poor-law union of Limerick; and, in 1839-40, it 
received £84 158., and expended £84 15s. A 
Roman Catholic parish in the dio. of Limerick takes 
name from St. Patrick's- Well ; and has chapels at 
Ballybrown and Lurraga. The village straggles at 
comparativelv great length along the public road. 
Area of the Kilkeedy section, 13 acres ; of the KiU- 
onahaii section, 12 acres ; of the Mungrett section, 
14 acres. Pop. of the whole, in 1831, 512; in 1841, 
541. Houses 83. Families emploved chiefly in 
agriculture, 57 ; in manufactures and trade, 40 ; in 
other pursuits, 18. Families dependent chiefly on 

Eroperty and professions, 1 ; on the directing of 
ibour, 29 ; on their own manual labour, 51 ; on 
means not specified, 9. Pop. of the Kilkeedy sec- 
tion, in 1831, 306; in 1841, 239. Houses 45. Pop. 
of the Killonahan section, in 1831, 93; in 1841, 144. 
Houses 24. Pop. of the Mungrett section, in 1831, 
113; in 1841, 158. Houses 24. 
PAUL'S (St.). See Dublin and Cork. 
P AULSTO VVN, a village in the parishes of Shan- 
kill and Kilmacahill, barony of Gowran, co. Kil- 
kenny, Leinster. It stands on the road from Kil- 
kenny to Carlow, 3^ miles north -north -west of 
Goresbridge, 3^ north-north-east of Gowran, and 8^ 
east by north of Kilkenny. It contains a Roman 
Catholic chapel, a constabulary barrack, and a grave- 
. yard ; and in its vicinity are Shankill church, Kil- 
maci^ill church, Sbankill-castle, Mountrath-house, 
Monefellin- house, Paidstown - castle, Viewmount, 
Duninga, and the ruins of a castle, a church, and an 

• This seems to bare iocludeil a lar^e a4}i^<^Q' rural dis- 

abbey. A Roman Catholic parish in the dio. ol 
Kildare and Leighlin takes name from PauktOMm« 
and has chapels here and at Goresbridge. Area ot 
the Shankill section of the village, 4 acres ; of the 
Kilmacahill section, 2 acres. Pop., in 1841, of the 
whole, 265 ; of the Kilmacahill section, 179. Houses 
in the whole, 52; in the Kilmacahill section, 39. 

PEMBROKESTOWN, a hamlet in the parish 
of Lisnakill, barony of Middlethird, 4^ miles south- 
west of Waterford, eo. Waterford, Munster. In its 
vicinity are Pembrokestown-house, a cromlech, and 
the rums of Loughdeheen castle. ** There is," aays 
the Rev. R. H. Ryland, '* a romantic wildness ^i 
the country about Pembrokestown which is totally 
imlike an^ thing to be seen in this barony. The 
hills, which rise precipitously, are covered wit^ 
singuUrly bold and rugged rocks; and immediately 
adjoining and between these irregular elevations, 
small patches of the finest land, watered by a dear 
stream and sheltered from every wind, present a re- 
tired and quiet landscape, which even from contrast 
must be considered interestiqg. A slight improve- 
ment in the formers' dwellings, and some judidous 
planting, would supply all that is wanting to render 
the scenery perfect." 


PENNYCOMEQUICK, a hamlet in the parish 
of Ennereily, barony of Arklow, co. Wicklow, 
Leinster. It stands on the coast, 3^ miles north- 
north-east of Arklow ; and adjoining it are a bury- 
ing-RTOund, and the ruins of Ennereily chun;^. 

PEPPERSTO WN, or P^ppardstowh, a.pvisb 
in the barony of Middlethird, I mile north-east of 
Fethard, co. Tipperary, Munster. Length* south- 
weatward, 3j^ miles ; extreme breadth, 2^ ; area, 
4,779 acres, 1 rood, 29 perches. Pop.» in 1831, 
1,156; in 1841, 1,215. Houses 173. The sur&ce 
consists of arable and pasture land, worth, on the 
average, about 30s. per plantation acre per annum. 
The highest ground is in the centre, and has an alti- 
tude of 361 feet above sea-level. The seats are 
Knockelly-house and Brookhill ; and the antiquities 
are the ruins of two churches, Rnockelly- castle, 
Crurap's-castle, and Slanestown-castle. The road 
from Fethard to Drangan passes through the interior. 
— This parish is a rectory, and part of the benefice 
of Fethard [which see], in the dio. of CMhd. 
Tithe composition, £250. In 1834, the parishioners 
consisted of 11 Churchmen, 10 Presbyterians, and 
1,194 Roman Catholics; and there waa Dcitber 
church, chapel, nor school. 

PETER'S (St.), a parish on the nortLbord^ of 
the barony of Forth, co. Wexford, Leinster. lU 
east end contains a small part of the town of Wxz- 
ford : which see. I^ength, west-south- westwaod, 
3 miles; extreme breadth, Ij^; area, 1,405 acres," II 
perches, — of which 23 acres, 3 roods, 4 perches lie 
detached. Pop., in 1831, 1,445; in 18^, 1,690. 
Houses 304. Pop. of the rural districts, in 183l» 
748; in 1841, 1,177. Houses 200. The surfiMSc 
consists, in a general view, of good land. Tbe diief 
rural residences are Lonihill-house, Great-donnd, 
Littlc-Cloiiard, Roseville, and NewhiU-hoosc. The 
road from Wexford to Fethard and Duncanoon pisses 
through the interior. — This parish is an impitmriatc 
curacy, and part of the benefice of St. Pjstriekli of 
Wexford, in the dio. of Ferns. Tithe compositioii 
belonging to the incumbent, £85. The RoOMn 
Catholic parochial chapel is the prindnd Rontai 
Catholic place of worship for the town ot WeziM ; 
it stands on the hi^h north-western outskirts of the 
town, closely adjoining the Roman CathoKc college 
of Wexford ; and it has 4 olDciates, and an aittCM- 
ancc of 8,000. The Convent chapel is under tbc 
care of the same officiates as the parodiial rhe|>i, 




and U attended only by its own inmates and a few 
castial visitors. In 1834, the Protestants amounted 
to 110, and the Roman Catholics to 1,338; and 6 
daily schools — one of which was salaried with £18 
from the National Board, one with an unreported 
sum from subscriptions and public collection, and 
one with £64 from the clerry of the diocese — had 
on their books 430 boys and 339 girls. 

PETER'S (St.). See Dublin, Drocheda, 
Cork, WAtBRFORo, and Roscommon. 

PETER'S (St.) and PAUL'S (St.). See Kil- 


PETTIGOE, a vilUige, partly in the parish of 
Dnimkeeran, barony of Lurg, co. Fermanagh, bat 
chiefly in the parish of Templecarne, barony of Tyr- 
hugh, CO. Donegal, Ulster. It stands on the rivulet 
Termon, on the road from Beleek to Castle- Derg, 
and on the east road from Enniskillen to Donegal, 
I mile north of the nearest part of Lower Lough 
Erne, 3} south bv east of Lough Derg, 4| west- 
north-west of Kesn, 14 south-east by east of Done- 
gal, 16 north -north -west of Enniskillen, and 96 
north-nord^-west of Dublin. It stands amidst pretty 
green and wooded hills ; and its vicinity offers van- 
oun Une vantage-grounds for obtainiTig a panoramic 
view of the basin of Lower Lough Erne. The vil- 
lage contains a church, a Presbyterian meeting-house, 
aiMl a Roman Catholic chapel ; it is a prosperous and 
improving place ; and, unhappily, it possesses not a 
little notoriety as the mat thoroughfare of the 
crowds of pilgrims who frequent Lou^ Derg. See 
Dbbg (Lough) . A dispensary here is within the Don- 
egal Poor-law union. A court of petty-sessions is held 
CO the last Friday of every month ; and a fair is held 
on the ^h dav of everv month. A Roman Catholic 
parish in the dio. of Clogher takes name from Pet- 
tigoe, and has chapels at Templecarne, Castle-Cald- 
well, and Mountain. Area of the Fermanagh section 
of tlie village, 10 acres; of the Donegal section, 15 
acres. Pop. of the whole, in 1841, 616. Houses 90. 
Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 30; in 
manufactures and trade, 65 ; in other pursuits, 19. 
FamiUes dependent chiefly on property and profes- 
sions, 10; on the directing of labour, 63; on their 
own manual labour, 37 ; on means not specified, 4. 
Pop. of the Donegal section, in 1841, 490. Houses 

PHIBSBOROUGH, a handsome suburban vil- 
li^, on the north side of Dublin, and on the Royal 
GanaU 1| mile from Dublin castle, co. Dublin, Lein- 
ster. Pop. not snedally returned. 

PHILIPSTOWN (The), a rivulet of King's 
ooant/y Lcinster. It rises in four sources about 2 miles 
sonth and south-west of the town of Philipstown, 
■ad pursues a lazv and very ginuous course of about 
7 miles prevaiUngly eastward and through a region of 
hofS» to the formation of the western head-stream 
qi the -Pcagh river on the eastern boundar;^ of the 
parish ofBallinakill. It possesses considerable 
ceoDomieal value as a natural drain for a great ex- 
panse of bog ; and is circumstantially reported on in 
the second volume of the Reports of the Commis- 
sioners on the bogs of Ireland. 

PHILIPSTOWN (Lowers a barony of King's 
eoanty, Leinster. It is bounoed, on the north, by 
eo. Wcslmeath; on the east, by the baronies of 
Warreostown and Coolestown ; on the t^outh by the 
barony o£ Tpper Philipstown ; ajid on the west, by 
the baronies of Geashil and Bully cowan. Length, 
soBthward, 7 miles ; extreme breadth, 5\ ; area, 
90,601 acres, 3 roods, 2 perches, — of which 5 acres, 
au perches are in Lough- Na- Shade. Two heights 
a tkfc interior have altitudes of respectively 301 and 
176 £eet above sea-level ; one on the north border 
ha* an altitude of 467 feet ; and Croghan Uill, one 

of most conspicuous and beautiful natural features 
within a vast expanse of circumjacent country, has 
an altitude of 769 feet. The surface of the barony, 
with the exception of these heights, is flat, tame, 
and comparatively low; and, in common with the 
surface of the barony of Upper PhilipstOMH, it com- 
prises an enormous proportion of bog. Some remarks 
on the prevailingly miserable condition of these two 
baronies will be found in our article on King's 
County; and the following additional remarks, in 
an official report made in 1836, are too important to 
bear being onutted: ** From the evidence received, 
as well as from observation, it is evident that the 
labourers, instead of being naturally idle, as many in- 
sinuate, are most anxious to obtain work, and travel 
many miles for it, though their hopes are so often 
disappointed, and exert themselves tor that purpose, 
beyond what the English labourer would do, when 
there is any probability of trifling renumeration ; but 
there is generally so little stimulus to exertion, and 
their being able to get nothing to do, but the liberty 
of * walking about and dragging sorrow after their 
heels,' it would be extraordmary if habitual idleness 
and inactivity did not fix upon them in spite of their 
national ouickness and activity. Admitting the 
scarcity of food and labour, it must appear an extra- 
ordinary anomaly that so many thousand acres of bog, 
inviting cultivation, and well adapted for it, should 
remain within view of Philipstown untouched, or, 
more correctly, not permitted to be touched,— for 
many would gladly cultivate it if they were allowed 
to do so. The proprietors of the bog in the neigh- 
bourhood of Philipstown are the Earl of Charlerille, 
Lord and Lady Bel videre. Lord Digby, and Lord Pon- 
sonby, to whom, in my opinion, it would have been 
b}r this time a source of ^reat profit, if they had per- 
mitted and encouraged its cultivation in a pro{^r 
manner. The Ballycommon and Mount Lucas hog», 
part of the immense bog of Allen, contain nearly 
10,000 English acres, no part of which exceeds 
four miles from Philipstown ; they consist of a fine 
black peat, dry in places, and admitting of complete 
drainage, being at an elevation of from 200 to 300 
feet above the level of the sea, with abundance of 
clay and limestone gravel at a convenient depth, and 
an even surface, the Grand Canal also passing through 
the bog, and communicating with the metropolis artd 
other parts of Ireland. The cultivation of these 
bogs would give employment to all who wanted, and 
would produce food and distribute comfort and hap- 
piness to thousands who are on the ver^ of starva- 
tion. If a company were to embark m these im- 
provements, I have no doubt of the profit ansvi'er- 
ing their expectation, and remunerating them for 
judicious outlay under a long lease.'* Mr George 
Kait, an enlightened and enterprising farmer withui 
five miles of Philipstown, has introduced and prose- 
cuted so great improvements to the district, and be- 
gan several years ago to command so great attention 
from some of his farming neighbours, that a brief 
notice of hLs agricultural economy and practices lias 
become essential to a fair topographiiral view of the 
baronies. **FIe occupies," says the reports already 
quoted, **a farm of 700 Irish, or upwards of 1,100 
English acres. He allows his labourers u certain 
weight or measttre of meal and milk per day, u room 
to eat their victuals in, and a fire to cook them 
by ; the cost of the food allowed, at present prices, 
amounts to illO per head per aiimim, and he pavs 
them X7 each in money, which amounts in all to JLl? 
per man per annum; tne co>t of an Kngli^h labourer 
IS about £30 per ainmm. Mr. Georg(> Rait and his 
brother are Scotchmen, and came to the farms they 
severally hold, near Philipstown, twenty years ago. 
They both have a number of agricultural pupils at 



liaiidsome premiumg. Mr. George Rait's rent is £2 
28. per Irish acre. The soil is a p^ood firm dry 
loam, which he cultivates iii the well-known alter- 
nate Scotch method, but does not stall-feed his cattle 
in summer. He sows Pacey's perennial rye-grass, 
which is allowed to go to seed, and he finds the seed 
more valuable than the hay ; the latter is useful for 
the horses, and feeding bullocks, along with tur- 
nips. The hay is thrasned before stacking, and the 
seed enclosed in a covering of straw, and thatched 
like a corn stack for the winter ; in spring it is win- 
nowed and prepared for the English market. The 
clover and grass seeds are sown by a machine instead 
of the hand, — the only one 1 have observed in Ireland. 
This manner of sowing cannot be too much recom- 
mended ; the most careless observer would at once 
recognise the effect of the machine on a field of 
clover, from its remarkable regularity in the distribu- 
tion of the plants ; it also possesses the advantage of 
enabling the farmer to sow his clover and other light 
seeds in windy weather." — The baron v of Lower 
Philipstown contains part of the parish of Ballyburly, 
and the whole of the parishes of Ballycommon, 
Croghan, Kilclonfert, and Killaderry. The only 
town is Philipstown. Pop., in 1831, 7,447; in 1841, 
7,223. Houses 1,190. Families employed chiefly 
in agriculture, 799 ; in manufactures and trade, 245 ; 
in other pursuits, 217* Families dependent chiefly on 
property and professions, 38 ; on the directing of la- 
bour, 395 ; on their own manual labour, 792 ; on means 
not specified, 36. ' Males at and above 5 years of 
age wno could read and write, 1,314; who could read 
but not write, 529; who could neither read nor 
write, 1,409 Females at and above 5 years of age 
who could read and write, 632 ; who could read but 
not write, 798 ; who could neither read nor write, 
1,769. — This barony lies partly within the Poor- 
law union of Edenderry, and partly within that of 
Tullamore. The total number of tenements valued 
is 1,341 ; and of these, 850 were valued under £5, — 
179, under £10,-94, under £15.— 76, under £20,— 
35, under £25,— 21, under £30,-20, under £40,— 
15, under £50, — and 51, at and above £50. 

PHILIPSTOWN (Upper), a barony in King's 
county, Leinster. It is bounded, on the north, by 
Lower Philipstown and by Coolestown ; on the east, 
by Coolestown; on the south and south-west, by 
Queen's county ; and on the west, by Geashil. 
Length, south-south-westward, 9 miles; extreme 
breadth, 5^ ; area, 37*996 acres, 2 i^ods, 6 perches. 
The streams flow upon a medium elevation of at 
least 200 feet above sea-level ; and so very flat is the 
territorial surface, that the highest ground has an 
altitude of only 278 feet above sea-level. . An enor- 
mous proportion of the surface, especially in the 
north, the east, and the south-west, is bog. The 
condition of the barony has been fully noticed in the 
preceding article : which see. The Act 6 and 7 
William IV., cap. 84, transferred 2 townlands of the 
parish of Ballykcan from Upper Philipstown to Geas- 
hil, — pop., in 1841 , 147 ; one townland of the parish of 
Dunany, 13 townlands of the parish of Ballybracken, 
the whole of the parish of Harnsto wn, and 9 townlands 
of the parish of Fontstown, from Upper Philipstown, 
King's CO., to West Ophaly, co. Kildare, — pop. 2,661 ; 
and one townland of the parish of Moone, from Upper 
Philipstown, King's co., to East Ophaly, co. Kil- 
dare, — pop. 97. The parish and townlands trans- 
ferred to CO. Kildare constituted a district of 5 miles 
by 2^ ; situated on the east bank of the Barrow, and 
detached 2. J miles from the nearest part of the main 
body of King's county. — The barony of Upper Phil- 
ipsto>vn, as now constituted, contains part of the 
parishes of Ballykean and Geashil, and the whole of 
Clonyhurk. The only to>vii is part of Portarling- 

ton ; and the only considerable \'illage is ClmiTgowsn. 
Pop., in 1831, 9,864 ; in 1841, 7,452. Houses 1,268. 
Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 921 ; in 
manufactures and trade, 153 ; in other pursuits, 256. 
Families dependent chiefly on property and profes- 
sions, 57; on the directing of labour, 359; on their 
own manual labour, 886; on means not specified, 30. 
Males at and above 5 years of age who could read 
and write, 1,203 ; who could read but not write, 715 ; 
who could neither read nor write, 1,336. Females 
at and above 5 years of age who could read and write, 
763; who could read but not write, 1,145; who could 
neither read nor write, 1,497. — This barony is dis- 
tributed among the Poor-law unions of Athy, Mount- 
mellick, and Tullamore. The total numl>eT of ten- 
ements valued is 1,721 ; and of these, 1,014 were 
valued under £5,— 288, under £10,-141, under £15, 
—73, under £20,-48, under £-25,-26, under £S0, 
42, under £40,-25, under £50,— and 64, at and 
above £50. 

PHILIPSTOWN, a post and market town, and 
formerly a parliamentary borough and the assize town 
of King's county, in the parish of Killaderry, barony 
of Lower Philipstown, King's county, Leinster. It 
stands on the Grand Canal, on the road firom Port- 
arlington to Tyrrel's-Pass, and on the road from 
Dublin to Tullamore and Birr, 4 miles north by east 
of Geashil, 6i south-south-east of Tyrrel's-Pass, 7| 
east by north of Tullamore, 7i south-east by east of 
Kilbeggan, 9^ west-south-west of Edenderry, 10| 
north-north-west of Portarlington, 11^ north by east 
of Mountemllick, and 39 west of Dublin. The town 
obtained its name in honour of Philip II. of Spain, 
consort of Queen Mary ; and was designed to be for 
King's county the parallel of Maryborough for Queen's 
county. It consists principally of one street ; but, 
as to both environs and interior character, it is one 
of the ugliest and most rueful little towns in Europe. 
An old doggerel couplet does it no injustice in desig- 
nating it " an odious heap:" — 

" Great Do^ of Allen, swallow down 
That odious heap called PhiliiMtuwn." 

Even the impingement of the Grand Canal, which 
might have both enlivened and enriched it, serres 
just as a sufficient foil to elicit the town's unutter- 
able dreariness. The assizes continued, till a 
few years ago, to be held among this bog-environed 
congeries of cabins; but, in consequence of dieer 
want of accommodation for the strangers necessarily 
attending them, they were obliged to be remoyed to 
Tullamore. The public buildings are a sessions- 
house, a gaol, a barrack, an old but renovated castle, 
two schools, a Roman Catholic chapel, and the par- 
ish church of Killaderry. The castle bears the name 
of Fort or Forth Castle; it was Uie residence of 
King Philip, while on a visit to the town to which 
he gave his name ; and it was recently repaired, and 
is now inhabited. A dispensary in the town is vrithin 
the Poor-law union of Tullamore; and, in 1830^40; 
it expended £129 lOs. 9d., and administered to 1,093 
patients. A Roman Catholic parish in the die. of 
Kildare and Leighlin takes name from Philipstown, 
and has chapels here and at Kill. A large and im- 
proving weekly market is held on Thiusday, and 
fairs are held in the town on Jan. 3, March 28, May 
15, June 24, Aug. 17, Oct. 18, and Dec. 3. Courts 
( f quarter-sessions and petty-sessions are held in the 
town, — the latter on the second Thursday of every 
month. Philipstown was incorporated by charter of 
12 Elizabeth ; but since 1800, it has not had any 
corporation. The borough limits extended, on the 
north, to the river Ashmore ; on the east, to Mount 
Lucas ; on the south, to Ballingar ; and on the west, to 
the boundary of the parish of Kill. The copor»-. 
tion consisted of 1 burgomaster, 2 bailiffs, 12 bur- 




gesses* and an unliniited number of freemen ; but it 
leems to baye been kept up solely for tbe purpose of 
lenduig two members to the Irisn parliament ; and, 
at the LegisLative Union, the compensation-money 
for disfranchisement was paid to George, Earl of 
Belvidere, Robert, Earl of Lanesborough, John 
King, Esq., and Ladv Lanesborough, his wife, upon 
the trusts of the will of Robert, then late Earl of 
Belridere. Area of the town, 82 acres. Pop., in 
1831, 1,454; in 1841, 1,489. Houses 234. Fami. 
lies employed chiefly in agriculture, 16 ; in manufac- 
tures and trade, 103 ; in other pursuits, 149. Fam- 
iUes dependent chiefly on property and professions, 
27; on the directing of labour, 118; on their own 
manual labour, 1 13 ; on means not specified, 10. 

PHILIPSTOWN. a parish on the north border 
of the barony of Ardee, 4 miles north-west of the 
town of Ardee, co. Louth, Leinster. l^ength, north- 
eastward, 3^ miles ; extreme breadth, 1^ ; area, 
3,659 acres, 3 roods, 32 perches. Pop., in 1831, 
1,659; in 1841, 1,669. Houses 291. The sur&ce 
oonsista of good arable and pasture land ; and is 
watered along the north-western and northern boun- 
daries by the river Lagan or Clyde. The seats 
are Rathneeston-house, Wildgooee-lodge, and Tho- 
mastown-castle, — the last the seat of M . O'Reilly, 
Esq. The chief hamlet is Reaghstown. — This 
parish is a rectory, and part of the benefice of 
CHAEixaTowx [which see], in the dio. of Armagh. 
Tithe composition, £318 9s. 3d. The Roman 
Catholic chapel is situated at Reaghstown, and has 
an attendance of 1,033; and, in the Roman Catholic 
parodiial arrangement, is united to tbe chapel of 
Tallanstown. In 1834, the Protestants amounted 
to 90, and the Roman Catholics to 1,597; and 4 
daily schools — one of which was salaried with £5 
from the incumbent, and £5 from Mr. MacCartney, 
and one with ^20 frt>m the incumbent. Col. Filgate, 
sad tbe Association for Discountenancing Vice — ^had 
on t^eir books 144 boys and 28 girls. 

PHILIPSTOWN, a parish in the barony of 
Ferrard, 2 miles north of Drogheda, co. Louth, 
L^nster. Length and breadth, each } of a mile ; 
srea, 263 acres, 1 rood, 29 perches. Pop., in 1831, 

70; in 1841, 64. Houses 10 This parish lies 

within the dio. of Armagh, but is not recognised in 
the ecclesiastical divisions. In 1834, the inhabitants 
were all Roman Catholics. 

PHILIPSTOWN, CO. Down. See Portapbrrt. 

PHILIPSTOWN, or Pqilipstown-Nuoent, a 
parish in the oarony of Upper Dundalk, 3^ miles 
west-Dortl^west of the town of Dundalk, co. Louth, 
Leiofter. Length, east-south-eastward, 2| miles; 
eztfeflDC breadth, 1 ; area, 1,035 acres, 3 roods, 15 
pocbes. Pop., in 1831, 459; in 1841, 401. Houses 
75. The lurfaice consists of good arable land ; and 
is trmreraed by the road from Dundalk to Cross- 
iMglVn The Castletown river traces the northern 
booidary. The seats are Philipstown-house and 
Woodbine-cottage. Within the parish are extensive 
ioor and com mills. — This parish is nominally a 
rvBCV, but practically a rectory, and part of the 
bmence of Baronstown [which see], in the dio. of 
Armagh. Tithe composition, £107 13s. 5d. ; glebe, 
£34 l(b. The church was built in 1796 by means 
of donations from the incumbent, from i^rimate 
Rokeby, and from the late Board of First Fruits. 
Sittings 90; attendance 50. In 1834, the parish- 
ioners consisted of 29 Churchmen, 21 Presbyterians, 
»d 344 Roman Catholics. 

PHINAGH. See FiNocn. 

PHCENIX-PARK, a public demesne, imme- 
diately adjacent to the west side of Dublin, and in 
the parishes of St. James, Chapel-Izod, and Castle- 
kaodc, barony of Castleknock, co. Dublin, Leinster. 

It extends along the north bank of the Liffey, frool 
a point 5 furlongs above the village of Chapel-Izod, 
to a point 240 yards above Greor^ IV.'s Bridge; 
and it measures about 5\ Irish miles m circumference, 
and 1,760 statute acres in area. It serves as an ap- 
pendage to the dignity of the vice-regal establish- 
ment, and as a place of public resort for recreation 
and exercise ; and it contains the summer residence 
of the Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, houses for the 
secretaries of state, and other officers of government, 
the Hibernian Society's school for the children of 
soldiers, the Phoenix-'Pillar, the Wellington Testi- 
monial, the Royal Military Infirmary, and the Zoolo- 
gical Gardens. 

•* We are informed in the history of Dublin by 
Dr. Walsh," says Mr. Brewer, ** that the park de- 
rives its name nrom a corruption of the Insh term 
Fionn-uisge (dear, or fiur, water^, pronounced fin- 
uisk<^, * which articulated in the orief English man- 
ner, exactly resembles the word Phoenix.' The 
manor of Phoenix, made part of the lands of KiU 
mainham, and was surrendered to the Crown by Sir 
John Rawson, prior of that hospital, in the reign of 
Henry VIII. An intention of forming the demesne 
into a deer-park was entertained in the time of 
Queen Elizabeth, but this design was not carried 
into effect till the vice-rovalty of the Duke of 
Ormonde, in the reign of Charles II., since which 
date large additions have been made from lands 
purchased under the sanction of the Crown. The 
completion of the demesne, as regards ornamental 
disposal, was, however, reserved forthe accomplished 
Earl of Chesterfield, who, whilst residing in Ireland 
as lord-lieutenant, embellished the park with many 
walks and plantations. 

** Notwithstanding the efforts of Lord Chester- 
field, this extensive park is more conspicuous for 
natural than artificial beauties ; and is, perhaps, in 
everv point of view, except as regards dimensions, 
excelled by many demesnes in the possession of 
ennobled or private individuals. Its attractions are, 
however, considerable. Two * lakes,' of moderate 
extent, are well situated to adorn the principal 
ride ; and their pensive waters intermingle with the 
scenery at several points of observation. The great 
extent of the grounds, and the prevailing undulation 
of surface, produce an abundant variety of landscape ; 
and many noble views are obtained of contiguous 
tracts, in which the dty of Dublin stands displayed 
with peculiar advanta^. The endeavours ot Lord 
Chesterfield were chiefly directed to the disposal 
of the grounds; but, in one instance, he called to 
his aid the decorative hands of architecture and 
sculpture. In the centre of an area, approached by 
four avenues, his lordship erected a stone column, 
of the Corinthian order, on the top of which is sculp- 
tured the emblem of the Phoenix, reproductive from 
its own ashes. There appears to be little propriety 
in the adoption of a figure, which is connectea with 
the demesne in no other way than by the operation 
of an Anglicism calculated to create national risi- 
bility ; and the pillar (no more than thirty feet in 
height), sinks into insignificance, when viewed as the 
central ornament of so extensive a district." 

The Viceregal Lodge is situated 1 J mile north-west 
of the city-entrance to the park ; and, as to both posi- 
tion and architectural character, must be considered 
rather as a place of temporary retirement, than as a 
state building^ in use for the performance of official 
duty. The onginal structure was a small, plain, brick 
mansion, erected by a private individual, and pur- 
chased by government ; wings were added, in 1802, 
by Lord Hardwicke; and the north front, the only or- 
namental facade, — of a respectable and pleasing cha- 
racter, decorated with four Ionic pillars sustaining 



1 i»edimeAU-waB erected ckieAy by Lord Wfaitworth, 

after a design bv Francis Johnstone, Esq. The 
lodge, in spite oi its plainness and comparative in- 
cominodiousness, was the principal residence of 
George IV. during his visit to Ireland. The chief 
secretary's house is situated 4^ furlongs west-south- 
west, and the under secretary's house 4^ furlongs 
west-north-west, of the Viceregal Lo<Ige ; but they 
are too plain structures to challenge any remark. 
The other buildings within the park were noticed 
in the article on the city of Dublin: which see. 
The beautiful garden of the Zoological Society is 
situated on the east verge of the park, 3^ furlongs 
from the city-entrance ; it is very spacious and judi- 
ciously disposed, and tolerably well furnished ; it is 
daily open to visitors for an admission-fee of sixpence 
from each ; and it forms one of the most interesting 
%i well as rational places for the recreation of the 

PHOUL-A-PHOUC A, or Pol-a-Phuca, a cele- 
brated waterfall on the boundary between the parish 
of Ballymore-Eustace, barony of South Naas, co. 
Kildare, and the parish of Hollywood, barony of 
Lower Talbotstown, co. Wicklow, Leinster. It 
occurs on the river Liffey, I J mile east-south-east 
of the town of Ballymore-Eustace, and 3} south- 
south-west of Blesfiington. The fall consists of 
three leaps or stages, amounting, in a time of flood, 
to IdO feet in descent ; and it occurs in a chasm of 
only 40 feet in width, between sheer cliffs of grey- 
wacke rock. ** The centre fall," says the author 
of the Guide to Wicklow, 'Ms an extraordinary and 
terrific object. Here the whole bodv of water com- 
posing the stream of the Liffey rushes down with 
the utmost impetuositv into a circular basin of stone, 
worn perfectly smooth, the form of which imparts 
to the water a rotatory motion, which Sewards com- 
pares to the eddy on the coast of Norway, called 
the Navel of the Sea, a vortex whose power of en- 
^ulphing is so great, that no vessel dares approach 
it. Across this chasm a bridge has been thrown, to 
continue the new line of roaid to New- Ross ; the 
span of the arch is sixty-five feet, the altitude of 
the chord above the upper fall is forty-seven feet, 
and the height of the keystone of the arch above the 
river's bed one hundred and fifty feet; from the 
battlements there is a direct perpendicular view into 
the whirlpool just now described, and which gives 
name to the waterfall. This beautiful object and 
bold conception, the bridge of Pol-a-Phuca, is built 
from the design of Alexander Niramo, Esq. Mr. 
Duncan's design was a little further up the river, 
from an idea of instability or want of room, so near 
the fall. The arch is of tne second order of pointed 
architecture, and is thrown from rock to rock pre- 
cisely over the principal fall. On the west side of 
the bridge the bed of the river alone appears to the 
spectator, but on crossing quickly to the other side and 
looking down, he is astonished at perceiving here 
an additional depth of near one hundred feet, from 
the same level to the lowest bed of the river ; the 
effect will be found ver^ extraordinary, and is occa- 
sioned by the water falhng a perpendicular height of 
more than fifty feet immeuiateW under the causeway. 
• * The scenery on each side of^he fall might be made 
very interesting and beautiful by a trifling expense 
in planting. One side was planted, some years 
since, by the late Earl of Miltown, whose property 
it is ; but the other side of the glen belongs to the 
see of Dublin, and is held, under lease of the arch- 
bishop, by the Rev. Richard Wolfe of Forenaughts, 
in the county of Kildare. It is quite naked and 
barren, unproductive to the proprietors, and ungrate- 
ful to the eye of the picturesque tourist. Upon 
Lord Miltown's side of the glen, there is a care- 

taker who receives viaitois, and poorti o«t fht 

beauties of the place, with great civility and atten- 
tion ; and pretty cottages, summer-houses, grottos, 
ban quetting- rooms, &c., are scattered through the 
hanging wood; seats, too, are placed in the most 
advantageous places for viewing each particular in- 
clination in the waterfall, and many circumstances 
conspire to render the grounds at Pol-a-Phuca' a 
very pleasing retreat in which to while away a mid- 
summer's day." 

PHOUL-A-PHOUC A. co. Fermanagh. See 

PIERCETO WN, a parish in the barony of Rath- 
conrath, 4^ miles north-north-east of Ballymore, co. 
Westmeath, Leinster. Length, south-south-east- 
ward, 4 miles; extreme breadth, 2|; area, 4,230 
acres, 2 roods, 1 perch, — of which 6 acres, 3 roods, 
27 perches are in the river Inny. Pop., in 1831, 
1,089 ; in 1841, 1,080. Houses VJ9. The west and 
south-west districts are bog ; and the other districts 
consist of land worth about 30s. per plantation acre 
per annum. The river Inny traces the short northern 
boundary, and the rivulet Blackwater traces tHtJber 
a large stretch of the north-eastern boundary. The 
seats are Ballinacarra-house and Williamstown-Iodge. 
The road from Ballymore to Rathbwen passes 
through the interior. — This parish is a rectory, and 
part of the benefice of Almoritia [which seej, in 
the dio. of Meath. Tithe composition, £95 ; glebe, 
£24. The church is in ruins. The Roman Catholic 
chapel is situated at Ballinacarra, and has an attend- 
ance of about 700; and, in the Roman Catholic 
parochial arrangement, is united to the qhapel^of 
Forgney. In 1834, the parishioners consisted of 48 
Churchmen, 7 Presbyterians, and 1,053 Ropyui 
Catholics ; and 2 daily schools — one of which At 
Ballinacarra was supported with £30 a-year from 
Mr. Digby — had on their books 38 boys aod SJ 
giris. , ' 

Now, a parish in the baronies of Lower and UpMr 
Duleek, 4h miles south by west of the town of |lj(u- 
leek, CO. Meath, Leinster. Length of the Lowf*r 
Duleek section, southward, 1| mile; l^rf»dth,' j|. 
Length of the Upper Duleek section, squth-sbuth- 
eastward, 2 miles; extreme breadth, 1^.. Area of 
the Lower Duleek section, 635 acreSf 2j6p49> 5 
perches ; of the Upper Duleek sec^on, 1,8^5 acres, 
3 roods, 28 perches. Pop. of the wbple. In Ildsj, 
according to the Census, 720. but accbrdlog to 'ihe 
Ecclesiastical Authorities, 518; iii 11641, ^9d. Houis'^ 
105. Pop., in 1841, of the Lower Duleelj;' section, 
167; of the Upper Duleek section, 428. Houses ih 
the two sections, 26 and 70. The Lower Dutee^ 
section consists of the townland of BalratliJ lies'I^ 
mile north-west of the nearest ptkf% of the Qpper 
Duleek section; and was transrerred from t]pper 
Duleek to Lower Duleek by the Act 6 and 7 WiUiain 
IV. The land of both sections is good.. The seaU 
in the Lower Duleek section are Balrath-house, 
Snugborough-bpuse, the Orove, and Miillaghfilv- 
house. The road from Duleek to Ratoath pass& 
across the north-west wing of the Upper Duleek 
section. — This parish is a rectory, and part of tHe 
benefice of Kilmoon [which see], in the die. df 
Meath. Tithe composition, £169 8s. ; glebe, £1HL 
In 1834, the Protestants amounted to 12, and tM 
Roman Catholics to 522; and there was neiiher 
church, chapel, nor school. 

PILL (The), a rivulet of the soiith-west of tlie 
county of Kilkenny, Leinster. It rises in the yif^m 
nity of the hamlet of Tullahought, and flpwA ^ 
miles south>vard, past the village of Pilltown,'totlie 
Suir, at a point 6 or 7 furlongs above the hamlelt bf 
Fiddown. The name Pill, however, is rathei' '^eti. 




erie than specific, and designates a considerable num- 
ber of slow-running tide-stemmed rivulets of the 
south-east of Ireland. 

PILL, or CoRUOE (The), a rivulet of the south 
of CO. Wexford, Leinster. It rises between the 
hills of B^high and Camorous, 7 miles east of New- 
Ross, and flows 10 miles southward to the head of 
Bannow Harbour. •* This river," say Mr. and Mrs. 
Hall, " is fiuned in the county history as the barrier 
of the English, and was called, par excellence, The 
Pill, — a name applied p^nerally to tide-inlets. Sir 
George Carew, writing in Elizabeth's time, observes, 
that the south part of the shire, as the most civil 
part, is contayned within a river called Pill ; where 
the auncyentest gentilmen, descended of the first con- 
querors, do inhabit; the other, also, without the 
river, is inhabited by the original Irishe, the Kavan- 
tghs, MorogheSy and Kinselaghs, who possesse the 
wooddy part of the country, and yet are daylie more 
and more scattered by our Englishe gentilmen, who 
incroche upon them, and plant castles and piles 
within them.** HoUinshed alludes to the exclusive 
effects of this natural circumvallation ; " but of all 
places,** he tells us, ** Weisforde, with the territorie 
baied and perclosed mthin the river called the Pill, 
was so qiute estranged from Irishrie, as if a traveller 
of the uwh had pitcht his foot within the Pill, and 
spoken Irish, the Weisfordians would command him 
foofthwith to tunie the other end of his toong, and 
speak English, or els bring his trouchman with him. 
The guarding of this river was deemed of such im- 
portance, that an act of parliament was passed by 
Henry VI. for building towers upon its banks, and 
'* that none shal breake the fortifications or strengthe 
of the water of Bannow, nor shal made noe waise on 
the same water from the woode of Bannow to the 
Pill adjoyninge to the river of Slane ; savi^ge soe 
nuch waise as shal be made by the commandment 
and viewe of the bi^op and deane of Femes, the 
■eneschall of the libertie, and sherriffe of the crosse.** 
Bt patent, Henry IV. appointed John Neville, Baron 
of Koagarland, keeper oi this water ; and the ancient 
feudal tenure by which the llore family held the 
aanor of Pole, H'as ' the service of keeping a passage 
over the Pill water as often as the sessions should 
be held at Wexford.'** 

PILLTOWN, a small market, post, and sea- 
Dort town, in the parish of Fiddown, barony of 
iTerk, CO. Kilkenny, Leinster. It stands on the 
rinilet Pill, and on the mail-road from Waterford 
to CkmmeXf | of a mile south of the route of the 
propoaed railway from Waterford to Limerick, I^ 
■nle north of the river Suir, 3^ east of Carrick-on- 
Ssir, lOi north-west by west of Waterford, I5| 
•outV-aouth-west of Thomastown, and 75j^ south- 
ioutb- west of Dublin. The immediate circumjacent 
eomtrjr excels most districts of Ireland in the ricli- 
Mss sod variety of the natural scenery, and the ar- 
tificial embellishments which it presents in small 
ipBce ; and boasts, in particular, the tasteful, well- 
kept, and magnificent demesne of Besborouf^h, the 
rendence of the Ponsonby fiunily, Earls of Bes- 
borougfa. Both the tou-n and its environs are the 
property of that family ; and they afford a distin- 
cuislicd instance of the benefits which may be con- 
ferred, the beauties which may be created, and the 
taste and skill which may be diffused, by the judi- 
cious care arid the wise encouragements of a resident 
landlord. ** The gentleman who filled the respon- 
sible oftce of agent to the Besborou^h estate, about 
30 years a^o, was a man of considerable taste, in the 
extended signification of the word. He was a lover 
of pictures, and an encourager of the fine arts, gen- 
craby apemking, and was extremely anxious to im- 
proT« ud beiuitify the spot over which he had, at 

the time, an almost absolute control. He was pi^- 
ticularly remarkable for cherishing native talent, and 
during his reign (for reign it might almost be called), 
Pilltown and its immediate neighbourhood produced 
several youn^ artists of no inconsiderable merit' in 
their respective branches of the fine arts. Some, 
indeed, with the fiitality attendant on Irish genius, 
have, since then, verified the description of the 
poet, — 

" Unhallowed they sleep in the cfou ways of fame f* 

while others, and some of them are still living, have 
acquired a fair share of local celebrity for their clever- 
ness and talent. Under the dynasty of the person we 
allude to, a spirit for outward improvement at least was 
diffused throughout the bosoms of most of the tenantry, 
which the fostering care and encouraging eye of the 
proprietor himself nave since matured and preserved, 
practice and theory having gone on hand in hand under 
his prudent direction. About eight years ago. Lord 
Duncannon, eldest son to the Earl of Besborough, 
visited, for the first time, this portion of the posses- 
sions of his ancestors, bringing his fiunilv with hihi. 
The change which immediately took place for the 
better in the entire appearance of the place, and in 
the condition of the inhabitants, was strikingly great. 
There were rack-rents and middlemen before, which 
not all the external beauty of the place could atone 
for. These were both at once, and without delay, 
abolished. There were occasionally village tyrannies : 
these were put a stop to. The poorest labourer 
was taught to feel, that though he was subject him- 
self to the control of the laws, he had also a protec- 
tion in them from oppression. In his arrival also, an 
incentive was given to industry, to improvement an 
example, to morality a reward, and to vice a power- 
ful and stern check." 

The principal street of the town is about half-a- 
mile in length. The cottages are mostly of modern 
construction ; they have in front, and enclosed from 
the pathway, small gardens of flowers and ever- 
greens ; and they are distinguished for both an ex- 
ternal neatness and an internal cleanliness which are 
not common in the small towns of Ireland. Both 
the market-house and the hotel are pleasing build- 
ings of two stories, but in different styles ; and the 
former contains, in the upper part of a large turret, 
such an interesting collection of paintings, mir.erals, 
fossils, gems, statuary, medals, armour, and anti- 
quities of every description and from every country, 
as may fairly challenge comparison witli many mu- 
seums of greater extent and pretension. A Protes- 
tant scboolhouse midway up the town is a pret^ 
buildine. An unfinished tower, which stands at 
one ena of the town, was erected to perpetuate the 
memory of one of the Ponsonby family who fell in 
the last war. A commodious quay is situated im- 
mediately behind the market-house, at the ternuiia- 
tion of the tideway and the navigation of the Pill 
river ; and receives vessels of 70 tons or even greater 
burden. A dockyard is connected with the quay. 
A bridge or viaduct spans an affluent of the Pill, and 
takes along a new road for cutting off a short rocky 
hill on the Waterford road. A new road to Dublin, 
shorter than any previous line, proceeds by the de- 
mesne of Castlemorris, and joins the Carrick-ou-Suir 
and Dublin road at the ruins of Aghavillar. The 
Pilltown and Whitecburch diitpensary is >vithin the 
Carrick-on-Suir Poor-law union, and serves for a 
district containing a pop. of 7,/>48; and, in 1839, it 
expended £147 Us., and administered to 2,569 pa- 
tients. A court of petty-sessions is held on the 
second Thursday of every month . Area of the town, 
55acres. Pop., in ia31. 634; in 1841, 701. Houses 
ISO. Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 49 ; in 




muitifaetures and trade, 71 ; in other pursuits, 90. 
Families dependent chiefly on propertyand profes- 
sions, 7 ; on the directing of labour, 73 ; on their 
own manual labour, 63 ; on means not specified, 7. 

PILLTOWN, a hamlet in the parish of Clash- 
more, barony of Decies-within-Drum, co. Waterford, 
Munster. It stands on the east shore of the estuary 
of the BUckwater, 2| miles north-north-east of 
Youghal. This place was the residence of Judge 
Walsh, the infunous concocter of the forged com- 
mission in favour of the rebels in the reign of Charles 
I. Pop. not specially returned. 

PLAISKINS. See Pleaskin. 

PLANTATION, a small seat of manufacture in 
the parish of Lisburn, barony of Upper Castlereagh, 
00. Down, Ulster. It is situated 1 mile south-east 
by east of the town of Lisburn, on the road thence 
to Ballinahinch. A thread manufactory was estab- 
lished here by a Mr. Barber, from Scotland ; and, 
about 20 years ago, it employed upwards of 120 per- 
sons, and annually spun about 200,000 hanks of na- 
tive yarn into threaas of all classes. 

PLASSEY, a locality in the parish of Kilton- 
anlea, baronv of Lower TuUa, co. Clare, 2 miles 
north-east or Limerick, Munster. Here the rivulet 
Black water falls into the Shannon, the long stretch 
of the Limerick navigation within Clare commences, 
and a foot bridge across the Shannon was proposed 
to be constructed by the Commissioners for improv- 
ing the Shannon Navigation. The horses employed 
in tracking boats up the Limerick navigation pass at 
Plassey from the left to the right bank of the Shan- 
non, and used formerly to be conveyed across in boats, 
a method occasioning both inconvenience and de- 
lay ; and the chief design of the foot bridge is to 
afford for the horses facility of passage. Estimated 
cost, £3,000. 

PL ATT EN, a demesne in the parish of Duleek, 
barony of Lower Duleek, 2 |miies south-west of 
Drogheda, co. Meath, Leinster. The mansion be- 
longs to Mr. Reeves, is a baronial-looking pile, and 
occupies the site of a large and fine castle, erected 
and inhabited by the family of D' Arcy. This family 
were descendants of Sir John D*Arcy, who was sev- 
eral times chief governor of Ireland, in the reigns of 
Edward II. and his successor ; and one of them was 
Sir William D'Arcy, Vice-treasurer of Ireland in 
1523, and author ot a work entitled, *' The Decay 
of Ireland and the Causes of it." 

PLEASKIN, a grand and sin^larly beautiful 
cliff', a little west of Bengore, parish of Billy, bar- 
ony of Carey, co. Antrim, Ulster. It is the loftiest 
and most romantic of the intricate and magnificent 
series of cliffs eastward from the Giant's Causeway ; 
and, in order to be fully appreciated, requires to be 
seen both from a vantage-ground on its summit, and 
from a boat near its base. ** At Pleaskin," says the 
author of the Guide to the Giant's Causeway, '* the 
natural basaltic rock lies immediately under the sur- 
face ; about twelve feet from the sunmiit, the rock 
begins to assume a columnar tendency, and is formed 
into ranges of rudely columnar basalt, in a vertical 
position, and exhibiting the appearance of a grand 
gallery, whose columns measure sixty feet in height. 
This basaltic colonnade rests upon a bed of coarse, 
black, irregular rock, sixty feet thick, abounding in 
blobs and air-holes ; below this coarse stratum is a 
second range of pillars, forty-five feet hich, more 
accurately columnar, nearly as accurately formed as 
those of the Causeway itself; and, in general, it may 
be observed, that the lower the range the more 
accurate the columnarization will be found to be. 
This latter range is supported by a bed of red ochrous 
stone. These natural fietcades with the intervening 
strata, form a perpendicular height of about 154 

feet ; and from the base of this predpioe, a slopinf 
bank is continued to the sea, strewn with debris 
and clothed with verdure, whose altitvde is about 
200 feet, making altogether a height of 354 feet 
above the sea." «* See the Pleaskin firom the water 
if you can," say Mr. and Mrs. Hall, **bat do not 
fiiil to see it by land. Seat yourself in * Hamilton's 
Seat,' and look down upon toe gallerieB, the colon- 
nades, the black irregular rocks, the stratomsof many 
colours, and the debris of a sloping bank that meets 
the waves, and is clothed, here and there, with ver- 
dures of all hues and qualities. May you see it, as we 
did, when cloud and sunshine were oiasingeach other ; 
when the gulls and sea-birds looked like motes float- 
ing from the ocean to their haunts in the wild cliffs ; 
when we saw the motion of the waves, yet, though 
we were hushed and listening, could hardly hear 
them murmur ; when we looked down an abyss of 
most varied and surprising beauty, not ftt the time 
remembering that from where we sat to where the 
ripple kissed the strand was a depth of 354 feet." 

PLEBERSTOWN, a parish in the barony of 
Gowran, 2 miles south by east of Thomastown, co. 
Kilkenny, Leinster. Length, south by westward, 
1| mile; extreme breadth, H; area, 896 acres, 14 
perches, — of which 9 acres, 2 roods, 2perches are 
m the river Nore. Pop., in 1631, 237; in 1641, 
202. Houses 40. The Fourth Report of the Com- 
missioners on Ecclesiastical Revenues and Patron- 
age, asserts it to be only a townland ; and yet re- 
turns it as a parish containing a pop. of 1,651, and 
nearly identical with the parish of ABBBT-JsapoiNT : 
which see. The surface of Pleberstown lies on the 
right bank of the Nore, and consists of good land. 
The seats are Coolmore- house, and Bonnybrook- 
house ; and the chief antiquities are the ruins a[ a 
fnary chapel, and Dysert-castle. — This narish is an 
impropriate curacy, and part of the oenefice of 
BuBNCHURCH [which see J, in the dio. c^ Ossory. 
The tithes are mixed up with those of some other 
parish or parbhes of the benefice. In 1834, the 
Protestants amounted to 3, and the Roman Catholict 
to 234. 

PLUCK, a hamlet in the parish of Leek, barony 
of Raphoe, 34 miles east by south of Letterkenny, 
CO. Donegal, Ulster. Pop. not specially returxttd. 

POBBLEBRIEN, a barony of the county of Lim- 
erick, Leinster. It is bounded, on the norUi, by tb« 
Shannon, which divides it from co. Clare; on the 
east, by the city of Limerick and tiie barony of 
Clanwilliam ; on the south, by the baronies of Small 
County and Coshma ; and on the west, by the bar- 
onies of Upper Connello, Lower Connello» and 
Kenry . Length, south - south - eastward, 9} miles ; 
extreme breadth, 5 ; area, 34,312 acres, — of which 
1,223 acres are tidcMray. The surfiuse is one of th« 
most rich and beautiful portions of the county, tame 
in natural feature, but fertile in soil, md very pro- 
fuse in artificial decoration ; and, in a general view, 
it extends from the Commogue to Uie Shamioo, 
partly on both sides of the Maigue, but diiefly on 
the right bank of that stream. The Act 3 and 4 
Victoria, cap. 106 and 109, transferred parts of the 
parishes of Crecora, Rilkeedy, Killeely, Knockna- 
gaul, Mungrett, St. Blichael, St. Munciiin» and Si« 
Nicholas, from the quondam <x>unty of the city of 
Limerick to the barooy of Pobblebrien, — pop.^ in 
1641, 5,997. This barony, as now constituted, con* 
tains the whole of the parishes of Crecora, Kilkeedy, 
Knocknagaul, and Mungrett, and part of the pariaket 
of Bally.cuhane, Croom, Killeely, KiUeenaghty, Kil* 
lonahan, Kilpeacon, Monastemenagh, St. Michael, 
St. Munchin, and St. Nicholas. The only consid- 
erable viUage is St. Patrick's- Well. Pop., in 1881, 
10,667 ; in 1641, 16,616. Houses 2,549. Funiliet 




•■ployed chiefly id agricolture, 2,180 ; in manufac 
tores end trade, 306 ; in other pursuits, 234. Fam- 
ilies dependent chiefly on property and professions, 
£6; OB the directing of lainnir, 733; on their own 
manual labour, 1,844; on means not specified, 86. 
Males at and above 5 years of age who could read and 
write, 2,816; who could read but not write, 907; 
who could neither read nor write, 3,497. Females 
at and above 5 years of age who could read and 
write, 1,326; who could read but not write, 1,149; 

who could neither read nor write, 4,812 Pobble- 

brien lies wholly within the Poor-law union of Lim- 
erick. The total number of tenements valued is 
984 ; and of these, 362 were valued under £5,-154, 
under £10,-^1, under £15,_70, under £20,-45, 
milder £25,-40, under £30,-40, under £40,-29, 
under £50,— and 1 13, at and above £50. 

POBBLE- O'KEEFE, a government estate, or 
territory of Crown-lands, on the western border of< 
the barony of Duhallow, and of the county of Cork, 
Munster. It contains the new and thriving little 
town of Kin^- William's- Town, and has already been 
partially noticed in our article on that place. See 
Kino* William's -Town. The name means the 
Land of O'Keefes* people. The tract measures about 
7 Biles in length from north to south, about 2^ in 
breadth, and about 9,000 acres in area; and it is 
bounded chiefly oo the west by the incipient Black- 
water» here tiie division -line between Cork and 
Kerry, and on the east by the mountain- rivulet 
Owenaglyn or Auntharaglyn. Its surface is hilly and 
undulated, possesses an average altitude of about 500 
feet above the level of the sea; forms a central por- 
tion <j{ a vast mountain district of about 900 square 
miles, and, though exhibiting some peat-bog in the 
bottom of valleys and depressions, prevailingly shows 
a good strong soil varying from alluvium and loamy 
gravel to a powerful clay. The great mountain 
region around was the theatre of a desolating war- 
me in the reigns of Elizabeth and James I., the re- 
fuge of outlaws in the reigns of William III. and 
Aone« and the very focus of insurrectionary move- 
laents in the south-west of Munster since the oom- 
Beneemcnt of the present century ; but, during the 
last twenty-two years, it has been the scene of such 
wise aad benevolent engineering measures and georgic 
opcntions on the part of government as affora topics 
to any politic economist, for a powerful chapter on 
the benign effects of larmly infusing into political 
jdminiatration a spirit of paternal care over unem- 
pk^cd masaes of the people. " This extentuve tract 
af country," says a writer in the Dublin Penny 
/oumaU **was difitinguished by a more than ordi- 
■ary degree of indolence, discontentedness, and tur- 
bulence, in its inhabitants and their abodes; being 
•knoat inaecessible for want of roads, crime fre- 
quently escaped unpunished. During the disturb- 
■wes of the winter of 1821, and the spring of 
n22» this district was the asylum for White Boys, 
UBogglers, and midnight marauders. Stolen cattle 
were constantly driven into it, fVom the surrounding 
let and fertile country, as to a safe and impenetrable 
letremt. The only passes ever made through this 
part of the country previous to 1822, were effected 
at the instance and expense of the English govern- 
■ent immediately subsequent to the rebellion of the 
Earl of Desmond, of whose extensive territory the 
district of which we have been speaking formed a 

K, These passes or roads were laid out in straight 
without any reference to the nature of the 
covitry, and ran directly over hill and valley from 
me opUtary point to another. A vast change has 
beau effected in the state of the district and its 
iahahitanta, since the month of September, 1822, 
vkuu uew lines of road were laid down, under the 

direction of a man of dittin^ished talent and infor- 
mation, Mr. Griffith, the civil engineer, sent down 
for that purpose, and for the direction of other pub- 
lic works, undertaken for the employment of the 
poor, in consequence of the scarcity which pre- 
vailed in the summer of that year. The progress 
of this important change he has thus described :— 
' At the commencement of the works the people 
flocked to them from all quarters, seeking eniplojr- 
ment at any rate which might be offered. Their 
general appearance bespoke extreme poverty ; their 
looks were haggard, and their clothing wretched; 
they rarely possessed any instruments of husbandry 
beyond a very small ill-made spade, and as a conse- 
quence it followed that nearly the whole face of the 
country was unimproved and in a state of nature. 
But since the completion of the roads in 1829, rapid 
strides have been made towards cultivation and im- 
provement ; upwards of sixty new lime-kilns were 
built for the purpose of burning lime for agriculture 
within the two preceding years ; carts, ploughs, and 
harrows, of superior construction, became common ; 
new houses of a better class were built in great 
numbers in the vicinity of the new roads, and also 
in the adjacent villages of Newmarket, Castle-Island, 
and Abbeyfeale ; new enclosures of mountain fiurnis 
have been made in every direction ; and this country, 
which at no distant period was the scene of lawless 
outrage, and one of the strongholds of what might 
be termed the rebel army, quickly became perfectly 
tranquil, and exhibited a scene of industry and exer- 
tion at once pleasing and remarkiU>le. To the credit 
of the people be it told, that a large portion of the 
money received by them for labour on the roads was 
husbanded with care, and subsec^uently laid out in 
building substantial houses, and m the purchase of 
cattle, and implements of husbandry, and numerous 
examples might be adduced of poor labourers possess- 
ing neither money, houses, nor land^, when first em- 
ployed on the public roads, who within a short period 
were able to take farms, build houses, and stock 
their lands with cows and young cattle.' " 

POE (The), a rivulet of the county of Tyrone, 
Ulster. It rises on the south side of Ardbarren, at 
a point 3| miles south by west of Castle-Derg, and 
at an elevation of about 400 feet above the level of 
the sea; and it flows 10^ miles eastward, chieflv 
along the boundary between the baronies of Omagh 
and Strabane, to the river Strule, at a point 1^ mile 
below the town of Omagh. The stream is also 
called Faery Water. 

POINTZ-PASS. See Potntz-Pass. 

POl^A-PHUCA. See Phoctl-a-Phouca. 

POLBOY, or Polbvie, a hamlet in the parish 
of Kildooney, barony of Clonmacnoon, co. Oalway, 
Connau^ht. It stands on the Grand Canal, and in 
the vicinity of the Suck, 1^ mile south-south-east 
of Ballinasloe. Here are a bridge, an aqueduct, 
and the ruins of a monastery. Pop. not specially 

POLBOY*, or Polbuie, a bog in the parishes of 
Kilclooney and Clontuskert, Wony of Clonmac- 
noon, CO. Galway, Connaught. It commences J of a 
mile south of Ballinasloe, and extends 2i) miles along 
the right bank of the Suck, and past the hamlet of 
Pol boy. It is bounded on the north-west and the 
south by steep ridges of limestone gravel ; and is in- 
teriorly divided by three small streams which run 
nearly from west to east ; and, though for the mo»t 
part very wet, it might be drained and reclaimed at 
less expense than most other bogs, the fall being 
quite sufficient, and the limestone gravel in no part 
very distant. Area, 1,950 acres; estimated cost of 
reclamation, £2,(>45 4s. 7d. 

POLB WEE. See Navaw (Town of). 




POLEROAN, PoLL&oifE, or PoLRowAif, a 
parisli in the ^burony of Iverk, 4k miles south- 
south-east of Pilltown, co. Kilkenny, Leinster. 
It contains the villages of Poleroan, Doornane, 
Qrangb, and Mooncoin : see these articles. 
Length, southward, 5^ miles ; extreme breadth, 
li; area, 3,596 acres, 24 perches. Pop., in 1831, 
1,^46} in 1841, 1,894. Houses 298. Pop. of the 
rural districts, in 1841, 637. Houses 91. The 
surface consists, in a general view, of very good 
land. The river Suir traces the southern boundary. 
The chief seat is Poleroan-house ; and the principal 
hamlets are Ballybrazil, Nieholastown, and Clogga. 
The road from Clonmel to Waterford passes through 
the interior ; and the village of Poleroan stands 5 
furlongs south of that roul, and in the near vicinity 
of the 8uir. Area of the village, 18 acres. Pop., 

in 1831, 315; in 1841, 145. Houses 21 This 

parish is a vioarage, in the dio. of Ossory. Vicarial 
tithe composition, £150; glebe, £1 10s. The rec 
torial tithes are compounded for £150, and are im- 
prc^riate in the corporation of the city of Waterford. 
The vicarages of Poleroan, Portnescitllt, and 
Illud [see these articles], constitute the benefice 
of Poleroan. Length, 5^ miles ; breadth, 3. Pop., 
in 1831, 2»095. Gross income, £284 26. ; nett, 
£268 10ft. 2d. Patron, the corporation of Water- 
ford. The incumbent holds also the united benefices 
of Whiteehnrch, Loscoran, and Colligan, in the dio. 
of Lismore. The church is in ruins ; and there is a 
Roman Catholic chapel in PortnescuIIy. In 1834, 
the Protestants of the parish and union amounted to 
4, the Roman Catholics of the parish to 1,149, and 
the Roman Catholics of the union to 2,909 ; a daily 
school in the parish had on it« books 60 boys ; and 
there were two daily schools and a Sunday school in 

POLES, a hamlet, 3^ miles north-north-west of 
Nobber, and in the barony of Lower Kells, co. 
Meath, Leinst«r. Pop. not specially returned. 

POLIPLICKE. See Balltpoile. 

POLLARDSTOWN, a parish in the barony of 
EsBt Ophftly, 3 miles east-north-east of Kildare, co. 
Kildare, Leinster. Length, south-sout^-eastward, 
IJmilei; extreme breadth, 1^; area, 1,249 acres, 3 
roods, 6 -perches. Pop., in 1831, 278; in 1841, 
313k Houses 46. The surface consists of tolerably 
good land. The highest 'ground is near the centre, 
and hasan altitude of 400 ^et above sea-level. The 
south end iourheff the Curra^h of Kildare, and con- 
tains the hotel in the ncintty of the 8tAiid-house. 
— This parish is a rectory, and part of the benefice 
of Thom A6TOWN [which seel, in the dio. of Kildafe. 
Tithe composition, £75; glebe, £1 15s. 7d. In 
1834^ the Protestants amounted to 4, and the Ro- 
man Catholics to 280 ; and a pay daily school had on 
its ^ooka 20 boys and 16 girls. 

POLLRONE. See Poleroan. 

P0L8ILLAGH, a vilhige in the parish of Kil- 
moylati, barony of Clare, co. Galway^ Coiinaught. 
It stands in the midst of a boggy district of country, 
^ oitL mile east of the road from Athenry to Tuam, 
3) mUes ivest-north-west of Monivea, and 6 north of 
Athenry ; and it is so near the eastern boundary of 
its parish and barony that the map of the Ordnance 
Survey places it within the adjoining parish of 
Abbeykfroekmov, and barony of Tyaquin. Area, 
9 acres. Pop., in 1841, 150. Houses 32. 

POMEROY, a pariKh, containing a village of the 
same name, on the west border of the barony of 
DuBgannon, co. Tyrone, Ulster. Length, west by 
northward,' 7 miles;- extreme breadth, 3i; area, 
15,850 acres, 3 roods, 29 perches. Pop., in 1831, 
according to the Census, 7, 183, but according to the 
Ecekaiastical Authorities, 7,695; in 1841, 8,527. 

Houses 1,562. About 800 acres of the surfmee are 
unprofitable ; about two-fifths of the whole areft 
consist of a good description of light land, annually 
worth about 25s. per statute acre ; and the remain- 
der consists of land worth from ICto. 6d. to 15s. per 
acre. The road from Dungannon to Omagh and 
Newtown -Stewart passes through the hiterior. 
Pomeroy demesne, the residence of R. W. Lowry, 
Esq., though adjoining the village of Pomeroy, it 
within the parish of Desertcreight. The principal 
seats within Pomeroy parish, are Mulnagore-lodge and 
Almore-lodge. Pomeroy village stands on the north- 
ern verge of the parish, and on the road from Dun- 
gannon to Newtown- Steiiiirt, 6| miles east-north- 
east of Six-mile-Cross, 7 north-west of Dongaimon, 
and 7 west-south-west of Cookstown. Its site is on 
the outskirts of the vast tract of moor, bog, and 
mountain which constitutes the central cegiona of 
the county; and its environs, especially on two 
sides, are wild and repulsive. Fairs are held on the 
second Tuesday of every month. A court dT petty- 
sessions is held monthly. A dispensary is witmn 
the Cookstown Poor-law union, and serves for an 
area of 15,950 acres, ^vith a pop. of 7,183 ; and, in 
1839-40, it expended £71, and admhdstered to 
1,067 patients. Area of the village, 21 acres. Pop., 
in 1841, 491. Houses 91. Families emploj^ 
chiefly in agriculture, 36; in manufactures^md trade, 
50 ; in other pursuits, 13. Families dependent 
chiefly on property and professions, 9; on the direct- 
ing of labour, 41 ; on their own manual labour, 46; 

on means not specified, 8 This parish is a ree> 

torv, and a separate benefice, in the dio. of Armagh. 
Tithe composition, £389; fi^lebe, £197 17*. Ud. 
Gross income, £586 17s. Ud. ; nett, £527 7*. S^d. 
Patron, the diocesan. A curate receives a salary of 
£75. The church was built about the year 1775. 
Sittings 300 ; attendance, from 180 to 260. A tchooL 
house is also used as a parochial place of worship, 
and has an attendance of 100. The Presbyterian 
meeting-house has an attendance of fh>m 90 to 100. 
The Roman Catholic chapel has an attendance of 
from 900 to 1,000; and, in the Roman Catholic 
parochial arrangement, is united to the chapel of 
Donaghmore. A Roman Catholic out -oi- door 
place of meeting has an attendance of about 900; 
and, in the Roman Catholic parochial arrangement,' 
is united to the chapel of Tullyallen. In 1834, the 
parishioners consisted of 995 Churchmen, 1,372 
Presbyterians, 15 other Protestant dissenters, and 
5,157 Roman Catholics; 2 Sunday schools were 
usually attended by about 110 children ; and 6 daily 
schools — two of which were connected with tlie 
National Board, and one with the Kildare Pliiee 
Society^had on their books 389 boys and 166 sirh. 

PONDS, a village in the parish of Rathiamtani, 
barony of Rathdown, co. Dublin, Leinster. It 
stands 3 furlonp south-east of the village of Ratb* 
famham, and is the site of a convent. Area, 96 
acres. Pop., in 1841, 223. Houses 43. 

PONTOON, a neck of land between Loughs Gomi 
and CuUen, and in the parish of Turlough and bar* 
ony of Carra, co. Mayo, Connaught. It is ritnsted 
6 miles south by west of Ballina, and is traversed bf 
the mail-road thence to Castlebar. A bridge which 
gives name to the locality, spans the brief strait 
between the lakes, and takes across the public road. 
A small but comfortable inn on the little peninsula, 
was built by the Earl of Lucan, one of the prin- 
cipal proprietors of the surrounding country, for 
the accommodation of tourists. A wild rocky YdSk 
which overhangs the bridge, commands a noble >riew 
of the greater part of Lough Conn, and of its Islahdl 
and bold shores. 

POOLANASS, the lower lake of the Tde oi 




Glepdalouffb, pamh of DerryloBsory, barony of 
Nortb BaUinacor, go. Wicklow, Leinster. It has a 
ftur£»ce-elevation of 435 feet above sea-level, while 
the upper lake has an elevatioo of 441 feet; and 
it is oyerlooked by the ruins called Our Lady's 
Church, the Cathedral, St. Kevin's Kitchen, and the 
Round Tower. See Glendalough. A stream- 
let which flows . into its south side, and is called the 
Poolaiuus brook, descends a deep wooded ravine 
between the npountains of Derrybawn and Lugduff, 
and forms a beautiful small cascade as it forces its 
w^ through the chasms of the rocks. 

POOLBOY. See Polbot. 

POOLDOODY, aUgoon in the parishes of Abbey 
and Drumcreehy, barony of Burren, co. Clare, 
AIuDster. It is connected by a narrow channel with 
the east side of Ballyvaughan bay ; it extends east- 
ward and south-south-eastward 3 mUes, with an ex- 
treme breadth of 5 furlongs ; and it contains an ex- 
tensive and celebrated oyster-bed, and forms a com- 
pletely landlocked retreat for fishing-boats. 

POOLNASHERRY, a shallow and ramified bay 
or lagoon, in the barony of Moyarta, co. Clare, Mun- 
stcr. It opens firom the estuary of the Shannon, at a 
point 2i oules west of the town of Kilrush ; it is only 
24 furlongs wide at the entrance ; it penetrates the 
land 2 nme» northward, and 3 north-eastward ; and 
it has, on respectively its west, its north, and its 
east skies, the parishes of Moyarta, Kilfieragh, and 
Kilrush. It is Y9Ty shallow at high water ; and by 
far the greater part of it is dry at low water. It 
ooQtains several islets, the chief of which are called 
Black Island, Illanmore, and lUanbeg. It is crowd- 
ed\y Ireqoentad by boats employed in the turf trade 
from Kilrush to Limerick. See Kilrush. A ferry 
across its entrance takes over the thoroughfiire from 
Kilrosh to Carrigaholt. 

POOB^HEAD, a promontory, 3 miles east of the 
lighthouse at the entrance of Cork Harbour, and 
fominff the most southerly ground in the barony of 
Iffiokilly» 00. Cork, Munster. It is bold and lofty, 
and oommands a view of Kinsale Uead to the west, 
and of a considerable tract of sea-coast to the east. 
A rock li«s a brief distance seaward from the pro- 
Diontory» and bears the name of Hawk Rock. 

PQR'r» a parish, containing a village of the same 
name, 00 the coast of the barony of Ferrard, 4J miles 
east by north of Dunleer, co. Louth, Lemster. 
Length, south-eastward, 2| miles; extreme breadth, 
U; area, 1,803 acres, 2 roods, 10 perches. Pop., 
in 1881. 809; in 1841, 868. Houses 165. The 
sohhoe is wholly profitable« and consists of tolerably 
good tillage land. The coast is 1^ mile in extent, 
and consists wholly of sandy beach. The road from 
Dmauij to Droghieda passes through the interior. 
The hamlets are Ferrard-Cross and Duddestownt 
sad, the chief rural residences are Seafield and Sally- 
cocti^. The village of Port stands l\ mile south- 
soath-wesi of Dunany, on the road thence to Dro- 
fheda. Area, 13 acres. Pop., in 1831, 193; in 1841, 

138. Houses 29 This parish is nominally a vicarage, 

but practically a rectory, and part of the benefice of 
Rathjobcjcmxit [which see], in the dio. of Armagh. 
Tithe composition, £145 &. 4d. ; glebe, £5. A 
Hooiao Catholic chapel at Welshe^town has an 
•turndance of 700 ; and, in the Roman Catholic 
parochial arrangement, is united to the chapel of 
Hicket s-Croiw in the benefice of Termonfeckan. 
in lb34, the Protestants amounted to 5. and the 
Hmmn Catholics to 800; and a daily hchool was 
ruooectcd with the National Board, and had on its 
hoqkB 159 boys and 120 girls. 

PORT, a village in the parish of Inver, barony of 
Bvmafrh, co. Donegal, VUter. It stands on the 
vat shore df Inver bay, 1| mile south-west of the 

hamlet of Inver, and 7| west-south-west of Donegal. 
Fairs are held on March 14, May 12, June 26, Aug. 
26, Nov. 5, and Dec. 15. Area, 5 acres. Pop., in 
1841,198. Houses 36. 

PORTACHUILLA, or Po&tacoolia, a small 
fishing village and harbour in the middle of the south 
coast of Clare Island, co. Mayo, Connaugfat. The 
hamlet is the site of a Roman Catholic chapel and 
the ruins of a monastery; and, previous to 1824, 
when the Fishery Board granted Jt92 6e. 2d. toward 
the efi*ecting of some clearances, the harbour con- 
sisted only of some winding channels aniong one mass 
of wild rock, and was firequented only by a few ad- 
venturous fishermen. 

PORTACLOY, a harbour on the north coast of 
the parish of Kilcommon, and barony of Erris, co. 
>fayo, Comiaught. It consists of a rocky southward 
creek or narrow bay, 1 of a mile in length, and situ- 
ated 1) mile east of Benwee-Head, and 9^ miles in 
a straight line north-west by north of Belmullet. It 
is in itself a prettv recess ; and it lies in the imme- 
diate vicinitv of the most nuignificent eoast-soenery 
in Connaught, and of the three romantic objects 
called the Arc^, the Paki^oub, and Moirr a-Sound : 
which see. At Portacloy is a coast-guard station. 

PORT ADOWN, a quoad sacra parish in the bar- 
ony of West O'Neilland, co. Anuagh, Ulster. It 
consists of the southern portion of the quoad dvilia 
parish of Dbumcrbb, and contains the greater part of 
the post and market town of Portadown : see these 
articles. Length, 3 miles ; breadth, 2^ ; area, 3,888 
acres, 16 perches. Pop., in 1831, 4,906. The sur- 
face consists of good laiid, and is a beautiful portion 
of the rich and pleasant central district of the county. 
The Bann navigation traces the eastern boundary ; 
and the Ulster railway and the road from Armagh to 
Belfast pass through the interior. The principal 
seats are Woodside-house, Woodside-cottage, Mount- 
Prospect, Wobum- villa, Clownagh - house, Clow- 
nagh-cottage. Bally workan-house, and Ballyworkan- 

cottage This parish is a perpetual curacy, and a 

separate benefice, in the dio. of Armagh. Gross in- 
come, £150 ; nett, £1 10. Patron, the incumbent of 
Drivncree. The church was built in 1826, by means 
of a gift of £830 156. 4|d., and a loan of £461 lOs. . 
9^d. from the late Board of First Fruits. Sittings 
500; attendance 400. The Methodist meeting, 
houses in Portadown and Drumnakilly have an at- 
tendance of respectively 350 and 50. In 1834, the 
parishioners consisted of 3,398 Churchmen, 506 Pres- 
byterians, 19 other Protestant dissenters, and 1,167 
Roman Catholics ; a Sunday school, held in one of 
the Methodist meeting-houses, had on its books 350 
children ; a Sunday school at MuUintine noade no re- 
turn of its attendance ; and 13 daily schools had on 
their books 276 boys and 115 giris. The daily 
school at Ballyworkan was salaried with £2 a-year 
from the incumbent ; the daily school at Artabracca« 
with £2 and other advantages from the incumbtat ; 
one of the daily schools at Mullintine, with £1 10a. 
from Mrs. Henry ; another of the daily schools at Mul- 
lintine, ys'ith £10 from Lord Mandeville ; and three 
of the daily schools at Portadown, with sums not 
reported from Lord Mandeville. 

PORTADOWN, a post and market town, partly 
in the parish of Segoe, barony of East O'Neillaiid, 
but chiefly in the parish of Drumrree, barony o(F 
West O'Neillaiid, co. Armagh, TNter. It stands 
on the river Bann, on the road from Armagh to Bel- 
fast, on the I 'later railway, and at the point of pro- 
, posed junction with that railway of a line southward 
to the northern terminus of the Dublin and Drogh- 
eda railway, 3) miles north-west by north of Guil- 
ford, 4i north-north-west of Tanderagee, 4^ south- 
west of Lurgan, 4| north-east of Richhill, 5j east 




by north of LougbgalU 8 east by south of Charle- 
roont, 8 north-east by east of Armagh, 15 west* 
south-west of Lisburn, 21 south-west by west of 
Belfast, and 6oJ north of Dublin. The surrounding 
country is generally flat; and that on the north 
side toward Lough Neagh, is low, nmrshy, and 
bleak. The immediate environs are well cultivated, 
thicklv peopled, profusely sprinkled with villas and 
small fiarm-houses, and indicative of much compara- 
tive comfort and prosperity. The Bann is here navi- 
gable for vessels of GO tons burden ; and it is joined 
about a mil^ above the town by the Newry Canal ; 
so that it navigably connects the town with both 
Lough Neagh on the north and the bay of Carlingford 
on the soutQ. Barges upon the river and the canal 
convey from Portadown to Newry large quantities 
of com and other farm produce, and return with 
coals, slates, timber, iron, and other goods for inland 
consumption. The opening of the Ulster railway 
has occasioned a great increase of traffic to Belfast ; 
the thoroughfare north«eastward from Armagh and 
the county of Monaghan has long sustained a con- 
siderable trade ; and the formation of the proposed 
railway from Drogheda to the north will render Port- 
adoMOi one of the most stirring and important key- 
towns of communication in Ulster. A large propor- 
tion of the population both in and around the town 
are employed in the linen and cotton manufactures. 
A large distillery was, not many years ago, com- 
menced. Large sales of country produce are made 
at the weekly markets. Fairs are held on the third 
Saturday of every month, and on Easter- Monday, 
AVhit-Monday, and Nov. 13. The town has branch- 
offices of the Belfast Bank and the Ulster Bank. In 
1841, the Portadown Loan Fund had a capital of 
£4,738, circulated £18,240 in 4,726 loans, realized 
anett profit of £282 1 Is. 4d., and expended for chari- 
table purposes £105, and from the date of its foun- 
dation till the close of 1841, it circulated £52,091 in 
13,096 loans, realized a nett profit of £768 13s. 2d., 
and expended for charitable purposes £356 5s. A 
court of petty-sessions is held on the first and the 
fourth Saturdays of every month. A dispensarv at 
Portadown is within the Lurgan Poor-law umon, 

, and serves for a district of 1 6,000 acres, with a pop. of 
18,385; and, in 1839, it expended £174 16s., and ad- 
ministered to 4,540 patients. The town, in common 
with Tanderagee, belongs to Lord Mandeville; it is 
airy, clean, and pleasant; and it has of late years 
been much improved. A new bridge was recently 
erected across the Bann. Area of the Segoe sec- 
tion of the town, 17 acres ; of the Drumcree section, 
87 acres. Pop. of the whole, in 1831, 1,591 j in 
1841,2,505. Houses 429. Families employed chiefly 
in agriculture, 86 ; in manufiictures and trade, 334 ; 
in other pursuits, 67. Families dependent chiefly 
on property and professions, 22 ; on the directing of 
labour, 320 ; on their own manual labour, 126 ; on 
means not specified, 19. Pop. of the Drumcree sec- 
tion, in 1841, 2,322. Houses 401. The whole 
population of 1831 is returned by the Census as in 

PORTAFERRY, a post, market, and sca-port 
town, in the parish of Ballyphilip, barony of Ardes, 
CO. Down, Ulster. It stands on the east shore of 
the strait or entrance-channel of Lough Strangford, 
4 a mile by water north-north-east of the village of 
Strangford, 3i miles by water east-south-east of 
Killyleagh, Sk north by west of the commencement 
of the entrance to Lough Strangford, 6i south of 
Kirkcubbin, 64 north-east of Downpatrick, 7| south- 
south-west of Ballyhalbert, 15 south by east of New- 
town- Ardes, 23 south-east bv south of Belfast, and 
80 north -north -east of Dui)1in. The landscape 
within view of the town and of vantage-grounds in 

its vicinity, includes a large sweep of Lough Strang- 
ford, and a very variegated portion of the shores, 
and is both beautiful and strongly picturesque. The 
road hence to Newtown- Ardes commands a series of 
most interesting views of the lough, and leads to 
several remarkable places upon its shores ; and that 
to Donaghadee by way of Ballyhalbert commands a 
fiiU view of the southern half of the North Channel, 
the various outlines of the Galloway coast of Scot- 
land, and the numerous creeks, bays, headlands, and 
tiny peninsulae of the broken and rocky eastern coast 
of Ardes. Blackbank hill, li mile north-north-west 
of Portaferry, overhangs the margin of the first great 
expansion of Lough Strangford, has an altitude of 
389 feet above sea-level, and carries the eye of a 
spectator round a whole panorama of int«restin|: 
scenerv. The demesne of Portaferry-house, the 
seat ot A. Nugent, Esq., the proprietor of the town 
and of an adjacent estate of up\*iards of 5,000 Conyng- 
ham acres, occupies comparatively elevated ground 
on the immediate shores of the Channel, and in the 
immediate northern vicinity of tiie town, but within 
the parish of Ardguin ; it includes 300 acres of wood- 
land, and comprises a series of charming close vievrs ; 
and it commands, on one side, an animated home 
prospect, southward to the town of Portaferry, and 
over the lough to the village of Strangfbrd,--aBid a 
brilliant far-away prospect over the North Channel 
and the sea-board of Down, to Scotland, the Isle of 
Man, and the mountains of Mounie. — The town con- 
sists of a small square, three streets, and a range of 
houses along the quay; and it contains a parish- 
church and other places of worship. The site of the 
former parish-church was Ballyphilip; and "near 
this," says the old chorographiat of Down, "stands 
the old church, which is a coarse building of an old 
contrivance, being a room of 87 feet in length, 16 
feet broad, and 20 feet high, covered with a coved 
arch of stone, so close and firmly cemented, that it 
does not appear to admit any water, — to which caiise 
it probably owes its security hitherto from nrin. 
On the south side of the wall are 3 niohcs, covered 
like the heads of so many stalls in some ancient chotrt. 
Close adjoining to it is another building, Ukewise 
covered with a coved arch of stone, and consisting of 
two apartments, appearing to have been krfted, and 
ft-om whence is a passage by a door into the church. 
This latter place seems to have been the house when 
the incumbent had his residence before the transfai- 
tion of the parish-church to Portaferry." A pictur- 
esque old castle within Portaferry demeine was Offi- 
ginally built by De Courcey, and seems to have occa- 
sioned the building of the town ; it afterwards bo- 
came the residence of the Savage family, the >mm- 
tors of the present proprietor ; and, as appeara fnm 
an inscription on the arms of the Savages over the 
door, it was enlarged and completed in the year 1636. 
At one time, the port carried on a very extensive 
trade ; previous to about a century ago, it was al- 
most swamped by Newry and Belmst, and rednead 
from having 30 or 40 ships to hating only one or 
two ; and of late years it conducts a oonndeiaUt 
trade in the exportotion of agricultural prodaoe to 
Liverpool and Glasgow, and the importation thitWr 
of coals, slates, timber, iron, and various other arw 
tides suited to the wonts of the surrounding ooualry. 
The town has a distillery ; and possesses « conakbr* 
able handicraft and retail trade. Fairs are held Oi 
the second Tuesday of every month, and on Jan. 1* 
and July 31 . A court of petty-sessions is lield on 
the second Monday of every month. The pnblie 
conveyances in 1838 were a coach and a mail-car to 
Belfast. Area of the town, 62 acres. Pop., in 169U 
2.203; in 1841,2,107. Uou8es411. Families em. 
ployed chiedy in agriculture, 63; in mamifisctimt 




and trade, SU8; in other pursuits, 140. Families 
dependent chiefly on property and professions, 12; 
on the directing of labour, 161 ; on their own manual 
labour, 213; on means not specified. 63. 

PORTAFRANKA, a marine inlet in the parish 
of KiliDore-Erris, barony of Erris, co. Mayo, Con- 
niuigbt. It is situated on the west coast of the 
Mullet peninsula, 4) miles south -south -west of 
Erris Head ; it has a narrow and rocky entrance, 
with generally a heavy breaker ; it is accessible by 
MuUboats in only southerly and easterly winds; it 
affords good shelter to any vessel which can effect 
an entrance ; and it penetrates the land, first 1 ^ 
mile east-aouth-eastward, and next 1 mile north- 
eaatward, but is mostly dry at low water. Its chief 
capacity as a harbour exists on the south side, and 
is noticed under the word Annagh : which see. 

PORTAHACK. See Ahack. 

PORTARIilNGTON, a bog, partly in the 
barony of West Ophaly, co. Kildare, and partly in 
the barony of Portnehinch, Queen's co., but chiefly 
in the barony of Upper Philipstown, King's co., 
Leinster. It is bounded, on the north, partly by 
the river Cushina, and partly by gravel hills ; on the 
east, partly by the Little Barrow river, and partly 
by the hill of Derrylea ; on the south, by irregular 
ridges of limestone gravel, which separate it from 
the river Barrow, and prevent the immediate dis- 
charge of its water into that river; and, on the west, 
by the gravel ridge which extends between Clone- 
quin, Shandra, and Killymalogue. It approaches 
witldn 3 furlongs of the town of Portarlington, ex- 
tends 4^ miles nrom west to east, and comprehends 
an area of 4,916 acres. It is not divided by any vale 
or stream ; it contains only one derry or island ; and 
it is traversed nearly from end to end by one line of 
summit-ground. It has a mean depth of 19 feet; 
and it may, in comparison with other bogs, be con- 
fldered as firm. A large (juagmire,. however, com- 
1 a mile west of the island of Derry ounce, ex- 

tends in a straight line to a small lake on the northern 
edge of the bog, and has an average breadth of about 
two liiriongs. The official report upon the bog in 
1812» catimates the cost of reclamation at £8,114 
19s. 2d., and says, ** Sir John Macartney, during 
his residence at Derrylea, reclaimed a very con- 
iidefabie part of the neighbouring fibrous or red bog, 
which DOW annually yields excellent crops of rape, 
oats, aad potatoes, &c., and some improvements have 
also been made near Cusliina. An extensive tract 
ioath of Derravilla-hill has been reclaimed ; those 
parts of the bog which at one period extended to 
tht wot of the road from Portarlington to Clon- 

Cvan, have also been brought into cultivation, and 
te now beeooae very fruitful." 


A laarkat and post town, and a parliamentary 
horoagk, partly in the parish of Clonevhurk. barony 
of Cpper Philipstown, King's co., an(l partly in the 
Bsridi of Lea, barony of Portnehinch, Queen's co., 
liebister. It stands on the river Barrow, on the 
lloaatmeiUck branch of the Grand Canal, and on 
the road from Dublin to Birr, l^ mile north-west 
of the route of the proposed Main-Trunk railway, 
3| north of Emo, 6 west bv north of Monastereven, 
6| north-«ast by east of Mountmelliek, T\ south- 
vest of Rathangan, 8^ north-north-east of Mary- 
boroagh, J7i east by north of Birr, Hnd 35^ wcst- 
saath-vest of Dublin. 

Gtmerml Deteription.'] — The enrirons, though 
prvvatltngly flat, naturally featureless, and exten- 
sivrly embrowned and encumbered with bog, have 
haea' worked into comparative beauty by cultiva- 


tion, and boast not only a fair proportion of plea- 
sant villas, but the large parks and the nnely 
wooded grounds of the Earl of Portarlin^n's 
demesne of Emo : which see. The town itself, 
in at once the regularity and cleanliness of its 
streets, the pleasant and urban character of a large 
proportion of its houses, and the comfort and re- 
spectability of its inhabitants, ranks &r above the 
majority oif the inland towns of the kingdom. The 
principal street of the Queen's countv section com- 
mences in the immediate vicinity of tne bridge over 
the canal on the road to Dublin, and extends 1,000 
yards north-westward, 520 north-north-westward, 
and 120 northward ; but over the first of theso 
stretches, it is but partially or stragglingly edificed, 
and over the last, it contracts, and is comparatively 
narrow in width. A street of 180 yards in length 
goes off westward from the point where the main 
street makes its second deflexion ; a square of about 
70 or 80 yards each side, with a church in its centre, 
terminates the main street; a street of 120 yards in 
length goes off eastward from the middle of the east 
side of the square ; a very brief street goes off north- 
ward from the middle of the north side of the square, 
toward a bridge over the Barrow on the road to 
Rathangan ; and a street of 160 yards in length goes 
off westward from the middle of the west side oi the 
square, to a bridge over the Barrow on the road to 
Mountmellick. These portions of the town, all on 
the right bank of the Barrow, are what constitute 
the Queen's county section ; and one street, 920 
yards in length, and extending west by southward 
from the bridge over the Barrow along the roafi to 
Mountmellick, constitutes very nearly the whole of 
the King's county section. Some of the houses are 
ornamental and very spacious ; and a great propor- 
tion are neat, respectable, and large. The public 
buildings are not numerous, but are of an eligible 
description. The market-house is a commodious 
structure ; and contains, in its upper story, several 
large rooms, which are used for assemblies, for the 
seneschal's court, and for courts of quarter-sessions. 
The church, in the centre of the square, in the 
Queen's county section of the town, serves as a 
chapel-of-ease to the parish -church ; it bears th« 
name of the English church ; it was completed in 
the year 1810 ; and it is a handsome structure, with 
a very elegant spire. Another church serves also as 
a chapel-of-ease, and bears the name of the French 
church ; it was built for the use of a colony of French 
refugees, who sought an asylum at Portarlington 
from persecution in their native country ; and, till 
very recently, the services in it were conducted in 
the French language. The Roman Catholic chapel 
is a capacious building, and is adorned with a spire 
140 feet in height. The schools of the town have 
long been distinguished for their comparative numer- 
ousness and their aggregate excellence ; and they 
boast, among other pupils who have risen to great 
eminence. Marquis Wellesley and the Duke of Wel- 
lington. In 1^4, the parishes in which the town 
is situated had five schools in connection with the 
National Board, four in connection with the London 
Hibernian Society, six partially supported by sub- 
scription, three pay classical schools fur boys, two 
pay superior schools for girls, a school for adults, 
and 14 other pay daily schools. 

Origin and Trade.'] — Lord Arlington received 
from Charles 11. a grant of the estate on which 
the town is built ; and his title, together with 
the prefix Port, which was suggested by the cir- 
cumstance of the locality having a small quay or 
landing-plare on the Barrow, gave to the town its 
name of Portarlington. Hi's lordiihip founded the 
town after the Restoration, and brought to it a 


n ' J 


:i* ) 

bo^y^' of ■Proieh and Geiman muMffmate 9 : WiiUan! 
III. also brought to it a colony of FroficbiMB frOm| 
Hollaiid; and Rouvqi^icy, Kiarl of GalWay, to 
wbom the oatafe of • Lord Arlington revetted,! 
greatly improved the towti, 0iido\T«d two ndiools 
for iter ut^e, and erected the French andthu Kng^ 
llsh ehape1«-of>«afle, or, aa they fabva been called, 
tb^ «hurehe«i of Sti. Paul and St. Miclui«l. < Tbe 
tomi,- in fipite of it^ adrantageo&s poidtioii on the 
Grand 'Canal, and in the midst of a conaidorable e^ 
tent of populous, agricultural eotintry, posM.sdes «x. : 
<?6Miinglf little trwlu -and eommero^ ; atid it both 
atfifuirvA and' maitttaiiw by far the greater portion of 
its pros>perity, by moans of the eimple ci^cumritanoc 
of'naviiig a larger nuoiber of resident gentry than 
VdiDOst any other town of its size in Ireland.. The 
f>rinripal of the few appliances of manufacture are 
a' tanyard, and tobacco, soap, and candle works. 
The ODraf and' general-market is held on Wednesday; 
tbe meal market U held on Saturday ; and fairs are 
fa(4ld on Jan. B, March 2, Gastciv-Moiiday, May 22, 
July 4, Sept. I, ihn. 12, and'Nov.'ia The public 
ronveyances in 1838 were the im.ssage-boats on tbie 
canal, a rcmch in trantfit between EKifaAiii bmI Birr, 
and a caravan in transit between Dublin and Mouut- 
ifeiellick. The town has a loanfund, a savings' bank, 
bud a'di»fK*n6ary ; aud, previous to the operation of 
tbe Pt)Or-law Act, it hid a inendicitiy society. In 
1841, the loail fund had a capitjU of i^l,2(J0, circu- 
luted £6,470 in 1,716 loans,' realised a nett protit of 
£77 12s. dd., and expended for charitable purposes 
£00; and, from the date of its institution till the 
dose of 1841, it circiklated £30,212^ in B,84(S loans, 
reAlised anett profit of £431 18s.^ and- expended for' 
charitable puriMMed <£2U4. The dispeniary is within 
the Mouirtinellick Poor-hiM^ union, and verves for a 
district Vrontnlnin^r a pop. of 15,094; And, in 1839, 
ft expehded £1 13 8s. dd., and admiiUstered to I,4») 

AfiimctW i4^ir».]--** The andonl name of the, 
land oYiMrhicb tbe Queen's comity portion of the town 
U Koilt," say the CoMiniBMoners on Mulddpal Cor- 
porations, " in CooltetooderB, orCooletederry. Eariy 
m the seventeenth century, Terence O-Dempsey was 
^eiz^d of Cooltetoodera, in the Queen's coiAit^, andbf 
Kilmalogtie in' the King's County, by virtue ot letters- 
patent or King James I., bearing date the Idth'of Jane, 
if! the sixCcfenth y^'r of his reign ( 1618). Terence 
O'Dempsey was sUb!$equently created Viscount C^M- 
malihi, tutd hctice the lands comprised in the patent 
of James have been frequently described as the terri- 
tory of ClHiinmlira. This territory, inchuiing Coolo- 
tederry ahd Kilnialbgue, descended to l^wis Lord 
Clann^alira, as tenaht entail, and 'becoming forfeited 
by hi» beir^-attabited of treason in the 'year 1641, 
was grairtett bv letters-patent, bearing date the 5th of 
November, 14 Charles II.. to Sir H^nry JBemiett, 
Afterwards Lord Arlitigfdri ; and it was mibseqnently 
awarded to Lord Arlington by the trustees of foi^> 
ffitcd estateft. The 78th nectior^ of the Act of Ex- 

{ Sanation p7.' 18, Car. II., c. 1.), relates to tbe* 
ands. After statirig that Lew^s Viscount Chui- 
matira had been but tenant'entail, and had exhibited 
his claini m such to the trn^Jtees of fbrfieited wtatoi, 
And that Lord Arlington cLiiined the rev<$rsion in fee, 
bjr virtue of the patent of dth November, 14 Charles 
II., and stating that it was doilbtfhl' whether the 
Estate tail was not extinct, LortlOl^iAaliiteVcUimof 
innocence not being allowed, to obviate the d<Mibt, the 
section enabled Ldnl Arlington immediately to enter 
upon and possess the lands whereof I^ewis Lord Clan- 
malira wus seized on the 22d of October, 1641, as 
fully as if the estate tail had been fli)ent or expired, 
and provided for the remuneration of the adventurers 
and soldiers Who should be removed off the lands 

>fcr the.purpiMe of giinng«oiilplMe ppfliessioB-ta Lard 
ArliBgt0h.rld:4Ord |A'J alsoiebtaineila sMdid Mteat 
of these lAbds^ bt^alrii^'dAte tbrtSTthi itf Ju1>i<. ia the 
eiffhtecDtb year of Charles 1 1. By thutlaat.Aoetion 
•f the Act of :ExplaoHtion, *b power wtA given to the 
Lord-lieutenant and Council <c^ Irtdand to direct, in 
the [laasiiigjof all lettors'patent, how* new and proper 
rjuiucs, mere suitable to the English toague, might 
be inMsrted; whh an alias for all to^ms, lands, and 
places, -and that such now names! «houkl thereBfter 
be the only names to l)c o^d. Under the provision 
of this clause, Cooltetoodera reoeived fromthe Lord- 
lieutenant and Council the alias -of Portarlington ; 
hot Sir Henry Patty's survey having been made 
before this naJac was bestowed, the lands are still 
called- by their andent name in the-qwt rent and 
county books. - This borough was incorporated in the 
vcar I667« by King Charles II., b^ a charter which 
beats date the 3d day of August, m the niiieietnth 
year of his reign, enrolled In chancery^ (Rot. Fat. 
10 Car. II:, p. 5, m 5t'd.). Tbischarter, the only 
one relitfting to Pbrtarlington; after Hating the- B«i- 
judication of the kiida forfeited by Lewis Lord 
Vi.4count Clanmabra, to Henry Lord Arlington and 
his heirs forever^ reciting the patent of the 27th 
day of July, in the 18th year of the king; (CharWs 
II.,) to Lord ArlingtOHi and stating that te had >ex. 
pressed a dosire that the lands should be planted 
with English, proceeded to erect ccrtalti of these 
lands, which lay in the King's county, into a manor 
io be called * the Manor of Charleatovrti:;* and fur- 
ther ordained that the lands of Cooltetoodera, alias 
Portarlington, and other lands therein named, all in 
the barony of Portnafainch and Queen's eoaaty, and 
the Clonrorke alias Portarlington woods and- other 
lands in the barony of Pbilipstown, in the King's 
county, should be cnie entire manor, to be called ud 
known by the name of the Manor oiF Portarlington." 
The Hmitn of the borough, according to the charter, 
'** extend into the King's and Queen'« counties in 
t>vtry direction, from the Pass oi'er the river Barrow, 
rommonly called Bellatride, near Codtedcrry, alias 
Portarlington, 100 acres of Irish plantalticm meaaare 
fn the whole;" but thoy actually reached, on the 
north, to the commons' drain near Dcrravilla,— «i 
the cast, t4> Old Brackland Bridge, — on the south* 
to the mearing of Dnighill on the Barrow, — and on 
the west, to Butlersford. The upper bridge ^w 
the Barrow, or that which ■ directly oontiecta the two 
sections of the town, now occupies the locality /of 
the quondam Pastf of Bellatride.- The newliaut»of 
the parliamentary borough extend, in some points, 
beyond the old ; but, upon the whole, they are mare 
circumscribed ; yet they include the entire tows- v 
built upon, and a small surroanding district. Tha«sr 
poration, according to charter, consistsof a sovereigi 
two portreeves or bailiffs, twelve buigcssts, «m1« 
unlimited number of freemen; and ivaa entitk 
** Th6 Sovereign, - Bailiffs, and Bunsvascs of i 
Borough and Town of l^vrtarlington." The cms 
held in the towir are manorial courts leet knd hm 
conrt^ of quarter-sessions fur Queen's eo., aild«ai 
of petty-sessions for both Queen's co« and Kit^ylB 
The public peace is preserved bv a party oCtto' 
stahnlary force of the Moantmellick^distridti* « '' 
StaihtiHit, §r.]— The boiTHigh simdaoni-w 
to the implerial parliament. ■ Cohstitueqcy^ in *' 
260; of whom lAvas the portreeve, 4>w*l«'fre^ 
and inO fter^ XIO householders. The total ni 
of lfMiemcf)ts rated under the Poor Act isA84 ; 
these, 417 were valued under £5,-^70, under ./ 
.11, under £1.5,-21, under £'20,i— 19). ondM* . 
ft, under £80,-7. imder £40,--8, under £9 
9, at and above £50. — Area of the King's co. 
of the town, 167 acres ; of the Queen's oo« 




«0 Mrct. Pod. of the whole, in 1831, 8,091 ; in 
1841, ^,106. Houses 516. Pop. of the King's oo. 
w^ctkm, in 1801, 1,OM; in 1841, 1,112. Houses 195. 
Fmnlies employed chiefly in agriculture, 16; inroan- 
vfiuiCures mnd trade, 52; in other pursuits, 154. 
Fainilics dependent chieiy on property and profei- 
sicBi, as ; on the directing of labour, 74 ; on their 
otvmnaniwl labour, 104 ; on means not specified, 10. 
Pop. of the Queen's oo, section, in 1831, 1,007 ; in 
1841, 1,904. Houses 921. Families employed 
ebieiy in ngrieulture, 102; in oMnufiMStures and 
trade, 163 ; in other pursuits, 02. Families depe»> 
dent chietfy on property and professions, 44 ; on the 
directing of hdxnn-, 186 ; on their own manual 1*. 
hour, 1 13 1 on means not specilied, 18 — Portarlingw 
too gives tke title of Earl, in the peerage of Ireland, 
to ta# noble £unily of Dawson. In 1770, Henrv 
Dawson, Esq., member of parliament for the borough 
•f Portarlington, and the lineal descendant of Marw 
OMdnke D'Ossone, a Norman nobleman who came 
to Bricain in the tmin of William the OOnqueror, 
was crested Baitm Dawson, of Dawson's Court in 
Qnoen's co. ; in 1770, he was advanced to the di^- 
m^ of Visnount Carlow; and in 1785, John, his 
dwst eon, and- the second Viscount, was made Earl 
of Portarliagton, 

PORTOOON, a magnificent cave, and a tiny but 
Tfrv curious inlet of the sea, on the coast of the 
parish of Billy, and in the immediate vicinity of the 
Giant's Owseway, barony of Carey, co. Antrim, 
Ulster. The cave is usually the first of the series 
of interesting obiects shown to visitors to the 
Giant's Caoaeway by the local guides ; it is acoessi- 
Ue both by the land and by the water; aad it 
Bosiesats so great capacity upon an aqueous plat- 
ibrm, that row-boats may penetrate it to the extent 
«f at least an handred yards. The interior is of very 
extraordinary fommtioa, and replete with mineralo- 
I^cbI interest. The roof and sides are composed of 
a sort of trap conglomerate, consisting of rounded 
stsnsa, in an extremely hard basaltic cement ; and 
the roof, as seen from the innermost recess, seems 
■omewhat like a series of pointed arches, and occa- 
■MM the whole cave to resemble the side-aisle of 
the nave of a Gothic cathedral. The cave is eele- 
kaied also for a repeating or reverberating echo, 
■nnlar to that of f^gal's Cave in the celebrated 
Hahridoaa island of Stafik.— The marine inlet or 
little bny of Portooon adjoins the cave, and is formed 
by a vmy reasarkable whin-dyke. ** It seems," says 
the antkor of the Guide to the Giant'* Causeway, 
**to kave been composed of seven walls, and to have 
haaa aeparated from the d^ke in front of the preci- 
~ ~ 1 br some great convulsion. In this shook a small 
-Tttdical baaahic rock was detached from the great 
, and stands now insulated in the centre of the 
1 bay. The nrnia of the whin-dyke are attached 
to its eastern side, separated into a number of distinct 
nalla, oxluhtting their construction by borisontal 
, and fomung, altogether* a very instructive 
Beyond the projecting excavated rock, of 
I Portooon cave is composed, is a second of these 
dykes, being ooe side of the little estuary of 
hat Kakau." 

PORTAVOE, a small oreek, and a demesne, in 
the nmth wast oomer of the parish of Bangor, oppo- 
m§ tke Copeland Islands, and 2 miles north-west by 
of Donaghadee, barony of Ardes, oo. Down, 
The demesne u the seat of D. Kerr, Esq. 
r to it is a curious object called the Sound- 

e. The creek is a little sandy bay of 5 

botweea the projectiiv^ points of land, and 
i be converted into a harbour by the erection of 
a pibr Iron the nortk point. ** This place," says 
Mr. Niinwis ** would have deep water ; but the pier 

necessary to protect it from> the swell setting from 
the nordi would, for that reason, be expensive. 
1' he fishing-boats used to shelter on the south side 
of Uie south point, wliere there are still some cabins, 
but the proprietor, Mr. Kerr of Parte voe, is unwill- 
ing to encourage the residence of fiahermeAhere." 

PORT-DIANA, a village in the parish of Aghel^- 
toa, Liberties of Coleraine, co. Londonderry, Ulster. 
Pop., in 1831, 4*27. Houses 37. Families employed 
chiedy in agriculture, 8 ; in manufiicturea and trader 
14 ; in other pursuits, 15. 

PORTERIN, or Pobtbam, a parish in the bar- 
ony of Athlone, 5 miles easUsouth-east of Roscom- 
mon, oo. Roscommon, Connaught. Length, 1| mile; 
breadth, 1 ; area, 1,133 acres, 3 roods, 21 perches- 
Pop, not specially returned. This parish hea upon 
the west shore ot Lough Ree ; but is not recognised 
in the civil territorial divisions. It is a vicarage, 
and part of the benefice of Kiu«bntoy [which see], 
in the dio. of Elphin. Vicarial tithe composition, 
£18; glebe, £2 5s. The rectorial tithes are com* 
poundeid for £18, and are impropriate in Viscouni 

PORTEVAD, a small fishing harbour in the 
parish of Dromard, barony of Tyreiagh, oo. Sligo, 
Connaught. It is situated on the west aide of Ard- 
naglass or Ballysadere bay, 4i miles nortb-west of 
the town of Ballysadere. It is a fine natural creek, 
and forms the principal retreat of the yawls and 
sailing-boats belonging to the bay, and anioanting to 
about fifty. A coast-guard station adjoins it, but is 
situated within the parish of Skreen. 

PORTGLENONE, a quoad sacra parish, contain- 
ing the greater part of a town of the aune name, 
in the quoad drilia parish of Ahoghill, and barony 
of Lower Toome, co. Antrim, Ubter. Length, 4 
miles; breadth, 1|; area, 2,240 acres. Pop., in 
1831, 6,860. The suHace lies along the right bank 
of the Lower Bann, and consists, in general, of very 
good land.— This parish is a perpetual curacy, aad a 
separate benefice, m the dio. of Connor. Gross in- 
come, £92 ds. 7id. ; nett, £81 6<». 7td. Patron, 
the incumbent of AhoghilL The church is an old 
building ; and was erected chiefly at the expense of 
Bishop Hutchinson; and contams a monument to 
that bishop's memory. Sittings 2M; attendance, 
150. Two Presbyterian meetaiig-houses have an at- 
tendance of respectively from 250 to 350, and from 
500 to 800. The Kilhainite Methodist meetii^ 
house has an attendance of about 50. The Roman 
Catholic chapel has an attendance of 800 ; and, in 
the Roman Catholic parochial arrangement. Is united 
to the chapel of Ahoghill. In 1834, the parishioners 
consisted of 531 Churchmen, 3,808 Presbyterians, 
12 other Protestant dissenters, and 2,854 Roman 
Catholics ; 8 Sunday schools— 6 of which were at 
respectively Mounthoren, Killyganen, TuUnahinion, 
Lisroddon, Kylestovm, and Gurvaghy — were attended 
on the average by about 489 children ; and 13 daily 
schools — six of which were aided variously by the 
London Uiberiiian Society, one with £2 a-ycar {nna 
that Society and £3 from the Bishop of Meath, two 
Mrith £8 each from the National Board, and one with 
£32 from the Board of Erasmus Smith-— had on their 
books 418 boys and 257 girls. In 1834, the National 
Board had schools at Connaughtleggan, Moybogue, 
and Aughnacleagh. 

PORTGLENONE, a smaU market and post 
town, partly in the parish of TamlsgbtocreiUy, bar- 
ony of Loughinsholin, co. Londonderry, but chiefly 
in the quoad sacra parish of Portglcnone, and quoad 
civilia pariiih of Ahoghill, barony of Lower Toome, 
CO. Antrim, Ulster. It stands on the river Bann, 
on the road from Randalstown to Kilrea, and on one 
of the great general thoroughfares between the cou .- 





ties of Antrfto and Londonderry, 4 inileft wett^north* 
Yrmi of Ahoghill, 4 north by east of Beilaghy, 5 
louth-eoutb^aatofKilrea, 6| west by north of Bally- 
mena, 9^ north. west by wett of KaodaUtown, 33 
north-waet of Belfast, and 96 north of Dublin. An 
elegvnt and reotntly built bridj^ spans the Bann 
at the to\rD, and both facilitates intercourse* and 
stimulates trade. The chief portion pf the town is 
a street leading? down to this bridge, and contain, 
ing several well-built houses. Portglenone oondai*ts 
a little trade, in conveying grain, slates, timber, and 
other articles by b'ghters on the Bann ; and, in oom« 
mon yrith all the surrounding country, it would ex* 
perience a considerable increase of prosperity were 
the impediments to the full navigation of the river 
removed. Some Uueu- weaving is carried on in the 
town and neighbourhood, Fairs are held on the 
first Tuesday of every month, and on Mav 23. A 
court of petty-sessions for the county of Antrim is 
held on the third Thursday of every month. In 
1841, the Portglenone Loan Fund had a capital of 
£1,945, circulated i:7.<5a7 in 2,200 loans, and re- 
alised a nett profit of £74 6s, 6d. In the vicinity of 
the town is Fortglenone -house, a splendid edifice, 
built by Dr. Alexander, bishop of Afeath, cousin of 
the second Earl of Caledon, and inhabited by his 
son, Nathaniel Alexander, Esq., in 1843 one d the 
members of parliament for the county of Antrinu 
Area of the Londonderry section of the town, 6 
acres ; of the Antrim section, 19 acres. Pop. of the 
whole, in 1831, 773; in 1841, 990. Houses )75. 
Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 33 ; in 
manu&otures aiid trade, 133 ; in other pursuits, 30. 
Families dependent chiefly on propertv and profcs* 
sions, 16; on the directing of labour* 130; on their 
own manual labour, 46; oo means not specified, 4. 

PORT.KINNEGOE, a small bay, in the parish 
of Lower MoviUe, barony of (nnishowen, oo. Done- 
gal, Ulster, It is situated 3 mihss west-north-west 
of Innishowen Head, and 4 north by east of the vil- 
lilge of MoviUe, The removal of a rock at its en- 
trance, and the erection of a pier in its interior, are 
requisite to convert it into even a fishing harbour. 

PORTLAW, a small manufacturing and post 
town, in the parish of Clonegain, barony of Upper, 
third. CO, Waterford, Munster. It stands on the 
rivulet Cloddagb, 1 4 mile west of the river Suir, 3| 
north of the Waterford and Cork mail-road, 6i north- 
east of Kilmacthomas, 7 soutlv-east of Carriok-on- 
Suir, 8 west by north of Waterford, and 83^ south- 
south-west of Dublin, Immediately west of ijt is 
the Marquis of Waterford 's extensive and splendid 
demesne ojf Cui^baohmorg [which sec] ; and in the 
near vicinity are Springfield-house, Mayfield-oottage, 
Millford-house, Guiloafrh-bouse, and Mayfi^'ld-house, 
— the last the seat of the Kev, John Medlicott^ 
PortUw was not \ong ago a poor and insiguitioant 
village, but is now a clean, pleasant, and verv pros- 
perous town \ and it owes its happy change ot condi- 
tion wholly to its having been uuule the scene of 
Messrs. Maloomson's great and noble experiment as 
to whether cotton-fiictories will fiourish in Ireland. 
Messrs. Makonison are members of the Society of 
Friends, and were resident in Cloomcl ; they com^ 
menced the erection of their cotton-factory at Fort- 
law, in 1818, by taking dovm a small flour- mill 
which then stood upon the Clodda^h, and building 
upon its site the first portion of their present exten- 
sive pile of edifices ; and they have already, during a 
number of years, had the luxury of knowing their 
works to be the largest and the best regulated of 
their class in either Munster, Connaught, or Lein- 
ster. •* The experiment," say Mr. and Mrs. Hall, 
"has been eminently successful; there is now no 
doubt, that energy and industry, applied to the 

natural resources of Ireland, may enable the Irisll 
manu&cturer to enter the market and compete with 
the maou&cturer of England. The establishmeni 
gives employment, during the year, to about 1,200 
men, women, and children ; the proprietors are en- 
abled to buy the raw material and to vend, the 
wrought articles on terms as beneficial as those en- 
joyed by the roaimfiu:turer of Manchester ; in all re- 
spects the spinners of both countries are on a par ; 
while in Ireland the advantage of labour at a cheaper 
rat« is to be taken into account. The dlflTerence of 
wages, however, although a serious item in the aggre- 
gate, is small ; the Irishman who can do nothing but 
dig, is indeed miserably paid, but the moment he arJ 
quires a trade he demands and will receive very nearly 
as much as an Englishman of the same grade will be 
able to earn in England. The Messrs. Malcomson 
have made — deservedly and most honourably made-r- 
large fortunes by this concern ; and they hare set arf 
example which we confidently expect to see very 
extensively followed — and that ere long. But the 
result, it should be remembered, is not the work of 
a day ; for a considerable period Messrs. Malcomson 
had to contend against difficulties under which ord^-' 
nary minds would have sunk ; suspicion and prejudice 
were both eager to stay their progress ; it was foon^ 
almost impossible to convince the people that the 
looms were designed to render them comfortable ami 
independent ; and even when hostilitv had cohiparac 
tivelv vanished, there was a general dislike to use the 
article they had manufactured->even the vpmeh em^' 
ployed upon the work obtaining their ^loths front 
the* English market rather than assisting to establish 
their own. But the obstacles against which these 
enterprising gentlemen had to contend, and which 
in the end they have completely Qver<!ome, do not 
now stand in the way of other oapitaKsts ; the greater 
number of them at least have disapoeared ; whilst 
the capabilities for producing wealth nave in no d<^ 
gree diminished. The town and neighbourhood of 
Portlaw have, of course, shared the prosperity ef 
the Malcomsons, The houses are cleanly and coni<^ 
fortable; the people are all decently dres^; and 
there is an air of improvement in everything thM 
appertains to them. The good that may be done 
by the establishment of such manufactories in m^ 
ous parts of Ireland is inoalcolable ; the benefits tBey 
would confer are sufficiently obvious ; and if it eM 
be shown, as it may be by reference to this at Port- 
law, that the proiit is certain if the fcetorieii be 
properly conducted, there will be no i^k of' entei^ 
prisiiig individuals ready to embark capital in similar 
undertakings. It has, hideed, been form long time 
obvious that Ireland, with its immense water-poweK 
and its superabundant popuistlkm 11 ting diea|Ay, 
and therefore able to work cheaply, w« pee«u 
liarly calculated to omnufitotare artfdes' in eottbn f 
but, until within a oomparatiTely brief period, tbero 
was so entire a want of confidence in tae steadincBe 
and sobriety of the (leople, that few were foan4 
willing to risk a property that mi^rhi be destroyed 
by the evil passions or caprice qf i| single indlvidinl^ 
inflnenoing other individuals." A court of petljf^ 
sessions is held in the town on the second Wednea^ 
day of every month. Fairs are held on May tS, 
Au|r. 26, and Easter Monday. A Roman Catholic 
pansh, in the dio. of Waterford and Lisaore, takes 
name from Portlaw, and has ehapels here nnd at 
Ballyduff. Area of the town, 100 acres. Pop., iH 
1831, 1,618; in 1841, 3.647. Houses 458. Faaaikies 
employed chiefly in ai^cultare, 328; in nianufiii». 
tures and trade, 276 ; in other pursuits, 78. Fam* 
ilies dependent chiefly on property and professionis 
8 ; on the directing of labour, 240 ; on their- o^n 
manual labour, 388; Oh means not speeifiMid, 4l« 




Males at and above 5 years of age who could read and 
write, 417 ; who could read btrt not wnte, 817 ; who 
could neitbcr read nor write, 69S. Femides at aiid 
above 5 years of age who could read and write, 206 ; 
who could read but not write, 414; who could 
neither read nor write, 1,172. 

PORTLOM AN, a parish in the barony of Cork- 
aree, 3i miles north-west of MuUingar, co. West- 
meath, Leinster. Length, north-westward, 3^ miles; 
extreme breadth, 1| ; area, 2,617 acres, 1 rood, 36 
perches. — of which 707 acres, 2 roods are in I^ugh 
Owhel. Pop., in 1831, 417; in 1841, 4-27. Houses 
68. The sur&ce lies on the west side of Lough 
Owhel, and consists of prime land. The hill of 
Frewin on the western border has an altitude of 568 
feet above sea -level. Brown's Island in Lough 
Owhel belongs to Portloman. A motiastery formerl)* 
stood on the shore of the lake. The only scat is 
Portloman-house. — This parish is a rectory, in the 
dio. of Meath. Tithe composition, £85. The rec 
tories of Portloman and Portkhangan [see that 
articlel» constitute the benefice of Portloman. 
Length, 3| miles; breadth, 3^. Pop., in 1831, 880. 
Gross income, £193 Is. l^d.; nett, £\50 3s. 54d. 
Pati^n, the diocesan. The church is in Portshangan. 
In 1834, the Protestants of the parish amounted to 
12, and the Roman Catholics to 421 ; the Protes- 
taiita of the union, including 9 Presbyterians, to 75, 
aod the Roman Catholics to 833 ; a daily school in 
the Jgapah wm salaried with £S from the Association 
for Disoountenancing Vice, £21 from Mr. Gibbons, 
£4 from Mrs. Gibbons, and £5 and other advantages 
from Lord Forbes, and bad on its books 35 boys and 
33 girls ; and there was also a daily school in Port- 

PORTLICK, a demesne and a bay, on the cast 
side of Lough Ree, parish of Bunown, barony of 
Kilkenny- VTest, co. Westmeath, Leinster. The dc- 
Besne of Portlick-castle, and the district immedi. 
aUfly around it, constitute one of the most beautiful 
I of landscape within the whole sweep of Lough 


POBT-LORG AN, a amall fishinf-harbour in the 
pariah of Cloucha, and vidiiity of Maliii-Head, bar- 
my of Innishowen, co. Donegal^ Lister. It is a 
■err bcacb harbour, and not in a good condition. 

PORTMAGEEp a fishing; village and small bar- 
hour in the parish of KiUemlagh, barony of Iveragh, 
eow Kerry, Munster. The village stands on the 
south aide of the south end of Valcntia Harbour, 1| 
mile eaal of Bray Head, and 6| south-west of Cahir- 
dfifcn ; and the harbour is a^ cove or creek of Va- 
lcntia aouad immediately adjacent to the village. 
Pop^ not apcdally returned. 

POBTMARNOCK, a parish on the coast of the 
barony of Coolock, 2 miles south-south-east of Mala- 
hide, oo. Dublin, Leinster, Length, south by east- 
wd, 3 miles; extreme breadth, 1); area, 2,064 
acie^ I rood^ "2 perches, — of which I G acres, I rood, 
13 perches lie detached. Pop., in 1831, 482 ; in 
Ml, 631. Houses 80. Excepting the tuwnland 
<sUed the Borough, which comprities about one- 
fisarth of the whole area, and is of an inferior quality, I 
the parochial surtuce consists of excellent land, worth ] 
6«n £4 to XU per acre per annum. The Purtmar- i 
■aek estuary coinniences at the vilkge of Ikddoyle, 
IB the adjtfiiuDg parish of Baldoylc, and pttnetrates | 
the land &i uiiie north by westward, with a main | 
fcreadth of less than half-a-mile ; but it is nearly all | 
dry ai low-«water. A low sandy {KMiinsula extemln | 
Mthward Itetween the C!»tiuu-y and the sfu, and tcr- i 
■inaie^ in Portmarnoi^k Point, 33 fevt in altitude . 
dbwe sra-Wrel, and 1| mile west by south of the ' 
Mbrid of Ireland's Eye. The seats within the |)arish ' 
■r PortnamoTk- house, Haxelbrook, Carrickhill, • 

Beech wood- house. Briar- hall, Broomfield - house, 
Broomfleld-cottage, and Heamoant. The manor of 
Portmamock belonged, at an early period, to the 
abbey of the Virgin Mary in Doblin ; and it wia 
formally eonfirmod to the superior of that establish, 
ment by Henry II. and King John. The small and 
gloomy caMtle of Rob'a-Wall or Roebuck's -Wall, 
stands on a rock close to the shore, and u'as built 
toward the close of the 15th century, or early in the 
16th century*, by MacRoebuek, the head or a sept 
of De Bimungham, descended from a famous chief- 
tain of the name of Roebuck De Birmingham. The 
interior of the parish is traversed by the Dublin and 
Drogheda railway — Portmarnock is a perpetual 
curacy', and a separate benefice, in the dio. ot Dub- 
lin. Tithe composition belonging to the incumbent, 
£75; glebe, £27. Gross income, £122; nett, £100 
5j. 7d. Patron, the diocvsan. The rectorial tithet 
are compounded for £23 Is. 7d. ; and are impropriate 
in Mr. Robert Hudson. The church was built in 
1788, by means of a gift of £461 10s. 9id. from the 
late Board of First Fruits. Sittings 60 ; attendance 
40. In 1834, the Protestants amounted to 88, and 
the Roman Catholics to 362 ; and a (kily school was 
supported by subscriptions and public collections, 
and was usuallv attended by about 12 children. 

PORTMOJlE, or Beo (IjOvou), a lake in the 
parishes of Glenavy and Ballinderry, barony of Upper 
Masiwene, co. Antrim, rister. It lies half-a-mile 
south and east of the nearest parts of Lough Neagh, 

1 north-west of the village of Ballinderry, and 2| 
south-west of the village of Glenavy. It is nearly 
circular in outline ; and covers an area of 283 acres, 

2 roods, 10 perches within the parish of Ballinderry, 
and 342 acres, 2 roods, 6 perches within the parish 
of Glenavy. It is stored with pike, bream, trout, 
perch, roach, and eels, and is frequented by a variety 
of vinld fowl. About the yi»ar 1740, Arthur Dobbs, 
Esq., author of a pamphlet on the Trade of Ireland, 
then agent to Lord Conway, and afterwards Gover- 
nor of North Carolina, drained or rather emptied the 
lake by means of a windmill and buckets ; but the 
water retuniing cither through springs or by a sub- 
terraneous communication with Lough Kcagh, he 
was compelled to abandon his attempt to convert its 
bed into arable land. On the flat shores of the lake 
are the prostrate ruins of Portiuore-castle, erected 
In 16G4, b^- Lord Conway; and either vtithin the 
walls of this castle, or gn a sequestered spot in the 
lake called Sally Island, the learned and pious 
Jeremy Taylor, chaplain to Charles I., and bishop 
of Dromore, and of Voym and Connor, found a re- 
treat during the protectorate of Cromwell, and com- 
posed some of nis celebrated and justly admired 
works. The preface of the * Ductor Dubitantiam/ 
in particular, is dated from his study in Portmore, 
in Killuttagh, on the banks of Lough Beg. 

PORTMORE, a small fishcrv harbour in the 
parish of CToncha, barony of Innisnowen, co. Done- 
gal, lister. It is situated near Malin Head, the 
northern extremity of Ireland; and was formed, a 
few years ago, by excavations among rocks, in a 
stretch of wud, bold, craggy shore. It gives a land- 
ing-place, and affords shelter to boats, in one of the 
most inhospitable districts of the whole periphery of 
the Irish coast, — a district in which, previous to the 
fonuation of Portmore Harbour, frequent accidents 
oc(rurred, and many lives were lost hi even moderate 

PORTMTJCK. a small harbour in the parish of 
Island- Magee, barony uf Lower Belfast, co. Antrim, 
Ulster. It is situated under cover of the little island 
of Muck, 2} miles ea>tt-south-ea>t of the entrance to 
Lough Larne, 4 A north by west of Black- Head, and 
5i south of the ^laidens. A pier was built here by 




means of a grant of £295 from government, and a 
donation of £136 from Mr. MacClelland ; but it was 
badly constructed, and, a few years ago, it greatly 
needed repair. The pier is much used for the pur- 
poses of the adjacent nshery, as a place of shelter to 
small sailing-craft, and particularly as a rival ship- 
ment phu:e to Lough Lame of great quantities of 
Antrim chalk, popularly miscalled limestone, for 
Scotland and various parts of the Irish coast. ^ Offi- 
cial evidence given in 18S5, sa^s respecting this har- 
bour, *' It is dr^ when the tide ebbs, and of Kttle 
use as a place of'^ shelter, even for small craft, when 
the wind blows from north-west to north-north-east. 
During gales from the north-north-east, last winter, 
the sea washed away a g^eat portion of this pier, 
about the centre, leaving a very considerable breach." 
PORTNABLAS, a cove in the parish of Clon- 
dehorky, barony of Kilmacrenan, oo. Donegal, Ul- 
ster. It is situated within a mile of Dunfanaghy 
harbour, possesses good. natural shelter, and is the 
place in which the coast-guard of Dunfanaghy keep 
their boats, and to which the fishermen resort when 
they cannot pass Dun&naghy bar. It might, at a 
small expense, be made entirely safe, and would be 
a protection to life and property. 

PORTNACEOSS, a small fishing- harbour, in 
the parish of GlencoUumbkill, barony of Bannagh* 
CO. Donegal, Ulster. It is situated near Teilen 
Head, between the creek of West-Teilen and that 
of Trybane-Muckras. It contains a landing* place, 
and has a depth of 10 feet at high- water, but is dry 
at low-water. 

PORTNAHALLA. See Bau.yqa«tlb, co. 
PORTNAHINCH. See Pobtnehzncb. 
PORTNASHANGAN. See Portshamoan. 
PORTNASON, a village in the parish of Innis- 
raacsaint, barony of Tyrhugh, oo. Donegal, Ulster. 
It is situated between BallyshannoQ and Bundoran, 
and is a poor and neglected place. At one end of 
it is a handsome house, which belonged to the late 
Mr. Allingham. Pop. not specially retamed. 

PORT-NA^SPAGNA, or Port-na-Spakia« a 
small bav, a little east of the Giant's Causeway* 
parish of Billy, barony of Carey, oo. Antrim, Ul- 
ster. Its screens are part of the wondrous basaltic 
fonnaiion of the north coast of the county ; and in 
one part they exhibit a whin-dyke, which emerges in 
the rubble at the foot of the facade. The bay de^ 
rives its name from a traditionary stoiy that some 
of the ships of the fiunous Spanish Armada, in the 
reign of Elisabeth, were cast upon the base of the 
diff immediately to the west ; and the story adds 
that the ships were brought into danger by nustak- 
ing a few shattered oolunns, called the Chimney- 
Tops, on the summit of the diff, for the chinmeys 
of an old castle, and approaching within cennon-range 
to fall upon the supposed fortalice. 

PORT-NA-TRUIN, a small bay between Ben- 
bane and Bengore Heatfe, parish of Billy, barony of 
Carey, eo. Antrim, Ubter. It is one of the series 
of small marine indentations upon the most magnifi- 
cent portion of the basaltic coast of the oountv ; and 
its name — which, in Irish, means the bay of (amen- 
tation — seems to have been suggested by the circum- 
stance that sounds resembling those of human lamen- 
tation, and caused by the action of the tidal current 
upon confined air, are sometimes heard to issue from 
the cavities among its rocks. 

PORTNATU, a landing-pkce, in the parish of 
Bally willin, barony of Lower Dunlnce, co. Antrim, 
Ulster. It is situated on the east side of Ramore 
peninsula, in the vicinity of Portrush. During the 
season of lobster-fishing in summer, it is very con- 

venient fbr the fishermen, and saves them the trMMe 
of pulling round the dangerous pohit of Ramore to 
Portrush; and, were it excavated and put into a 
proper condition, it might be of great and permanent 
value to the general fisheries of the district. 

PORTNEAN, a lariding-place in the vicinity Of 
Portnatu, parish of BallyWillin, barony of Lower 
Dunluce, CO. Antrim, Ulster. 

PORTNEHINCH, a barony in the north-east of 
Queen's oountv, Leinster. It is bounded, on the 
north, by King s co. ; on the north-east and east, by 
CO. Kildare ; on the south, by the baronies of Strad- 
ballv and Ekst Maryborough ; and on the west, by 
the Wony of Tinnehinch. Length, east by south- 
ward, 10 miles ; extreme breadth, 6^ ; area, 35,8S5 
acres, I rood, 17 perches, — of which 48 acres, 8 
roods, 12 perches are in Lough Emo and the river 
Barrow. The surface is prevailingly. .^ and iiA- 
turally tame.; but it possesses a large ii^|gteg[ate of 
wood, and has been worked by cultivation into a 
comparatively improved condition. The soil is gen- 
erally Kght, and requires powerful stimulating in 
order to its being tolerably productive. Though a 
few resident proprietors and gentlemel^fi^lIler^, prac- 
tise an improved system of husbandry« and a wise 
rotation of crops; yet the great body of the fivmers 
are profoundly ignorant of the most modern ^giiculr 
tufal improvements, and usually grow dais af^er 
wheat or barlev, — and evev many who }py the land 
down to grass ror two or three years do so with th^ 
oats crop after wheat, instead of awaking the grass 
intervene between the two corn crops. Turnips aire 
grown only by a very ii^w resident proprietors and 
gentlemen«farmers. A very laive aggregate extieht 
of surface, consisting not only of bogt out of moorish 
and spouty grounds, and oi lao& subject to inun- 
dations froai rivers, brook9» wul canals* aa well aa 
from temporary collections of sur&ce rain-water^ is 
of little or no value in consequence <if the want of 
drainii^, and of cUuiring, deepening, and extending 
the ditches and other water-courses. ** In no coun- 
try,*' sm an official rvport of the year 1836, " is ^ 
want Qiihe knowledge and practice of cultivating 
root and green crops more striking than in this bar- 
ony. Here the majority of labourers have from half 
an acre to two or three acres of land, and yet ihe|r 
and even also many occu|Ners of four or five acres of 
ground, put their oow or cows out to mss in sum- 
mer with a neighbouring ifiutner, and finequentlv at 
straw-yard daring the winter. Instead of ftedii^ tham 
at home, on dover, vetches, lacem^ cabbiigflR, 4c., 
during summer, and on turnips, maagpd-wuratl, cab- 
bages, and other winter food duringthflt season i thus, 
not only incurring that unaecessary expensa, but atiU 
more loaii^ the manure, and therebv oondemniog 
their ground to its present state of comparative 
sterilitv, bearing onlv beggariy crops of potatoes aad 
oats, that will hardly pay for seed and labour, in- 
stead of yielding the abundant produce which the 
industry of a man, bis wife,* and probably five or six 
children, would drawfrooi it under a- proper system. 
It is lamentable to see these poor people struggbnr on, 
as they aptly say of themselves, frequently wiraout 
the necessaries of life, while with tneir uttle land 
and the employment they set, they and their fiuniliet 
might live in comfort and decency by the mere adop- 
tion of a better system, and with a very little assist- 
ance, in many cases amounting only to instruotMii 
and example from their landlords or employera.***^ 
This barony contains the parishes of A!raea,'G«ol- 
banagher, and Lea. The towns are part of Portar- 
lington, and part of Mountmellick ; and the chief 
villages are Irishtown and Ballybrittap. Popi, in 
1831, 15,382; in 1841, 15.385. HooM i^ttl. 
I Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 1,808; In 




mwufiicturc* ^iid trade, .630 ; in other pursuittil^SB, 
FnuiilieA dependent cbiedy.on pruperty. and .jvofeiir 
siu»s lUj; on tlie directiuK ^ labour, 1,031 ; o)) tbiiir 
ou'u nMuiiuil labour, l,i>ll ;oii me&iw nut ^peci^ed, 
79. Maleii at umI above 5 yean of af^c wbo cou] d read 
and write, 2,067 ; wbo could read .t>ut uot ;W9J^» 
l.;iG3) who could neither read nor writd, 2,^i| 
Females at and alcove 5 yuars of af;e \xho caujld,ri^[ 
and write, 2,211.; who could ,iieK(Uki|t. t»oib fv^l^, 
2,213; who could neither, read nor write^ 2,M0.^, 
Portnehiurh lies wholly within the Poor-U^v uxiiud 
ci Moujitniellick. The total nunU)er of it:»aoi,«nt^ 
\'a]ued, exclusive of part of the bofough <>f rortar- 
liagton, wa;» 1,842; and of these, 1.1^2 wore viUu^d 

uitOt-r £6,^344, urider £10 132, under ^i5.^G2, 

witler i;20.^39, under .f25.— 20, under £30.-10, 
under £40, — 19, under £50, — and 55, at aud abdve 
PORTNEHlNCir-BUlDGE, a hainl.;t ir> the 

I«iri*h of Ardea, harouy of Portnehinch, Qut'en'^R ro,, 
jcirnter. It stands on the river Barrow, aiifl takeia 
iu naine frQui a bridge over that dlCreaoi, 3 miles 
HY«t-suuth-\%'est ofPortarlingfton. Pop. not specially 

PORTXESCULLY, a parish in the birony of 
Iverk, CO. Kilkenny, Leinster. It lies upon tlitr 
river Suir, 51 miles west by north of the pitv of 
W^tefford. Len^h, south -eastward, ^\ mile^; 
extreme breadth, l.J : area, 2,452 acres, ^ rx)Ofls. 20 

Gjrcbe*. Pop., in 1831, 1,0B4; in 1841, IJ2L 
ou^s 1G4. It contains the villa^s of B ALTiTaonKT, 
and LrcRKTRTOWN* [which s<.»e]; and the hamMB 
of Portiiescully, Moonveen, Corluddy, and Liifftmy. 
Pop., in ld4t, exclusive of BaMygori? v, uiA Ijick^ta* 
town, 798. Houses 115. The surface Is lo^and 
pre^-ailinirly 'lete\ ; asid ronnsta of exciiHent la:id. 
The chief artificial ohjeets of any interest ire the 
ruins of P or tne s cully church and Corlnddy-rjist!*.— 
This parish is a Ticarag«, and part of the ^nefic^ of 
PoLsncisTB [which see], in the dio. of Ossory. The 
TTcarial tit hen are compou Tided for £75, and the rec- 
torial for £125; and the latter are irhpropHQte in 
the corporation of the city of Waterfwd. The Ro- 
■an f Vitholic chapel at CVirrigeen ha^ an MteTidarree 
of 1,436; and, in the Roman Oatholiii parochial ar- 
rmcement, is anifed to the chapels of Moort^in En 
Rfthkieran, and Klllinaspug in Tnln^H. In 't«i34, 
the parishioners were all Roman- Cathdirj; ; a Ro< 
nan Catholic Sunday school ^was urahllv attended 
hy about 400 seholafu; and two pay daJly seboots 
la/I oB their liooks 300 boys but no i^ris; 
PtmTNFSHAffOAN. See PoqiTfiOUKcpA^f. 
PO R T- N O F FR R, a iimall bay OTcrhanfr by ^rvnd- 
h harialtif clifFt, between the Ciiant's CavMway and 
Port-na-Spttgna, parish of Billy, barony uf Ci^ey* 
ea. Antrim. Ulster. Within the liay standi ;in ifw 
iukfett bmltic mani called the Lion Rock \ iind in 
the rorky clilfA which fom it<«'tcrvenf are thtta «x-> 
tnordinary whin-dykea, one of which ia csUled the 
Kdvinvally Ilyke, and, aa teen from the aen, af>pears 
lik^ a wall mnnmff throufph tlie front of tiic ditf. 

Pf IRT.NOO. a small fishing harbour in the pnr* 
i«h 44 Templecrone, between ImiiBCod bamI thr 
Ovihara rirer, barony of Bov lagh, co. i^iiefniit 
rUter. A pier %nu^ erected here by m«anM <jf i 
paiit fif £5>il) fr(Hn gnveniment, and a doiiatiitjn ut 
£i50 trnm F. Maimtielil, Etf'j.; and an olEi^iuJ r^- 
pnrt in iKki navn, ** Tlii» pier hiM proved of much 
pratection to the lK>at« frvfiuentiiig it, aa^ prt^vioui^ 
1<> if* erection, none could a|»pn)ach the shure with 
nrfelv. With i&trung irale* however from the t^outb- 
ii*-«i. it i* Biivaie. Larire quiintitioF of yca-nianun' 
wt :»! rift- 1 brre. and it i:» likely to l>e soon uK*d u» ii 
; '-^^ of -hipment for C(»ni. At t^prinf^ tides, veAiels 
diaai:'^ li liiet of water cuii lie alongtide." 

PORTrNORR^S. . See Muunt-^oeris. 

POftTOBE^LO^ a:vill^re ah the parish of St. , 
Pflter, barony of Uppercrof^v, co. Dublin, Leinster.. 
I t,i« strict ly.aaburhan tg Dublin, ^itainii aharruck. 
and the passenger basin of the Grand. Caiial, and 
fitandy 1 mile south by we^t of Dublin-castle. See. 
D^BXjy. Area, 55 acres. Pop., in 1841, a?7. 
ilou.4e« 34* . 

P.QRTRAXE, or Portraiian, a parish on the'^ 
coaiit of ihe barony of Kethercross,^ 4J> mjles north- 
e^«t. by east of Swords, co. Duldin, Leinuter. It 
includes the inland of Lambat, and cphtaiiW part of 
the village of Don A bate: see these articles. Length, 
of, Ae m«dnland district, eastward, 2j miledV ex>^', 
treme brciMlth, Ij^, Area of tlie uliole parish, i,l^' 
acres, 2 roods, l9 perches, — of which' K15 acre's, 5 
roods .are in Lamhay island. Pop^, in J83?« Tifii 
in 1841, 780. Houses 1-27. ' P<^p., extltisivi! of tiAs 
portioij of. Dbpahate, in I84l, 7S0. Itouse* 12|'. 
The surface of the mainland district !s low, and con- 
sists of naturally bad land, part of whidi, however, 
has been worked by art into a conditioh' of grc^ 
fertility. PortrtWJe estuary separates it frdm the; 
parish of Lusk on the north, and. penetrates the latid' 
to the extent of 2i miles, with an extreme breadth' 
of li mile; but it is nearly all dry at low; wateri 
and, in coihmon Mnth the parish iHelr, \i Is tro^f^'cM 
by the^ Dublin and Droghed^ railway. ' On the easrt' 
coast are a martello- tower and two coast -gSJard 
stations. In the west is the hamlet of DalRsk. Iti ' 
the south b part of the demesne of Portrane : taee 
next article. — This parish is a p'erpetual curacy, and 
part of the benefice of Donabatje [which seel, Ui 
the did. of Dtiblin." The tithes* iwlotigfinp'tia'^ the 
incumbent are compounded for £30, and the ree-' 
tonal tithes fbr £T07 ^. 9d. ; and the lirtter'are li*- 
propriatirin Miss Mary Missettf. Tl»e Roman ClHith^ 
lie chapel hftn an utti^dairet' of fUK>. hi 1^34, fhe 
Protestants amounted to 1 1, and thellomair Oithull^s 
to 718 ; and 2 dhlly srhools-^one of which was sup. 
ported chiefly by Mr. Eranii of Portrane — had on' 
their hooks VA bov** ami 60 pirl*. ► 

PORTR ANE,'the sumptiiouB demewie of George 
H. Evans, Esq., in the parisbe» of PortraneT and' 
DonahAte, barOnV of Kethe/rKoa^ co: Diihlin,'Keili. 
ater. The manttf'on stands f^nthin the parish- of Don- 
abate, and U ndle east df Donabate villaf^. ** It ia 
a flpacioufi bniMmp: composed of briok, and U situa- 
ted near the centre of • Ihie park, well stocked 
with deer, and occupiOM a Iwld poaition fkvoural4o 
to extensttti views. The diameter of the turroand^ 
in|f scenet-y admits of air ttnosual extent of prospect, 
and presen'ca a bappv Tsriety of olijects. Kvarly the 
whole of Finf^ll lues apread in one vast picture. 
The tea "Views Me relieved and enliveiKd :bv the 
iidaads of Lambay and Irelaiul'a Ejre. The bold pro* 
inontory of Howth niinf^lcB fijioly with the retirc- 
nient dt the foreground; and in the distance, the 
Wieklow mountuins bound the powers of the virion 
M-ith a romantic and encfaantinf^ outline. This at- 
tratftive demesnn compriM.Mi soiaeof the best land in 
the county of Dublin, and tlie large plantatioiJK 
thrive with a de^rret* of vigour, not uhuhI to situa- 
tions so much ex|K)sed to the keiMi winds which 
sweep over the sea. The uianor of Portrauv be- 
lonf^d, at an early |)eriud, to the reliKious iiihtitu- 
tioii of the Holy Trinity,' Dublin. Li the year \'2K}4, 
Patrick, the sub-prior of that monastery, exrlnuiKi'd 
with Archbi.ohop Omiin all the ri^htM itotues^L-d by 
the prior and (Ninons of Chri^t-chu^t.'h in the town 
of Portra«-litTn (Portrane), and in the island of 
Lanibuy, tor certain other propi-rty ; anil, un it 
would up^tear, the manor was then obtuined by thu 
abbes4 of (iraci'dieu, a nunnery conti^Miduii to Port* 
rane, with whose succcbsors it reuuincd until the 




suppression of religious houses. In the year 1580, , 
Sir John Barnewidl, third baron of Trimlestown, I 
was constituted seneschal, and receiver of a moiety | 
of this among other manors ; and a considerable pro- ^ 
pert^ then acquired by him in this neighbourhood, i 
IS still in the possession of the Trimlestown family. ' 
Sir Patrick Barnewall, ancestor of Viscount Kings- 
land, likewise obtained a considerable grant of lands 
in Portrane, on the dissolution of monasteries. That 
branch of the fiimily of Evans which at present pos- 
sesses the mansion, derives from Eyre Evans, Esq., 
M.P. for the county of Limerick, who settled at 
Portrane in the early part of the eighteenth century. 
Portrane-castle consists of a square tower, of moder- 
ate dimension:?, long since deserted by its proprietors, 
but not reduced to a state of utter rum. At the 
date of the suppression uf monasteries, the prioress 
of Gracedieu was possessed of this castle, together 
with much contiguous property. The building, 
among other posse!>sions of the same religious house, 
passed, in the year 1541, to Sir Patrick Bamewall; 
but the fomily of Cussack of Rathaldren, appears to 
have had some share in the grants then obtained by 
Sir Patrick, for, during the several ages in which the 
Bamewall family occasionally resided at Gracedieu, 
we find the Cuftsacks to occur as inhabitants of Port- 
rane-castle, and have many notices of their intermar- 
riages with the PlunketSy Luttrels, and other families 
of great local influence. In the first named of these 
families (the Phmkets), the estate at length became 
vested, but was forfeited by them, as we believe, in 
the civil war of 1641. The ruins of the convent of 
Gracedieu present an interesting feature in the 
scenery of Portrane. This convent was indebted 
for its foundation to Archbishop Comin, who re- 
moved hither from Lusk, in the year 1190, the nun- 
nerv of the order of Arroaaia, established at a very 
early period in that town. The nuimery was dedi- 
cated to the Virgin Mary ; and, at the time of the 
dissolution, the prioress was seized of considerable 
property in the vicinity, including the manorial rights 
of Portrane. «The buildings then passed into the 
possession of Sir Patrick Bamewall, of Fieldstown, 
ancestor of Viscount Kingslaud, but have since pro- 
gressively sunk into decay." [Brewer's Ireland.] 

PORTROE, a village in the parish of Castle- 
townarra, barony of Owney and Arra, co. Tipperary, 
Munster. It stands on the east road from Portumua 
to Killaloe, l^ mile south and east of the nearest 
parts of Lough Dcrg, 1^ north of the celebrated 
slate - quarries, and G west by north of I<icnagh. 
Within 1( mile of it are the scats of Shannon ville, 
Youffhal-house, Garrykennedy-house, Castle- Lough, 
Landstown - house, Cloncybrian- house, Kyleban- 
house, and Monroe. Fairs are held on Feb. 26, 
March 22, May 14, June 19, July 4, Nov. U, and 
Dec. 20. A dispensary in the village is within the 
Nena^h Poor-law union, and serves for a district 
containing a pop. of 17,377 ; and, in 1839^40, it ex- 
pended £92 8s. and administered to 4,327 patients. 
The village has a Roman Catholic chapel. Area of 
the village, 14 acres. Pop., in 1841, 447. Houses 74. 
Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 39; in 
manufactures and trade, 38; in other pursuits, 9; 
Families dependent chiefly on property and profes- 
sions, 2; on the directing of labour, 47; on their 
own manual labour, 32 ; on means not specified, 5. 

PORT RUSH, a small sea-port town m the parish 
of Bally willin, barony of Lower Dunlucc, co. Antrim, 
Lister. It stands at the north-western extremity 
of the county, 3 miles east-north-east of Port- 
Stewart, 4^ north of Coleraine. 5 west 'by north of 
Bushmills, and 50} north-west by north of Belfast. 
Its site is the extremity of a narrow rocky peninsula, 
which projects | of a mile beyond the adjacent coast- 

line to the vicinity of the rocky itlets called the 
Skerries, and which was the well knoMm subject of 
several interesting philosophical discussions, during 
the latter part of last century, upon basaltic forma- 
tions. The headland which terminates the peninsula, 
and the delightful promenade on the rocks immedi- 
ately adjacent to the town, command extensive and 
superb views of Magilligan- Point and Innishowea 
Head on the west, and of the headlands around the 
Giant's Causeway and the wondrous cliff« of the 
coast of the barony of Carey on the east. The situa- 
tion of the town is singularly airy and romantic ; and 
the small cove which constitutes the harbour is pro- 
tected by a great natural mole of basaltic rock. 
The harbour has been provided with piers, and arti- 
ficially enlarged ; it affords accommodation to vessels 
of the largest class to load and discharge; it gives 
protection under cover of its piers in 20 feet of water 
at the lowest ebb of spring tides ; it is the nearest 
Irish port to Glasgow and Greenock, and is regularly 
frequented by the steam-vessels which ply betweeu 
the north coast of Ulster and the Clyde and the 
Mersey ; and it belongs to a company of merchants 
in Coleraine, and may be considered as, in every 
practical sense, that town's outport. The bay oif 
Portrush affords good shelter from westerly gales ; 
a safe anchorage is also found off the Skerries, about 3 
miles distant, to which coasti ng- vessels and stewnem 
often resort when overtaken bv fog or contrary 
winds. 1'he harbour is formed by two moles, pro- 
jected from high water line, one 800, the other 6S0 
feet in length, with an entrance between their extremi- 
ties 200 feet in width. These piers enclose a sheet 
of water measuring nearly 8 imperial acres. The 
depth between the pier-heads varies from 13 feet at 
the southern to 20 feet at the northern pier at low 
water of spring-tides. [Report by Messrs. Steven- 
son and Sons, Dec. 1844.] The returns of exports 
and imports of Portrush are mixed up with those of 
the exports and imports of Coleraine. A line of 
railroad has been projected between this port and 
Armagh, passing through or near the towns of Black- 
water, Charlemont, Coal Island, Dungannon, Stew- 
artstown, Coagh, Cookstown, Moneymore, Bellaghy, 
Desertmartin, Toome, Magheraftilt, Portglenone, 
Maghera, Dungiven, Swateragh, Kilrea, BaJlytuoiiey, 
Coleraine, and Portstewart. This line, by meant 
of the Ulster, will connect the several towna on the 
line with the important ones of Belfi»t, Lurgan, Lia- 
bum, and Portadown, and, by a junction with the 
proposed Newry, Armagh, and Enniskillen line, 
with the north-east and north-west of Ireland ; and, 
by means of the Belfast junction, will form a direct 
route to the Irish metropolis. The proposed ter- 
minus at Portrush is within 6 miles of the Giant't 
Causeway, and from Portrush to that place the 
scenery along the coast is of the roost magnificent 
and ijiteresting description. The town has a dean 
and inviting appearance, and is now fiivourably known 
as an agreeable summer resort for sea-bathers. A 
church was recently built here, by means of eontii- 
butions of £166 66. 7d. from the funds of the Eccle- 
siastical Commissioners, and £1,733 I3b. 5d. from 
private sources. Dr. Richardson, while Dr. Dmry 
was on a visit to him, first observed, in the meadowa 
of Portrush, the stoloiies of the agrosUs stolonifermy 
or fiorin grass, which soon afterwiu^s became an ob- , 
ject of such engrossing agricultural attention. ** Dr. 
R. has told me," says the Rev. Mr. Dubourdiea, 
** that he showed to Dr. Davy the young stolooetf ' 
rising without panicles such as the stalks ^ all otlier 
grasses have. To ascertain what this unusual ap. 
pearance led to, it was agreed between the two gen- 
tlemen to leave parts of the meadows uncut* and 
watch the result, which was, that these 




■lalks continued steadily increasing their length, 
Aud, of course, adding prodigiounly to the crop.^ 
Area of the town, 44 acres. Pop., in 1831, 387 ; in 
UMl , 630. Houses lOl . Families employed chiefly 
in agriculture, 9 ; in manufitctures and trade, 53 ; in 
other pursuits, 56. Families dependent chiefly on 
property and professions, 22 ; on the directing of la- 
bour, 40 ; on Uieir own manual labour, 44 ; on means 
not specified, 12. 

PORTS ALL AGH, a small fishing harbour in the 
parish of Lower Moville, about ^ of a mile south of 
Innishowen Head, barony of Innishowen, co. Done- 
g^ UUter. It might be made very useful as a 
safety port. 

PORTSHANOAN, or Portneshanoan, a par- 
iah in the barooy of Corkaree, 3} miles north by west 
of Mullingar, co. Westmeatb, Leinster. Length, 
weAt-sorth-westward, 4} miles; extreme breadth, 
14 ; area, 3,635 acres, 3 roods, 37 perches,— of which 
904 acres, 1 rood, 3\ perches are in Lough Owhel, 
7 acres* 2 roods, 17 perches are in Lough Iron, and 
29 acres, 16 perches are in small lakes. Pop., in 
1831, 463 : in 1841, 546. Houses 92. The surface 
extends from the vicinity of Knockdrin-castle, across 
the northern part of Lough Owhel, to the head of 
Lough Iron ; and consists, in a general view, of 
niddlc^rate land. The remains of^the old demesne 
of Portahai^anare upon the shores of Lough Owhel. 
BallinagalU the beautiful and well-wooded demesne 
of James Gibbons, Esq., occupies a large portion of 
the south-eastern district, and is presided over by a 
handeofse Grecian mansion. Mount - Murray, the 
Mat of Mr. Murray, stands between Lough Owhel 
and Lough Iron. The only other noticeable seat is 
Woodland. An old abbey seems to have stood in 
tiie district east of Lough Owhel. The road from 
MiiUii»r to Multi£irnham passes through the inte- 
rior^ In 1841, the Pbrtshangan Loan Fund had a 
capital of £420, circulated £1,927 in 415 loans, re- 
alucd a nett profit of £7 158. 9d., and expended for 

charitable purposes £19 12s. 3d This parish is a 

rectorv, and part of the benefice of Portloman 
[ which seeli in the dio. of Meath. Tithe composi- 
tiflo. £93 6a. l{d. ; glebe, £15 15s. The church 
was built in 1824, by means of a gift of £738 9s. 
2}d. kom the late Board of First Fruits, a donation 
of £276 18s. 54d. fVom Sir Richard Levinge, and a 
doutionof £1^2 6s. 2d. from James Gibbons, Esq. 
of fiallinagall. Sittmgs 150 ; attendance, from 80 to 
90. In 1834, the parishioners consisted of 54 Church- 
men, 9 Presbyterians, and 412 Roman Catholics ; and 
a hcdge-aehool at Ballard had on its books 15 boys 

PORT-STEWART, a small town on the coast 
of the parish of A^erton, Liberties of Coleraine, 
eo. Londonderry, Ulster, it stands 2 miles east- 
nortb aawt of the mouth of the Bann, 3 west-south- 
west of Portruah, 4^ north-north-west of Coleraine, 
and 50^ north-west by north of Belfast. It is a 
cheerful little town, apon a very pleasant site; it 
CQOMBaods good views of the coast from the mouth 
of the Bann to Innishowen Head ; it contains a small 
iaa and lodging-houses for the accommodation of 
visitors ; and it has become a favourite, and certainly 
is a t9ry eligible summer resort of sea-bathers. A 
ffctif **** . to serve for the parish of Agberton, was 
recently built in Port-Stewart, at the cost of the 
Protectant parishioners. Handsome private houses 
have been erected in the town by John Cromie and 
Hmy O'Hara, Esqrs., its principal proprietors ; and 
Viinrr the demesne ot Mr. Cromie, the chief 
pra^rietor of the parish, is situated about a mile to 
the south-east. The Agberton, Ballyaghran, or 
Port - Stewart dispensary, is within the Poor- 
of Coleraine. and serves for a di^^trict 

of 3,896 acres, with a pop. of 2,746; and, in 1839- 
40, it expended £78 14s. 4d., and administered to 
233 patients. A fair is held on the first Monday 
of August. Dr. Adam Clarke, the commentator on 
the Scriptures, and well-known Methodist preacher, 
was bom in the vicinity. Area of the town, 40 
acres. Pop., in 1831, 475; in 1841, 603. Houses 
100. Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 8 ; 
in manufiictures and trade, 48 ; in other pursuits, 57 • 
Families dependent chiefly on property and profes- 
sions, 24; on the directing of labour, 31 ; on their 
own manual labour, 49 ; on means not specified, 9. 

PORT-ST.-MARNOCK. See Portmabnock. 

PORT-TERLIN, a small fishing harbour on the 
north coast of the pansh of Kilcommon, between 
Balderig and Portactoy, barony of Erris, co. Mayo, 
Connaugbt. It has a few yawls ; but it lies too open 
to be made a tolerable harbour, except by cutting a 
canal or passage through the beach. 

PORTUMNA, a post and market town in the 
parish of Lickmolassey, barony of Longford, co. 
Oalway, Connaugbt. It stands on the eastern verge 
of the province, and on the road from Birr to Gal- 
way, about 4 of a mile from the river Shannon, im- 
mediately above the head or commencement of Lough 
Derg, 7 miles south-south-west of Evrecourt, 9 east- 
north-east of Woodford, 1 1 west of Birr, 14} east- 
south-east of Loughrea, 21 north-east by north of 
ScariflT, and 73} west -south -west of Dublin. A 
wooden bridge, 820 feet long, including the cause- 
way, brings the thoroughfiire from Birr and Dublin 
across the Shannon. The town was not lon^: ago a 
mere assemblage of lon^ lines of cabins ; but it has of 
late years been greatly improved, partly by the liber- 
ality of its noble proprietor, the Marquis of Clanri^ 
cardc, and partlv in consequence of the steam navi- 
gation from Athlone to Rillaloe. The parish-church 
stands at the south end of the town, and is a beau- 
tiful structure, with stone-sashed >^'iiidows in the 
perpendicular style, and a lofty spire. The Romau 
Catholic chapel is a modern, spacious, and well- 
built fiibric. The Marquis of Clanricarde*s demesi.e 
of Portumna-castle adorns all the southern environs 
of the to^n, and extends along the head of Lough 
Derg. The castle was burned by accident in 1826; 
it was very grand, and highly interesting ; its stair- 
case, its great hall, and its state drawing-room, 
were very handsome; its library-room was a long 
apartment in the highest story ; several of its rooms 
acquired an impressive and a venerable air from the 
presence of old family portraits, and a large quantity 
of ancient furniture ; and its leads commanded a bril- 
liant and a very extensive prospect of Lough Derg, 
the Shannon, and the circumjacent count rv. In the 
vicinity of the castle and about j of a mile south of 
the town, stand extensive and beautiful ruins of a 
Dominican friary. '* From being closely surrounded 
with fine full grown timber, no part of the ruins ap- 
pear, till of a sudden the eastern window discloses 
Itself to the view. The next object to draw the at- 
tention after entering the churchyard, is another beau- 
tiful window, which is more florid but less majestic 
in appearance than the one first seen. Its ricb tra- 
cery being partly covered with ivy, renders the inte- 
rior view far 8U|>erior to the one taken from the out- 
side. It is in the south transept. The friary-, which 
is cruciform, and in the Gothic style, is still in pretty 
good repair, the walls being nearly all to their ori- 
ginal height, except the tower or steeple, which was 
sprung on four elegant pointed arches, whereof three 
still remain. One of the two whivh connected the 
n.ivc and chancel bus been totally taken down, and 
the other, which is of elegant cut stone, is built 
up, so as that if a view of it was given, the beautiful 
window should be left out of the picture. The en- 




tranrc U in the .west end, and by a emaU doorv^'ay, 
over whicb is a pointed arched window, and from 
whicli to the furthest end of the choir or chancel 
iiK'asure;^ above 100 feet. The choir is 21 feet 
\vide, and the side walk about 16 feet iii height, 
and served for the parish-church, till anew one being 
erected, which does much credit to its architect, 
it was for:«aken and unroofed. The baptistery 
is built against the north wull of the friary, ajiH 
was entered by a siuall door from the choir, which 
is now built up." A ruin which ailjoins the north 
transept is supposed by some antiquaries to be the 
church of a Cistercian abbey which stood on the 
spot before the erection of the Dominican friary. 
** Portumna," says an intelligent writer in the Dub- 
lin Penny Journal, *' must luive been a place of no 
small note from a very distant period of time, as 
being the principal pass whereby the people of North 
Munster and they of Connaught had connuunication 
with each other. Portumna, viewed either in a civil 
or ecclesiastical point of view, will be found to com- 
pete with most of our baroiual towns, especially in 
the former; for the members of the illustnous hvuse 
of Clanricarde took such an active part in the offi^rt 
of government, respecting this ana the sister kiiig:- 
dom. that to give but a hasty 4kete^ fit these mo- 
mentous transactions, would swell this notice far be- 
yond its proper limits. Notwithstanding the silence 
of history as io Portumna's being an ecclesiastical 
station, previous to the arrival of the English, it is 
probable that some religious order had settled in a 

{dace where there was a town for nruuiy centuries 
)efore Ireland became subject to the control of 
the sister kingdom. Had it not been situated ou a 
noted pass of the Shannon, I should not hesitate 
to say it was an ecclesiastical station long, before 
the landing of the English ; for oiost of our ancient 
towns sprung up around religious establishment^. 
I made the above remark* because some .wTiters 
seem as if the first religious house erected at Port- 
umna was in the fifteenth century, for Dominican 
friars ; whereas the Cistercian monks of Dunbrody 
(a monastery founded in 1182) had a cha|>el here 
dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, which depended 
on tlieir monastery in the county of Wexford. At 
what time Portumna was forsaken by the Cistercians 
is unknown ; but it is very probable that it was 
given up but a short time when the Dominican, friars 
took possession of it, with the consent of tbc Cielr 
tercians of Dunbrody, and 0*Madden the dynast of 
the place. After having their possessions confirmed 
by a bull of tlie Pope which bore datei 8th of Oct.^ 
1426, the Dominicans erected a friary and church, 
which they dedicjited to the A'irgin and the originid 
patron saints. Pope ^Lirtin V., a short time afler 
granting the above-mentioned bull, gave indulgences 
to all those who had contributed to its erection.'* 
Previous to the time of Elizabeth, the family of Dc 
Burgh, ancestors of the Marquis of Clanricarde, 
oflen derided the authority and defied the power of 
the Crown ; but during Elizabeth's reign, us well as 
at all subsequent periods, they were distinguished 
for their steady and zealous lovalty ; and Portunmi^ 
in coimection with both their early rebelliousness 
and their later patriotism, was a busy scene of strife, 
and an important military post in civil war. Sir 
William De Burgh, in guerdon of repelling an invasion, 
which was led on by one of the house of Desmond, 
received a title and much approbation from Eliza- 
beth ; and the first Marquis of Clanricarde, though 
remaining firmly connected with the Roman Catho- 
lics, was distinguished for singular loyalty and other 
excellences during the trying and tempestuous vicis- 
situdes of the Carolist and Cromwellian periods. 
•* Lord Clan rickarde," remarks Mr. Trotter, "made 

every effort a good* 9uly*ect oould and oiigbtvii^ ike 
reign of Charles I.,, to .assist the savcreign,. aud to 
restrain violence in Ireland j but. the despotism of 
Charles was too inveterate to allow itself to be assist- 
ed ; and the turbulent paosiona of the Irish, inflamed 
by the furious ami bigoted Rinunctni, were too high 
to permit this excellent oobleman to. have bis juat 
weight among them. The Mapqaia of Ckmrickarde, 
however, never swerved- from» the best-principled 
conduct ; never iHibmit^d. as Ormunde; did, to the 
parliament and fanatic, leaden, and. untainted -fay the 
prejudice against CathoHca, which narrowed Lord 
Ormonde's mind,, he laboured strongly to- aaire them 
from the effects of their own imprudence, and to 
secure to them, in good time,. advantageous terms. 
Lord Clanrickarde refused a high comaiand Iron tira 
confederate Catholicj$, when they first coitoentrated 
their |»ower in Charles the First's utign, becsfuse he 
would not stoop to be the instrument of their, pas- 
sions. He was their friend, but diadainail to be the 
tool and football of their party. He finally jaocepted 
the office of Lord-deputy i aiui though, disapproving 
of the monarch's condutrt in many things, he endea*- 
voured to the last to struggle for- the English crown, 
and to hold Conuaught in pl)edience to it. For these 
services, I believe, he ne\-er experienced any royal 
gratitude, or at least, w'as only suffered by Charles 
the Second, who received every service, and re- 
warded none, to live at Portumna«oastle in dignified 
retirement." The firj»t of the De Burgha who 
settled in Ireland, was.Addin, uncle of Hubert De 
Burgh, Earl of Kent, in the reigns of John and 
Henry III. , and one of the greatest subjects in Europe. 
Riciiard De Burgh, the descendant of Adelin, was 
Lord of Conoaught, ami, dying in 1243, left two 
sons, — Walter. Earl of Ulster, — and WjUiaiPi aiK:es- 
tor of the Marquis of C|anriqirde. In .1543, Ulick 
De Burgh was created Earl of Clanricarde ; apd 
in 1644, Ulick the fifth Earl, was advanced Iq 
the , dignity of Marquis of Clanricarde.. At tUi 
letter's death ift in57« tW Marquisate.beca^ne extij»qt^. 
and itu: earldom was. inherited by his cpusjivgermav,. 
Richard De Builgh. In 1 785, t>e nvu-quisate was 
reatored in the person of Henry« the. 12th Elarl; bat 
at his death in 17^)7, it again became extinct, and 
the earldom devolved, ^pouiUt: miirqain^^ broiber 
John. In 1^, riick. iV I Wj Earl, W9* created 
the third Marquis of CWinparile, m the p^'or^i^e of 
Ireland; and next year hu w^ m^e J^»jx>ii rjf Sqtfier* 
bin in the peerage of the Cuiied Kingdom * P^^rv 
umna enjoys a good retail trade, and is a piftce ,^f 
considerable export traiii; to DubUij. Fain^ ^we hM 
on Feb. 15, May (v Ji^ly 1, Aug, 15^ pct^.I^^JN^d 
Nov. 15. . A court of nttt j -SL'ssiona is held ou everj; 
alternate Mondav. A iliH[;c]]ji;irr In tlie town '^ 
within the Loughrea Poor. law uiuou, and serves fqf. 
a district of 52,709 acres, with a pop, o£ 14,0CM* 
and, in 1840-41, it expefided ^lU lOs. 0d,, and ad* 
ministered to 1,252 patient^. A Qon^an- Cathplip 
parish in the dio. of Clonfert takes i ame from Port*. 
unma, and has chapels here and at Licmolash. Arf^ 
of the town, 52 acres. Pop., in 1831, 1,12^; i» 
1841, 1,043. Houses 228. Famili^ .employed 
chiefly in agriculture, 136 ; in manufiictures ana. 
trade, 115; in other pursuits, 70. , Families depeih 
dent chiefly on property and professions, 17 ) on t3j» 
directing of labour, 1 19 ; on. their own manuii 
labour, 164 ; on means pot specified, 21. . • .' > 

POTTERCHA, a village in the parish of Kfl- 
skyre, barony of Upper Kells. co^ McatB, LelnsteF, 
Pop., in ia3i; 124. Houses 22. 

POULACUILLA, a romantic glen, 4 n[iilci 
south-south -east of tnnistiogue, co. Kilkenny, Leitu 
ster. ** It is approached," says Mr. .Brewer, . Vhy 
a narrow ereek, proceeding from the NorO| at^thtf* 




cstremity of which a cascade of great beauty rolls 
in niournfal tones over the rugged fmgraeiits of 
rocks, and descends a craggj precipice above 50 feet 
n height. Prom the fissures of numberless clifl% 
which hang over the boatman's head, as he plies the 
iMr below, shoot forth venerable trees, ameliorating 
and diversifying the character of this pensive glen." 

POIJI^A-PHOUKA. See Phoul-a-Phouoa. 


POULNELONG. See Lbigrxonet. 

POWER'S-COUNTRY, a quondam territorial 
divimon of the county of Waterford, Munster. It 
eomprehended most of the barony of Upperthird, and 
part of the baronies of Middlethird and I>ecies.wfth- 
out- Drum ; and it had its name from the fiunily of 
Power or Le Poer, the ancestors of the Marquis of 

POWERSCOURT, or Staoonil, a parish in 
the barony of Rathdown, 3 miles west-south-west of 
Bray, co. Wicklow, Leinster. It contains the vil- 
kge of Elf KisKERRT : which see. Length, west- 
sooth- west ward, 7i miles ; extreme br^th, 5| ; 
area, 16,938 acres, 37 perches,— of which 64 acres, 
3 roods are in flower Lough Bray, and 28 acres, 
3 roods, 24 perches are in Upper Lough Bray. Pop., 
in 1831, according to the Census, 4,538, but accord- 
ing to the Ecclesiastical Atithorities, 4,368 ; * in 
1841, 8,070. Houses 434. Pop. of the rural dis- 
rriets, in 1831, 4,041 ; in 1841. 2,622. Houses 
398. Pottr-fifths of the surface are loftily, and, for the 
most part, wildly mountainous ; but the remaining 
ffHi, which is identical chiefly with the low grotmds 
•f the demesne of Powerscourt, and with the imme- 
diate environs of the village of Efiniskerry, is aver- 
igely low, greatly diversified, powerfully scenic, and 
i sumptuously ornate. The hmd varies in quality 

from poor pastoral moorland, to very fertile arable 
ground, and, in annual value, from 10s. to £6 per 
icre. Some of the most interesting localities and 
elfjects will be found noticed in the articles Powers- 
court (Dbncnsb op), Dargle, Brat, Eitnis- 


Scalp, Djopce, Kifpitre, and Milttart-Road : 
which see. Prince William*^ Seat mountain, on the 
aortbem boundar^^, has an altitude above sea-level 
tf 1,625 feet; Rippure, on the western boundary, 
kasan altitude of 2,473; War-hill and Djouce moon- 
lain, on the southern boundary, have altitudes of 
2,290 and 2,384 feet; and the congeries of mountains 
in the western and central districts have such lofCy 
average altitudes as to lift the two lakes of Bray 
to tmrftee-elevations above sea-Ievel of 1,225 and 
1,453 feet, and to give origin to the rivers Annamoe 
ad Lrffey at elevations of respectively 1,770 and 
1,256 feet. The principal draining streams of the 
iMerior are the three head- waters ot the Bray, — the 
OM^ntown rivulet in the north-east, the Glencree 
rivulet in the centre, and the Dargle rivulet in the 
MMrth. The Military-Road traverses the western 
Aftrict southward ; and the road from Dublin to 
latbdrum comes in from co. Dublin through the 
Snip, and passes through the village of Enniskerry. 
The principal rural residences, additional to the 
Boble one of Powerscourt, are Harmony- cottage, 
Dargle-cottage, Kilrroney - cottage, Upper Cooks- 
town. Lower Cookstown, Seaview, Grove -hill. 
Monastery -house, Killygar-houRe,Valrliisa, Bahana, 
LoQgh Bray-cottage, and Tinnehinch-house, — the 
la*t the seat of James G rattan, Esq. The principal 
Walets are Ballvbrew, Buryfield, Glencree, and 
Crone.—Thift pansh is a rtTt'ory, a prebend, and a 
ieptrate benefice, in the dio. of Dublin. Tithe com- 

* Th« rcftMrn af thi* diMrejMUicy U, that a Kmall portion vf 
^ qoMil rtviluk pariili of lV>wer*ooQrt it inckid«<l in ttie 
' 1 curacy and quoad sacra lunish of Calary. 

position, .€309 4s. 7d. ; glebe, £14 14s. Gross in. 
come, £887 18s. 7id. ; nett, £337 19?. 9d. Patron, 
the diocesan. The incumbent holds also the sine- 
cure prebend. of Christ-church in the cathedral of 
Cork. A curate receives a salary of £100. The 
church was enlarged in 1822, by inean» of a loan of 
£923 Is. 6Ad. from the late Board of First Fruits. 
Sittings 000; attendance, from 550 to (550. A school- 
house is bUo used as a parochial place of worship 
during winter. A Roman Catholic chapel, and a 
bam used as a Roman Catholic chapel, have an at- 
tendance of respectively from 300 to 400, and from 
200 to 300 ; and, in the Roman Catholic parochial 
arrangement, are united to the chapels of Bray and 
Delgany. In 1834, the parishioners consisted of 
1,65(3 Churchmen, 4 Presbyterians, 4 other Protes- 
tant dissenters, and 2,834 Roman Catholics ; 2 Sun- 
day schools at Charlemont and Powerscourt-Gate 
were usually attended by about 185 children ; and 8 
daily schools — 2 of which were supported chiefly by 
the rector, two chiefly by Lord Powerscourt, one 
almost entirely by Lady Powerscourt, one wholly 
by Lady Powerscourt, and one almost entirely by 
Lady Itathdown — ^had on their books 268 boys and 
237 giris. 

POWERSCOURT, the beautiful, romantic, and 
gorgeous demesne of Visconnt Powerscourt, in the 
eastern district of the paris^h of Powerscourt, barony 
of Rathdown, co. Wicklow, Leinster. It compriites 
about 700 acres immediately around the mansion, 
about 500 in the glen of the Powerscourt waterfall, 
and about 200 on the north side of the Dargle ; it 
contains a very large proportion of the most inter- 
esting scenes and objects within the vast and justly 
celebrated natural picture-gallery of the coufity of 
Wicklow ; {t forms the topic of about one-fifteenth 
of the entire letter-press of Curry and Company's 
ably, judicionsly, and synunetrically written '* Guide 
to the County of Wicklow ;" and it has been sum- 
marily described as «o wondrously combining hill 
and dale, wood and water, and so brilliantly exliibit- 
ing the most exquisite beatity in a frame- work of 
sublime and seemingly inaccessible mountains aA to 
realize the picture of ** the happy valley." We 
cannot, therefore, be expected to do it full justice 
within the necessarily small limits which we mu»t 
allot to it ; and will easily be excuHcd for availing 
ourselves of the succinct yet accurate views of it 
given by Mr. Brewer : — ** The mansion of Powers- 
court is a spacious structure, composed of granite, 
and was erected late in the 18th century, after the 
designs of Mr. Cassels. The style of architecture 
is not conspicuous for purity or beauty, and it is 
much to be regretted that one of the finest situa- 
tions in Europe should not have been occupied by a 
fabric evincing correspondent grandeur of concep- 
tion. This building ditvplays two fronts. One of 
these comprises a central bo<ly and two wings. The 
central compartment is ornamented with a pediment, 
havir^g the family-arms on the tympanum. The 
wingH are plain, and beyond each is a circular sweep, 
terminating in an obeli8k which supports the crest. 
The second front has a circular tower at oach ex- 
tremity, crowned with an ogee-shaped cupola. The 
interior present* some tine rooms, and tbc richly de- 
corated hall is deservedly admired by most visitors. 
This mansion is placed on an eniinence suthcient for 
a display of the structure and for a command of ex- 
tensive views, but not so lofty as to communicate the 
fears of chillness and exposure. In the background, 
but sufficiently distant to preserve the bnilding from 
comparative diminution as a pictorial object, moun. 
tains rise in magnificent succi>ssion, their sunnnits 
broken into an outline of beautiful irregularity. 

*' The home demesne is luxuriant in natural 




cbmnns, ^Ititated with distinginBhed taste. The 
graceful ineqiutlitieB of this elevated tract are rich in 
wood, iinelv disposed j and a winding river, partiallr 
enwrapped in foliage, flows through the vale to which ■ 
the grounds descend. Nature is here gently assisted, 
aiid no encumbrances of modern temples, hermitages, 
or other tovs of the kndscape-gardener, call forth 
vulgar admiration, whilst they offend the eye of the 
judiciou:», and violate the dignity of Heaven's works. 
It would be vain to attempt the task of pointing out 
the numerous situations in this demesne, from which 
may be obtained prospects of peculiar beauty $ and, 
perhaps, none are excelled by tbe view gained shortly 
after entering the grounds. Here, as we approach 
the house, the first break of scenery towards the 
south is inconceivably grand, soft, and varions. 
Mountains, often cultivated high towards tbeik^ 
summits, and sometimes rudely majestic in the un- 
aided tints of nature, form tbe impressive back- 
ground, at a happy distance. The undulating tracts 
which lie between that range of mountains, and the 
lofty ridge on which the spectator is placed, oom4 
prise the rich woods and plantations on the demesne 
of Charleville. Amidst the umbrageous screen of 
this cultivated scenery, the river pureues its devious 
course, lucid, rippling, and often hal£-hidden. It 
may be added, that a distant bridge over the wind- 
ing stream stands well revealed, as an adjunct of the 
picturesque. This is in itself a pleanng object^ 
evincing, without effort, the operations of art } and 
the occasional animation afforded by the transit of 
rural passengers, imparts a felicitous effect to the 
profound and silent expanse of scenery. 

" The deer-park of Powerscourt aboonds in na^ 
tural beauties, but of a diaraeter partaking more of 
wildness and austerity than the attractive precincts 
of the mansion. This extensive enclosure is en* 
riched with many oaks of a venerable growth, and is 
celebrated for a waterfall of great magnificence. 
The herds of deer are equally nomeroits and fi»e. 
The principal object which arrests the attention, oo 
approaching the park, is Knoekree«aiountain« which 
rises to the right of the villages of Ooolekea and 
Balljmagea. This mountain represents the central 
part of a stupendous rath or ancient Irish fortress, 
wrought by the mighty hand of Nature ; and it may 
be thought that the similitude is preserved by sar* 
rounding circumstances : the lofty mountains of 
Glencree, Cuttlestowa, and Walker's-Rock, or the 
Long-hill, partly forming a resemblance of tbe out* 
ward ramparts, and the valleys of Glencree, -BaUy- 
nagea, and Charleville, th^ fosse or ditch. - The en« 
trance of the park is marked b^ much grandeur of 
effect. On each side is a chain ot mountains, wooded 
to the summit, and a river hurries over a rocky 
channel, through the valley at their base. Tbe 
mountains close at the termination of this vale, and 
form one Kreat amphitheatre of wood, the scene of 
the waterfall. The stream which supplies this cole- 
brated fall rises at a place called Glensoukn, and is^ 
in tbe more temperate parts of its course, aa ineon. 
siderable rivulet. After reaching the Jeuss mcmn* 
tain, its waters sink down a precipice or stupendous 
wall of ferruginous basalt, upwards of 100 feet in 
height. When not augmented by heavy falls of raih^ 
the volume of descending liquid is small, and ^e 
€ice of the rock is seen through the thin vail of its 
delicate transparency. But^ after continued rains 
have surcharged the interstices of the mountains, 
the tunrahaous fury with which this precipitated 
body of water bursts down the frightful depth of 
its descent, affords a rare spectacle of awful beauty. 
The profound seclusion of the glen &voure the full 
poignancy of the effect, and the dark masses of eon- 
tiguuua wood, rising to the utmost height of the 

momtaine, lend a deligbtfiil eoutfast <if oolouaiig tp . 
ih<! foaM and terrewt of the €«taniet. Thia-ndhia 
fall of water is distant: about two miles .and a-hatft 
from the mansion isf Powerecourt* 

** Tbe estate derives its< name from I>e hi Poer, 
a former possessor, hy .mshom. it wa^ obtmoed! in 
marriage *wiih one of the daughtera of; Milo De 
Cogan. A strong castle, was constructed at .this 
place by De k Poer. which was ttken and destroyed 
by the septs of O'Toole and O'Bynie, in. tjw year 
1585, but WIS speedily. febuHt by governnieDt at the 
great expense, tor those times, of diOQQ marks. > In . 
1656, the sent of the O*Kavanagha0sined* violent 
possession ot Powerscourt, then the;.pni|p#rty of a 
branch of the Talbot £smily, by graot frpia Henry 
VIII. These invaders fortified the eastie, and gw-, 
risoned it with 140 men; but when atjtaicked by 
Sir George Stanksy with a regular fopoe» the Km-, 
vanaghs surrendered upon mercy. -We; regret to 
observe that the mercy shown by. the cunqueror 
consisted in putting to death 74. <n their numhef 1 
the remainder were suffered 'to depart* It is meiw 
tioned by Mr. Harris, in tbe seac»d volume oi 
Ware's Antiquities, thatabout>the middle of the \m%^ 
century, six urns were discovered beoeathiBn artifrr 
cial mount near Poweraeourt, one of urhioh i^repf*^ 
sented in an engraving inserted in that work.. * The 
capacity of it, if entire, would not muA exeeefl a 
quart ; it is ^ a liriit brown colour, and compoiMd. 
of a crumbling aoft clay, fttdel|r' enough t^roiighty' 
but muck ornamented on the exterior a and OMhura 
¥ras covered with a small flat stimev and filled with 
black dirt, which possibly mi^t have been ashea. re- 
duced to that ' condition by time.' '* 

Tbe fonnly of Wingfield, now Viseounts Powtra* 
court, is very ancient} and they derive their Jiaroet 
from the castle and masor-of Wingfield, whidi.^ru 
situated in Saffolk, and which belcnged to them :be* 
fbre the date of the Nocman conquest. Sir Richard. 
Wingfield, fourth in lineal descent from Sir John 
Winfffield; who ia said to have set ued. under l|ie 
Black Prince, married the only daughter of fiir 
William Fitvwilliara of MiHtown, and siflDor of><iie 
Lord-deputy of Irehmdi and Sir Richard Wingfiel^. 
tbe eldest son of these parents, greatly disting uis he d 
himself in the suppression of Tyrone* displayed great 
valour in an attonpt upofi Calais, reeeiv«d an ap-i 
point ment from Queen. Eliaabeth -and a reappoints, 
ment from Jaases L to the nMUtfsdbalshlpcf lrelaad» 
overthrew and suppressed the rebelliMi of Sir Hugh. 
O'Ikigheriy and Sir Neil O'Domisl iia mstaiv.fuul 
obtsined, in guerdon of hia services* thejanda oH 
FercuUen, campriaing the whole of .the pariah tof 
Powerecourtt with the exioeptien of .aboiit UQ(X> 
acres now belonging to the Earl of Rathdown.. in 
1618, Sir Ridiardwaa oreated Viseount Fiiwer^r 
court ( and, at his death in 16S4, the iNserage bepuBO 
extinet, and the estates were inherited hy hiaoMMii^ 
Sir Richard Wingfield. In 1605, the gnmdaoo ef 
this Sir Richard was made Viscount Powersoouri 
hy a new |»tent^ and, at his death in 17l7»th4 
peerage agiiin became extinct, <attd the estate df^. 
volved to his eousia, Edwucd. Wingfieldy Eaq«».burr In 1743, Richard, the ordy soo^tf thk 
heir, obtained another and fbtfal revival of the ^imth 
age, and was created Barou Witogfieldand Vitfomilt 
Powerscourt. *'Ia the uofortunMe rebeUm 4i 
1796," aayathewritee^the Wiek]«wGMi4^;V th« 
attachment of his 'tenantry to the theft yimou^ wi# 
very remarkable; When all. the nobility «id geiitrjr 
fled to the capital for ahelUr and nroteetieii. X<fi4 
Powerscourt, withthe true spirit fof hil giMt anoefl* 
tor, continued to inhabit his mansion in.Wieklow^ 
and fortified it for defBnee< : Upon thejoofof ^ 
house, which ia flat and sheeted unth.kii49 hisitev 




•ntry, iMHr conirerted into fiathfa] yeomanry to wIumii 
he intnurteA his Kfe-, keot convtmt g«ard ; and with 
160 of these trasty and Attached adherentt he per- 
severed in preserving his fiunily and property, while 
other parts of Ireland teemed with hlood." 

POWER8TOWN, a parish in the barony of 
Oownui, 2^ miles south-east of the town of Gownin, 
CO. Kilkenny, Leinster. Length, soath-eastward, 
3 1 miles; extreme breadth, 3; area, 5,432 acres, 2 
roods, 95 perches,-^of which 1 1 acres, 2 ^ood^ 37 
perrhes are in tha nver Barrow. Pop., in 1831, 
1,718; in 1841, 1,730. Houses 273. The surface 
lies on the eaitem border of the county, and upon 
the left bask of the Barrow ; it is traversed by the 
road from Gowran to Graiguenamanagfa ; it possesses 
a eoBsMerable diversity of outlines and it consists of 
arable and pasture land, much of which is excellent, 
while all the remainder is good. Mount- Loftus, the 
seat of Sir F. W. Loftus, Bart., is a principal arti- 
ficial feature, occupies an elcTated site, and oom- 
nuBids fine Tiews or the river and banks <tf the Bar- 
row. The village of Powerstown is situated in the 
north-western district, and is watered by a rivulet 
which ^Is into the Barrow a little beiow Gores- 
bridge. The principal antiquities are vestiges of 
two old churelKS, and the ruins of Drumroe-castle. 
— This psfish is a rectory, and a separate benefice, 
in the dio. of Leighiin. Tithe composition, £460 ; 
glebe, X12 2s. 5d. Gross income, £472 2s. 3d. ; 
nett« £370 I9s. lid. Patron, the Crown two and 
the diocesan one of every three turns. A curate re* 
reives a salary of £69 4«. 7id., and the use of the 
glebe-house. The church is an old building. Sit- 
tings 120; attendance 10. The Roman Catholic 
chapel has an attendance of 800; and, in the Roman 
CatlMlic parochial arrangement, is united to the 
chapel of (Jlhtfd. In 1834, the Protestants amounted 
to 10, and the Roman Catholics to 1.668; and a 
daily school was in connection with the National 
Board, and had on its hooks 116 boys and 55 girls. 

POWERSTOWN, CO. Tipperary. See Kii^ 

POYNTZ-PASS, orFsywicK's-PASS, a village, 
partly in the parish of Aghaderg, barony of Upper 
Iveagh, CO. Down, but chiefly in the parish of 
BallyiBore, barony of LoMrer Orier, oo. Armagh, 
Ulster. It stands on the Newry Canal, on the main- 
road from Tanderagee to Newry, and on the road 
frsai Banbridge to Ne«rtown- Hamilton, 7 furlongs 
savth of Aeten, 21 miles souths wesit by west of 
Lovghbriekbnd, a| soath by east of Tanderagee, 
wad S seutluwest of Banbridge. The circumjacent 
country, though now an open, fertile, and beautiful 
fMrt« wm formerly a series of fiutnesses of bog, 
—rail, and forest ; and the town has the Utter part 
ef ite mine from occupying the locality of an encuRKi 
keted pasB through these fisstne^ves between the 
saawtiew of Oorwn and Armagh. A castle stood at 
Ae pass to guard it ; and the stump of the fortalice 
was not very long ago visible. The prefix Po>iitz 
arose Iren the circumstance of Lieutenant Poytitz 
having here fbugbt a desperate action at the bead of a 
few loyal troop<« against a numaruus body of the forces 
ef Tyrone. The part of the vlllage which stands in 
Arasagh was built in 17iX) by Mr. Stewart, who was 
then proprietor of its site, and who obtained for it 
Ae grant of a rifht to hold a market and fairs. The 
town consists of one principal stref t, and an inter- 
see lin g subordinate street ; and it contains a dispcn- 
sary, a National school, a Roman ('«tholic chapel, 
and a parish-church. The dispensary is within the 
NewTT Poor-law union, and serves for a district of 
12,000 acre*, with a pop. of 8,000; and, in 1839, it 
esfvnded £7t<, and administered to 873 patients. 
Well attended fairs are held on the first Saturday of 

every month ; and are the scene of extensive sales of 
sheep and cattle. At the village is the 12th lock of 
the Newry Canal ; and within about a mile are Lough 
Shark, a Presbyterian meeting-house, and the seats 
of Lisraw-houKc, Passview, Acton-house, Drumiu- 
argal-house, the Close, Bachelor's- Hill, ThomvalCf 
Woodview, Macguiniss'-Farm, and Merr>'field. Area 
of the Down section of the village, 8 acres ; of the 
Armagh section, 23 acres. Pop. of the whole, in 
1831, 660; in 1841. 643. Houses 114. FamiUes 
employed chiefly in agriculture, 29 ; in manufactures 
and trade, 73 ; in other pursuits, 24. Families de- 
pendent chiefly on property and professions, 9 ; on 
the directing of labour, 67 ; on their own nwnual 
labour, 47 ; on means not specified, 3. Pop. of the 
Armagh section, in 1831, 572; in 1841, 553. 
Houses 96. 

PREBAN, Prebawn, or Braban, a parish in 
the barony of South Ballinacor, 3j miles north-east 
of Tinehely, co. Wicklow, Leinster. Length, south- 
westward, 3 miles ; extreme breadth, 2| ; area, 
4,265 acres, 16 perches. Pop., in 1831, 1,095 ; iu 
1841, 1,176. Houses 172. A mountain on the 
northern boundary has an altitude of 1,279 feet above 
sea-level; a height in the interior of the western 
district has an altitude of 900 feet ; the site of the 
church, in the centre of the parish, has an altitude 
of 587 feet ; and a brook of the interior has, at 
Preban-bridge, a surfiscc-elevation of 423 feet. The 
I>erry rivulet flows along the southern border ; and 
the road from Tinehely to Rathdrum passes through 
the interior. The general quality of the land is 
light, and fit only for the production of oats and po- 
tatoes. The seats are Ballinalea-house and Tan- 
kersley-house ; and the hamlets are Preban and 

CroBsanavar This parish is a perpetual curacv, 

and a separate benefice, in the dio. of Ferns. The 
vicarial tithes belong to the perpetual curate, and 
are compounded for £72 12s. lid. Gross income, 
£02 128. 1 Id. ; nett, £87 Os. 34d. Patron, the dio- 
cesan. The rectorial tithes are compounded for 
£145 5s. lOd. ; and are appropriated to the see cf 
Ferns. The church was built in 1827» by means of 
a gift of £900 from the late Board of First Fruiu. 
Sittings 250 ; attendance 130. The Roman Catho- 
lie chapel has an attendance of 1,000; and, in the 
Roman Catholic parochial arrangement, is united to 
the chapels of adjoining parishes. In 1834, the Pro- 
testants amounted to 241, and the Roman Catholics 
to 851 : and 3 daily schools — one of which was aided 
with £5 a-year from the bishop of Ferns— had on 
their books 113 boys aiid 89 girls. 

PRIMULT. See Ballyburlet. 

PRIEST'S^LEAP, a wild and alpine mountain- 
pass, on the mutual border of the barony of Bantry, 
00. Cork, and the barotiy of Glaoerought, co. Kerry, 
«nd midway between the towTis of Bantry and Ken- 
mare, Munster. The alpine acclivities which lead 
to it are4iold, romantic^ and often frightfully naked 
and rugged ; and both the pass itself and a track 
through these aivlivities are traversed by one of the 
wildest roadn in Europe, — the old road from the 
south-west of the (H>UT)ty of Cork into flie county of 
Kerry. ** The Priest's Leap road," say Mr. and 
Mrs. Hall, *' otifers to every student of the ancient 
m>'Ktery of road-making the fairest subject for in- 
quiry and contemplation ; nothing can be more direct 
than its uphill flights, or more (lecided and ujiswcrv- 
ing than its do\%-nward progreHMiofi!) ; no mountain- 
elevation, however bristling with crags or fonnidable 
the aspect of its precipitous sides, deterred the stern 
and uncoinpromiiiuiK engineer who laid it down. He 
carried it over the loftiest summits, the wildest 
moors, at the bottoms of the most desolate glens, and 
along the most diziy steeps overlookit^ the deepest 




gleni. A nv«ge4ooking defile is sometimes made 
avaiUble as a conduit for every ferocious breexe that 
loves to howl and aweep along such localities, — and 
the loneliness of many of the scenes is emphatically 
marked by the significant *leacht,' or stone beap^ 
that points out the spot 'where, in other times, some 
solitary traveller met his fitte from the wayside plun- 
derer. • • To the lover of the wild, the pictur- 
esque, and the romantic, we recommend this road for 
his special enjoyment. Glorious is its scenery over 
mountain and through glen. The broad bay of Ban^ 
try is glistening far beneath, and the blue shores of 
Iveragh and Bere in the diatance, are noUe fea^ 
tures in the majestic panorama. Nor has the voice 
of tradition failed, or become silent, aniong these 
hills; many a wild legend and whimaical fiction 
may be gathered, by a little kindness, from their 
shrewd, inquisitive, and really imaginative inhabi- 
tants. Nearly midway in the course of the moun- 
tain-road stand the ruins of one of those small an- 
cient churches, whose era from their style — the Ro- 
manesque — must be placed between the dth and the 
1 Ith centuries. A portion of the walls onlv remaina. 
The stones are large and eydopean, curiously jointed, 
and well-fiuhioned. We were told that it is * one of 
the first churches called at Rome ' — a traditional re- 
cord of its high antiquity. Outside the burial- 
ground is a perfect curiosity ; — a natural rock, of a 
tabular form, with five basin-like hollows on the 
surfiice, of four or five inches in depth, and about a 
foot in diameter. These are severally filled with 
water, and in each is a stone of a long oval form 
fitting the space fully. The whole forms a peitrified 
dairy — ^the basins being the keelers, the ovals the 
rolls of butter.** 

PRIOR, a parish in the barony of Iveragh, 7^ 
miles south by west of Cahirciveen, co. Kerry, 
Munster. Length, 6 miles; breadth, 5; area, 11,796 
acres. Pop., in 1881,3,176; in 1841,3,323. Houses 
676. The surface is partly washed on the east by 
BalUnaskelligs bay; and is prevailingly very wild 
and mountainous. A principal height U Knockaga- 
lisky, whose summit rises to the altitude of 1,351 
feet above sea-level. The proportion of mountain- 
ous and boggy ground compared with the proportion 
of arable and meadow lanAis as 17 to 1. — This parish 
is a rectory, and part of the benefice of Dkohov 
[which sec], in the dio. of Ardfert and Aghadoe. 
Tithe composition, £120 3^. Id. The Roman 
Catholic chapel has an attendance of 1,300; and, in 
the Roman Catholic parochial arrangement, is united 
to the chapel of Killenlagh. In 1834, the Protes- 
tants amounted to 10, and the Roman Catholics to 
3,380; and 3 pav daily schools were usually attended 
by about 61 children. 

PRIOR, a hamlet on the left bank of the river 
Lane, barony of Dunkerron, co. Kerry, Munster. 
Po9t-town, Milltown. 

PROSPEROUS, a village in the parish*of KiUy. 
begs, baronv of Clane, eo. Kildare, Ldnster. It 
stands on the road from Rathangan to Dublin, 2| 
miles west yt Clane, 2| north-east of Robertstown, 
and 5| north-norfh-west of Naas. It is a perfect 
burlesque upon its name; and may be pronounced 
one of the most unproRperous, decaying, and miser- 
able villages in Ireland. A cotton-factory was es- 
tablished here in 1760, by Captain JBitiok, but was 
long ago abandoned. In the village are a polioe 
station, a school, and a Roman Catholic chapel ) and 
within a mile of it are Killybegs-house, Woodville- 
hou!<^, and Do>vtiings- house. The circumjacent 
country is flat, dreary, and to a large extent sheer 
moraii). Area of the village, 38 acres. Pop., in 
1831, 1,038; in 1841, 526. Houses 91. FamiUes 
employed chiefly in agriculture, 58; in manufactures 

and trade, 45 ) in other pursvi^,. 9* Families de- 
pendent chiefly on the directing oi labour, 54 ; od 
tdieir evm manual labour, 65; on.meana not speci- 
fied.: a. 

PDBBLEBRIEN. See Pobbuibmsn. 

PUBBLEDRUM, a quondam parish in the bar. 
onies of Forth and RathviUy, oo. Carlow, Leinster. 
It i» not recognised in the Ecclesiastical divisions ; 
and it has, even m to eivil usage, ceased to be re- 
cognised as a parish. Pop., in 1831, of the Forth 
section, 1 , 182 ; of the Rathvilly section, 60. Houses 
in these, 178 and 12. 

PIJCKANE, or PocKAvm, a \'illage in the pariah 
ef Killodieman, barony of Lower Ormood, co. Tip- 
perary, Munster. It stands Li mile east of the head 
of Dromineer bay in Lough Derg, and 4^ nortii by 
west of Nenagh. In the village are a po&e barrack 
and a Roman Catholic chapel ; and within a mile of 
it are a parish- church. Loughs Claveen, Claree, 
Poulavee, and Black, and the seats of Johnstown, 
Urra- lodge, Lispiera, Prior -pack, Ijodse- house, 
Rockville, Prospect-house, Castleview, Blackjfbrd- 
house, Riverview, Knigh^-eottt^e, Annaghbeg-hoiMe, 
and Shannonville - house. Area of the viUs^e, 9 
acres. Pop., in 1831, 173; in 1841, 165. HousesSS. 

PUFFIN-ISLAND, an ishuid in the barony of 
Iveragh, co. Kerry, Munster. It screens the north- 
west side of 8t. Finnan's bay, eztepnds about 7 fur- 
longs south-westward, and lies within | oif a mile of 
the nearest part of the mainland, and d| aoutb by 
east of Bray Head, or the western extremity ef Va- 
lentia Island. It is much frequented by the fowl 
called puffins, and is also well stocked with rabbits. 
Its sumce is craggy, steep, and soaring; and ter^ 
minates in a summit whieh is cloven with a i 

able gap. The surrounding sea is often trenendoiisly 
lashed by winds and sWelU from the Atlantic. 

PULCAHILL, one of four denominations of a 
bog, in the baronies of Clare and Dunkdlin, eo. C^ 
way, Connaught. The other denoainationa are 
Attg^Ungham, Menlough, and Clare-Galway. The 
bog extends from the east side of the foot of Lough 
Corrib to within f of a mile of th4 village of Ckr^ 
Gralway ; and it approaches, on the soutih, to within 
2| miles of the town of Galway. It is bisected from 
end to end by the river Clare ; the greater part of it 
is flooded in winter ; and the highest point of it, near 
Moonleegh, has an elevation of 18^ feet above the 
level of Lough Corrib. ** Its eflfectual drainage," 
says the official report upon it, " oould not be ae- 
eomplished without lowering the surfiuse of Loi^ 
Corrib several feet» which would be attended with 
more expense than the fee -simple of it would 
be worth, were it land of ^ the very beet qual- 
ity. It may, perhaps^ be asserted that Lou^ Cor- 
rib being so extensive, the lowering of it might be 
a great object with the landowners on the verge, as 
a great Quantity of land might by that means be 
gained ; this would not be the case to any verv great 
extent, as the shores of the lake are geBeraliy venr 
bold, steep, and rocky. The bog is Irom 28 to 36 
feet in depth, and the strata underneatli generallv is 
white marl and limestone gravel. The bog of Man- 
lough is also a flat low bop[ ; being an isUmd where 
the lake narrows into' the nver of Galway j its great- 
est height is only abouS 10 feet over tha surfiMS of 
the lake, being from 28 to 34 feet in deptllf tmi 
its p^reatest depth 45 fiMt.*' In 1765, an aUinipl to 
dram the flooded grounds east of Clare-QalvM» mnA 
adjoining the Clare river, and to form a ■avigstion 
between the towns of Tuam and Galway, was nude 
by Mr. Bodkin, of Lacka ; but in eooseqoenee of tiM 
rockiness of the ground, the undertaking proeeeded 
no farther than the making of a shallow out at ClBia» 
Galway. / 




'• PPLfiA'GHflEWY; afisWn^httrbowinth^ piiN 
fab df Kn|^la«9, hATOfif of tyrfeVa^, to, m^, Ccftu 
tebirlil:' it !4<*«itbate^ on thir-'easl ftS(k of KillaflH 
bay, 1 ) mile south by west of Lennadoon Pohit, and 
3| we8t-!feWh-1re*« of BKske/. ''A bW wits' con- 
•truetW bete,' ft' mwnbet of y^ark^'dio, eWfcfly' by 
means of ^ratnte from the Flsbifr^ Boifd. ' Theaid- 
JMvnt itbrotv is rooky, inhospitable, <kmt dangerous.' 


rTJLLANS. fe^e Pni'tiNs. 
• Pl^LLIBBIf; a sitiall f?!*injf-»tatioin, 'bH;weefi 
lyoonbeg and Kilkee, on the we^ wmst'of the bar- 
ony of Moyartft, eo. Chire, Muiister. It is a mere 
iror^ between 'drfl%, about 900 feet long and 40 
brcAd, arid efcnnot aceommodate' or even admit any 
other fftliiltharfcanofes. 

PlTLLfJNDlVA, a coast-gaard station, and a 
tntttir fishing > harbour, between Aagbris Hifead and 
the mouth oifthe river Easkey; barony of Tyreragh, 
to. Sligo, Conwawght. It is partially covered by 
the Alt roidc Laekbin, and affbrds ft tolerably quiet 
hifi£ng-p1ace for yawU in off-shore winds ; but the 
completing' of iU shelter by the erection of suitable 
"piers would be impraWicable except at very great 
•itpenve. ' In I8d0, there were employed in the 
frtberiea within its district; I opieh etdl^btfai, 15 row- 
boats, and 92 men. 

PITLLINASHANTINA, a remarkable cavern 
on the coast of the Mollet, and in the vicinity of 
Bini^iamstown, parish of Kilmore. barony of Erris, 
to. Mavo. 'Connaught. The tides run violently and 
rtwringiy iffto it, nearly a quarter of a mile ; and a 
part of th« singular rock which fbrms it has fallen 
in, leaving a wide and awfully impressive gap. 

PULL INS, a singularly romantic district in the 
burony of Tyrhugh, co. Donegal, Ulster. It i* 
sometimes understood In so large a sense as to in- 
clade the greater part of the parish of Drumhome, 
and the sooth- wiMtem part of the parish of Temple* 
eame ; hat it properly cionsists of only a glen iu the 
fbrtner parish,' about 2 miles in'length, chiefly within 
the demesne of Brown-Halt, and extending westward 
to the TiMage of Ballintra. ** It is formed, " say 
Mr. and Mrs. Hall, **by the course of amountainx 
torrent, which runs for nearly a mile throogh a most 
•ingiilarly plctunesque ravine, presenting to view in 
meceMion a aeries of cascades oaves, wild cliiTs, 
boge shattered rocks^ amidst a profosion of the rich* 
e»t and moat varied ferns, andevdrytlescription of 
mountain plants. Tho whole course of the river is 
aluHled Ky a mam of deep wood, which greatly en- 
fcanoea the effect of the acenery. A solid bed of 
li a wi. itone seems to havd been deft from 80 to 40 
faK in depth ; and in thia narrow fissure, turning 
.oftcti at » yetj acate angle, the river foams -along, 
frnfMntly erttirtly diaappearing in caves where its 
mnune paanes under and through theroohsfor a con. 
•idemblo space;. In gome of these oavca, the rcgi^ 
larif formed arched roof, about 60 feet span, and above 
100 ^-ards long, presentA one of the wildest represent 
tations imaginablq of the lawless distiller's haunt, or 
the outlaw'!^ refuge. A dropping well of the purest 
water is found ki a ha^iin of t-he rock within, and a 
MioresiiHin of winding cuves, forming numerous out* 
leO« afford opportunities of escape or concealment 
on «ll sides. Often the coarse of the river is obli- 
ffvstcd by n«6ses of< rtick piled over each other in 
Cii« moat'fontastic raatmer, and the existence of the 
acream ia only known by a hoarse murmur deep l><s 
knr the place on which the <)pertator stands. After 
a coarse again of half-a-anle through a Hat meadow, i 
the river reaMtimes its wild character, but with in- 
fw— ed magniicencc of scenery. The river sud- I 
^only de«oenda about ><ixty feet in a deep ai:d dark ! 
chasm, the rock actually meeting overhead, whiUt • 

B'predpft^iit'wall of' rock bovnda either side; it 
falls at ohce nearly twenty feet, in an unbroken 
stream, "with' a roar which makes the solid wall 
around ' hbsol ately quake. It emerges under a narrow 
niitui^l bridge of rock of the most perfect Gothic 
mould-, stfid turhhfg suddenly, a vista of ^ of a mile 
appears opening upon the sea in a distance, and on 
eith^ oAc a perpendicular wall df rock, clothed 
with tbe richest iry, extends in a perfectly straight 
line to the village of Ballintra, the river occupying 
tho entire apace between theae curious wall<. A 
description can bat faintly convey tbe extraordinary 
character of these lovely scenes, nor can the artiat 
represent their singular beauties." 

PULLOCHENY, a small but comparatively im* 
portant harbour, at the northern extremity of the 
parish of KilglasB, barony of Tyreragh, co. Sligo, 
Connaught. It is situated on the east side of KiU 
lalla bay, 1| mil« south by west of the headland 
which acreens the east side of the bay's entrance. 
*'*0n rounding the headland, we find two ooves 
backed by a high beach of limestone ahiagle, and 
separated iK>m each other by a small islet of lime- 
stone rock, about 300 fathoms from the shore. This 
islet is bluff toward the sea, which end is rarely 
covered; and declining towards the land, is con> 
nected with the main at low water by a spit or 
beach, covered 6 or 6 feet at high water. The cove 
on the north side of this spit is ex|K)sed, shallow, 
and rocky ; but on the sooth side there is deep water, 
making a kind of anchorage tolerably sheltered at 
high water, where vessels come in summer to load 
kelp. The entrance to this anchorage has 4 fathoma 
at low water, and within these are 2 fathoms, so 
that, if properly covered, this would be a deep har- 
hour, fit for any craft, and being outside the bars of 
Killalla or tbe Moy, would form a place of shelter 
to tbe trade of these places in all weather. There 
is, howevet, a violent breaker in the entrance to 
Pullocheny in north • west winds. A great nunv* 
her of fishing yawls are kept in the place, but 
must all be baoled up on the beach. Witiua the 
beach is a marsh of several acres, over which spring 
tidesfreqaently flow, and tbe stream passing through 
it has 5 Of 6 feet water, but barred to high water by 
the beach at its mouth. The harbour itself ia about 
200 thorns square, about half of it dry at low water, 
the sooth aide a Aerry of limestone flag.*' [Nim- 
mo's Coast 'Survey.] A breakwater and a pier be- 
gan to be constructed in 1623, but they never were . 
cxmipleted; and, in a few 3r<nirs, they went to ruin. 
Official evidetwe published in 1686, says, '* During 
•oramerv vesselalrdm 200 tons downwards are loaded 
in the harbour with grain and potatoes. At low 
water there is a depth of 10 feet iu the harbour, and 
20 sail of vessels may lie in it besides the boats. It 
is tolerably secure, except in verv heavy gales from 
tbe north-west at hi^h water. Alter the first quarter 
ebb, the harbour is naturally protected. '* Pullocheny 
is a coast-guard station ; and the number of fisher* 
men within the district of this station is about 

PHLLOrOH, one of several denomi nal ions of a 
bog, 4^ miles east of Ferbane, and within tbe liar- 
onies of Ballycowan, liallyboy, and (iarr^'<^uitle, 
Kinf? s CO., Leinster. • The other <lenomiiu&tiODs are 
Ballinaoor, Detryeooly, iX'rnwly, Killarany, and 
Rosgore. The bof^ is fHUt of the va^t re^^ion uf 
roorasB which lies between Tullamure and SbaniK>n 
Harbour ; it is bounded, on the north, by the Grai:d 
Canal, — on the south, by the rotul from Tullainore 
to Cloghan, — and, on the we>t, by a rividet called 
the Barony stream. It is naturally cut into kcvcu 
parts by several strefun<« which intersert it, and by 
the intervening proliuble landi» and dcrrics of Bal- 




linacor, Derrooly, and Derrycooly. Estimated coat 
of reclamation, i:8,lB5 Ids. 6d. 


PULPIT (The). See Aohadob. 

PULSHASY, a hamlet in the parish of Temple- 
togher, barony of Ballymore, co. Gal way, Connaught. 
Pop., in 1831, 35. Houses 6. 

PURDY'S - BURN, a vilhige in the parish of 
Drumbo, barony of Upper Castlereagh, co. Down, 
Ulster. It stands 1| mile south-south-west of New- 
townbreda, on the road thence to Lisburn. Adja- 
cent to it on the east, is Purdy's-Burn-house, the 
handsome seat of Narcissus Batt, Esq. ; and within 
a mile of it are the Giant's Ring, Drumbo-church, 
and the seats of New-Grove, Edenderrv-house, Bel- 
voir-park, and Beech-hill. Area of tne village, U 
acres. Pop., in 1841, 126. Houses 28. 

PUREFOY'S PLACE. See Clonbullooe. 

PURPLE-MOUNTAIN, a conspicuous, roman- 
tic, and beautiful mountain, on the mutual boundary 
of the baronies of Dunkerrin and Glanerought, co. 
Kerry, Munster. It rises suddenly up from the west 
side of the middle lake of Killamey, but is also a 
feature in the scenery of the lower lake, and one 
of the principal features of the scenery of the upper 

lake. As seen from almost any quarter, under al- 
most any modification of light, and at any season 
whatever of the year, it possesses a purple hue, and 
therefore is literally the purple mountain. It owes 
a strong flush of its colouring, at one season of the 
year, to the flowers of the heath, which carpeta a 
considerable extent of it ; but it acquires its pervad- 
ing and permanent tints solely from the colour of 
the rock of which it is principally composed. 

of two denominations, on the mutual border of the 
baronies of Kilmain and Clanmorris, 2^ miles south- 
east of HoUymount, oo. Mayo, Connaught. It is 
bounded, on the north, by the river Robe ; and ia 
traversed by the road from HoUymount to Ballin- 
daiigan. The section south of uie road is a dry, 
firm, black bog, about 5 feet in mean depth ; but 
the section north of the road, and adioining the 
river, is low and swampy, rests on a substratum df 
soft, white marl, and has a depth of from 13 to 36 
feet. Area oi the bog, 2.332 acres ; altitude above 
high-water level in Gal way bay, 181 feet; estimated 
cost of redamation, £3,240. 

PURT, the suburb or southern section of the 
town of Balltshanmom : which see. 


QUAKER'S- ISLAND, or Ikcbclaradk, an 
island in the parish of Cashel, barony of Ratheline, 
ro. Longford) Leinster. It measures | of a mile in 
length ; and lies | of a mile from the nearest part of 
the mainland, and 6 south of Lanesborough. It 
acquired its popular name of Quaker's- Island from 
the circumstance of having, ibr several years, been 
the farm and the residence of one of the society of 
Friends. It possesses a cluster of ecclesiastical ruins 
which) like those of Glendalough, Clonooacnoise, 
Inniscalthra, and some other places, claim to be 
seven churches. Some of the remaining windows 
in the ruins are in beautiful proportion ; several 
arches and columns exhibit fine forms and remark- 
able symmetry ; and one ruin presents, in tolerable 
preservation, the cloisters and the refectory of an 
abbey. Most of the ruins are clustered together 
toward the south end of the island ; but one church, 
with a square tower, crowns an eminence consider- 
ably apart from the others, and near the centre of 
the island. ** In my perambulations of a thousand 
miles and more, through this midland district," says 
Mr. Weld, "no place so forcibly riveted my fancy 
as this island ; nor do I recollect ever having' seen a 
spot where retirement, without being beyond the 
reach of the rational gratifications of civibsed life, 
could be more effectually or perhaps more agreeably 

QUARRIES, a bog in the barony of Iveragh, co. 
Kerry, Munster. It lies principally within the parish 
of Dromod, contains part of the summit-level of the 
barony, and possesses a surface- elevation of from 
650 to 700 feet above the level of the sea. Its area 
is 3,407 acrcH. The waters of its eastern section 
pass the Black u^ter to the Kenmare estuary ; and 
those of its western section pass by the Owenegrea 
and the Flesk to the lake of Killamey. The bog 

is for the most part pretty firm, and requires little 
more than surface drainage. The limestone qaar- 
ries of Masurour are within it ; they produce a verjr 
pure limestone, penetrated with veins of calc-spar, 
but free from the accompaniment of homstone s and 
they are the central point, whence five roads radiate 
to different districts of the country. Estimated 
cost of reclaiming the bog, £1,325 12s. M. 

QUEENSBOROUGH, a village in the parish of 
Beaulieu, barony of Perrard, co. Louth, Leinster. 
It stands on the left bank of the river Boyne, and 
on the road from Baltray to Drogheda, 1 mile toutlK 
west of Baltray, and 2i miles east-north-east of 
Drogheda. It is a neat and agreeable place. In its 
vicbtity are Beaitlieu-church and Beaulieu-house,— 
the latter the seat of the Rer. A* J. Montgomery. 
Pop. not specially returned. 

QUEENSBOROUGH, a Roman CathoUc ] 

in the barony of Longford, co. Galway, Conmiiigfati 
It is in the dio. of Cionfert ; and has chapels at 
Queensborough and Tahy^ Its post-town is £yr^ 


An inland county of the province of Lefaister. It is 
bounded, on the north, by King's co. ; on the east, 
by CO. Kildare ; on the south-east, by oo. Carlow t 
on the south, by Co. Kilkenny ; and, on the west* 
by CO. Tipperary and King's co. The watershed 
or summit-bne of the Slievebloom mountains fonai 
the boundary over 8 miles in the nortliem pert of 
the west ; the Silver river fonns the boondary over 
4 miles in the western part of the north ; the rirer 
Barrow forms the boundary over about 20 mOes of 
the north-east and the east ; hot the remainder of 
the boundary-line, though oocasi<mally formed by 



i tr t m w and wmterebeds, is preTmiliiigly artificial; - 
and even the boundary-line along the whole of the ' 
ewt, though very largely formed by the Barrow, | 
makes two recessions from that river, and is, in oon- i 
sequence, considerably capricious. I'he outline of , 
the county is much more regular than that of many ' 
Irish counties ; and it renders the district compact 
and pc^itically convenient, and nmy be summarily 
regarded as describing a four-sided %ure, — ^the east, 
the south, and the Mre»t sides nearlv equal to one 
another in extent, and the north side considerably 
smaller. The longest straight line that can be drawn 
withiii the liauts, extends 36^ miles south-westward ; 
the next longest extends 35^ MOuth -east ward ; the 
longest that can be drawn due westward extends 82 
miles ; and the longest that can be drawn due south- 
ward extends 26^ miles. The area of the county 
comprises 342,422 acics of ar^le land, 6d,289 of 
uncultivated land, 11,630 of coatinuous plantations, 
1,117 of towns, and 366 of water, all, 424,854 

Smrfmee.'] — The Slievebloom range of mountains 
extends partly in the interior of the north-west dis- 
trict, and partly along the boundary with King's 
countv ; it forms strictly one ridge, and is intersected 
by only one pass, lofty, steep, difficult, and so nar- 
row as not to admit two horses abreast ; and it ex- 
hibits along its summit a soaring appearance, aad 
presents among its declivities and skirts a large 
amount and a pleasing variety of picturesque scenery. 
Its principal summits within the interior are Cap- 
pagh and the Cones, whose altitudes above se»4evel 
are respectively 1,677 and 1,076 fcet; and its prin- 
cipal summits on the boundary with King's county 
are Slievebloom and Arderin, whose altitudes are 
1.691 and 1,733 feet. The Dysart or Slieveloch 
hills contribute very conspicuous and highly inter- 
esting features to the south-eastern district, com. 
prising upwards of one-fourth of the whole area ; but 
they rather ftand singly and dispersed, than fold iut* 
one another, or form a congeries, and they atford, 
from their eminences and through their vistas, many , 
charming views of a fine and beautiful country, 
iugbly adorned with rich plantations and magnificent 
<leae«Bes. Their three foftiest summits are Soot- 
land-hill, 1.07d foet of altitude above sea-level,-. 
CaUenagh-hill, IMi feet,^and a hiU on the ex* 
tremc edge of the southern border, 1,001 feet. The 
portion oif the aeries situated^ in the extreme south- 
cast ia ol^en caQed the Slit vemargy-hills, and is inti- 
ely eonnected with the Cattle-Comer-hiUs in the 
St parts of the counties of Kilkenny and Car* 
The remaining districts oi Queen's county 
are part of the ^rcat central plain of Ireland,— -com- 
pnrativel V high m its mean basis or superficial eleva* 
ties, — lying around or near the sources of some of 
the principal rivers of the kingdom, ^.-and prevail- 
ingly flat and of inexpresai^-e contour. Several 
rather large tracta of bqg, partieularliy on the nor- 
them border and in the vicinity of Maryborough, 
encumber the plain: but an extensive aggregate of 
bog has been reclaimed into the condition of line 
■ttdow ; and much is so happily dispersed in pen- 
dicles throughout most districts of the county, ex- 
cepting the Slievemargy coalfield, as to afford a 
cheap, convenient^ and genesal supply of fuel. 

IfWtfY.WThe Clodagh and the Silver rivulets 
drain, within the basin of the Shannon, the small 
dbtrict which lies north-west of the interior part 
of the Slievebloom range of mountains. The nver 
Barrow nsea on the noithem part of the Slievebloom 
motmtains ; flows prevailingly eastward to the north- 
eastern extremity of the county, and then flows pre- 
vailiofhr southunu^ to Watertbrd Harbour; drains 
iftost of the northern, and all the north-eastern, the 

eastern, and the south-eastern districts of the county; 
uniformly flows either on the county boundary, or at 
no great distance from it ; receives from the \nterior 
numerous but generally viery small affluents ; is navi* 
gable for boats from Portarlington ; becomes aided, at 
the north-east comer of the county, with the Athy 
branch of the Grand Canal ; and is navigable for 
barges thence to the sea, oflTering to all the eastern 
section of the county the advantages of cheap and 
facile conveyance of heavy goods northward to Dub- 
lin, and southward to Waterford and the ocean. 
The river Nore comes in as a mere brook from 
Ikerrin in co. Tipperary ; flows north-eastward to the 
vicinity of Mountrath, and then flows south-east- 
ward and southward ; drains all the western and 
central, and most of the southern districts of the 
county ; receives the Gully, the Erkin, and numer- 
ous smaller aflluents ; and, though not navigable 
within the county, is, over a considerable distance, 

a fine, deep, and spacious river The lakes within 

the county, together with their respective area, are 
Kellyville, 14 acres, 3 roods, 26 perches ; Emo, 20 
acres, 1 rood, 5 perches ; Grantstown, 27 acres, 1 
rood, 26 perches ; Annagh, 96 acres, 3 roods, I 
perch; Duff. 11 acres, 3 roods, 19 perches; and 
Ballyfin, 26 acres. All the water-area returned by 
the Ordnance Survey as within the county, is in- 
cluded in these six lakes and in the river Barrow. 
The only canals are the Mountmellick branch of the 
Grand Canal along the northern border to Mount- 
mellick, and the Athy branch of the Grand Canal 
along the eastern border, and parallel with the Bar- 
row, to the vicinity of Athy. 

Climmte.'] — Queen's county being situated in the 
c^tre of the southern two-thirds of Ireland, and 
having quite or nearly the highest basis within the 
midland parts of the kingdom, is freer from fogs and 
damps than any of the western, most of the interior, 
and some of the eastern counties, and seems to be 
equal to the best in salubriousness of air. Great 
forests formerly covered the county, impeded the 
free circulation of the air, and occasioned a general 
retentiveness of damp ; but they are either so utterly 
extinct, or so reduced to mere clump and grove, as 
no longer to produce any deleterious effect, and as 
even to be too scanty for desirable warmth and shel- 
ter. The exhalations which arise from the numer- 
ous bogs are not of the putrid sort which belong to 
the fens and nuu-shes of England; and hence the 
inhabitants of the districts around them, and even 
in the midst of then, are healthy and robust, and 
occasionally fiiniish instances of remarkable lon- 

JMitaera&.l— .Two tiny districts on the western 
boundary of the county, and on the summits and 
higher acclivities of the Slievebloom mountains, 
consist chiefly of mica slate. A district of about 
160 square miles, in the north-west, and comprising 
the main body of the Slievebloom mountains, and 
some of the country along their base, consists of 
millstone griU incluaing white sandstones and shale, 
with thin beds of limestone and coal. A district in 
the extreme south-east, of nearly equal extent vritb 
the preceding, and somewhat identical with the re- 
gion of the Dysart and Slievemargy hills, consists of 
rocks of the coaUforroation, and constitute.^ part of 
the great coal-field of Leinster ; and a tiny portion 
of this district on the very verge of the countv, con- 
tains beds of workable coal, and is often loosely 
classed with the mining territory of Castle-Comer 
or Kilkenny. See Lkinsteb and KiLXSifNY. All 
the renuunder of the county consists of the car- 
boniferous limestone of the vast central floetx lime- 
stone plain of Ireland. The useful minerab raiHed 
or found within the county are coal, iron, copper, 



numganefle, mica, limestone, marble, iandstone, 
ochre, marl, fuUer's-earth, and a great variety of 
clays, fit for all tbe coarse and the middle qualities 
of pottery. 

Soils. 1 — The soil of the east side of the Slievebloom 
mountams inclines to an alternately black and yellow 
stiff clay, of unequal depths ; and lies, for the most 
part, upon a loose rotten rock, or upon a f^ritty 
gravel. The soil of the west side of the Slieve- 
^ bloom mountains generally inclines to a strong red 
*clay, not unlike the soil of some of the northern 
counties, where only oats and potatoes are grown ; 
but it is almost everywhere spongy, wet, and boggy, 
and often pierced and dissevered by naked protru- 
sions of the underlying rock. The soil of the moors, 
in the various districts of the country, is bog, of from 
3 or 4 to 20 or 24 inches in depth, upon a stratum of 
clay or gravel ; and it is most easily rechumed and 
improved, and becomes land of the best and surest 
description.' The soil of a considerable portion of 
the champaign country is a strong gravel, very fer- 
tile in com ; and that of the remainder or great body 
of the champaign country, varies from a very stiff 
wheat-bearing clay, to a light and sandy yet fertile 
loam. Limestone of excellent quality may be 
quarried, and good manurial limestone gravel pro- 
cured in almost everv townland. ** But, " says 
Sir Charles Coote, m reference to this county, 
" the application of limestone, whether in gravel 
or when calcined, in its different states requires 
to be well understood, and cautiously applied, be- 
fore the farmer can be certain to reap profit from 
its manure, as many people, conceiving lime of all- 
powerful virtue for land, without distinction, incon- 
siderately apply it, covering vast tracts before they 
have tried the experiment, in what stage or state 
or bow far it may agree with their soils. I have 
seen large farms limed on the surface, which has 
proved of great detriment to the land, where lime- 
stone gravel would have been the proper manure, 
and in shallow soils, with limestone substrata, 
some fiirmers have injudiciously applied hot lime, 
which has produced the very contrary effect ; when, 
if previously mixed and well incorporated with clay 
or bog stuff, it might have had the most desirable 

Agriculture.'^ — Farms of less than 10 acres in extent 
are almost all in tillage ; farms of from 10 to 50 acres 
are in about half tillage ; and farms of upMrards of 50 
acres are from one-halip to two -thirds in grass. Fal- 
lowing is not now usual. Wheat is verv seldom 
weeded ; but oats are generally weeded in the begin- 
nitig of summer. The seed is usually steeped in 
salt and water, and limed ; and too large a propor- 
tion of it to the extent of the land is generally sown, 
— ^the usual quantity being 16 stones per acre of dug 
land, and 20 stones per acre of ploughed land. The 
crops, after being laid down, are often rolled ; and, 
excepting barley — which is generally too late in being 
cut — they are judiciously and carefully harvested. 
Clover, vetches, trefoil, rye-grass, and other arti- 
ficial gprasses, are not generally groMm ; and even tur- 
nips are raised to a comparatively small extent, and 
chiefly upon the largest class of tillage-^Eirms. The 
smaller mrmers grow only potatoes and wheat. The 
larger farmers usually take, in the first year, pota- 
toes with maimre ; in the second year, wheat ; in the 
third year, oats, — and lay some of the land down to 
grass with the wheat or the oats, to remain during 
from two to twenty years. The peasantry have 
little or no knowledge of the benefit of an alternation 
of crops. *• The want of a proper rotation of crops, " 
says an appendix to the first report of the Commis- 
sioners for inquiring into the condition of the poorer 
classes in Ireland, — * * The want of a proper rotation of 

crops, and of the cultivation of clover, vetches, rape; 
turnips, mangel-wurzel, &c., is most disastrous in its 
effects on the cottier and other occupiers of from one to 
ten acres of land. These poor families are toiling on in 
hopeless misery themselves, their land and their live 
stock all exhibiting every symptom of wretched des- 
titution, while the mere adoption of a proper system 
would enable them to live in comparative comfort 
and happiness. The English Assistant Commission- 
ers found them everywhere buying hay, and putting 
out a single cow to grass with a neighbouring far- 
mer, although, with good management, their land 
would have supported three or four. " The dairies of 
the low countries are conducted in the same manner 
as those of the upland districts. The butter pro- 
duced is of tbe first and the second qualities ; it ia 
generally packed after every churning ; and it is sold 
at Carlow by large farmers, and at Mountmellick by 
small farmers. The increased intercourse with Eng- 
land has induced a better mode of saving butter ; so 
that the article is now much better able than before 
to compete with Dutch butter in the EInglish mar- 
ket. Cheese was formerly manufactured to a con- 
siderable amount, but has of late years almost ceased 
to be made. In 1641, there were within the rural 
districts of the county, 5,629 farms of from I to 5 
acres, 4,825 of from 5 to 15 acres, 1 ,813 of from 15 to 
SO acres, and 1 ,334 of upwards of 30 acres ; and within 
the civic districts, 131 of from 1 acre to 5 acres, 82 
of from 5 to 15 acres, 18 of from 15 to 90 acres, and 
13 of upwards of 30 acres. In the same year there 
were, throughout the county, 8,663 farmers, 82,550 
servants and labourers, 1 70 ploughmen, 144 gardeneriy 
1 grazier, 360 herds, 64 care-takers, 3 land-agents, 
l& land-stewards, 13 gamekeepers, and 28 dairy- 

Live Stock,'] — The prevailing breed of sheep ia 
large ; and is the old Irish breed crossed with the 
Leicester. The breeding stock are not so high in 
the legs as formerly, but are better shaped and hea- 
vier in carcase. As good sheep as any at present* 
indeed, were in the county 18 or 24 years ago ; but 
they were then few in number, and possessed only by 
a few gentlemen ; while now, and for a seriea of years 
past, they are possessed by almost all the large 
farmers. The Leicester breed has everywhere aue- 
ceeded remarkably well, and is universally obeervcNd 
to have improved both the quantity and the quality of 
the fleece, the weight of meat as compared with the 
weight of bone, and the capacity of arriving spcNcdil/ 
at maturity. The breed of cattle haa been very 
much improved. The breeds most in request are 
the Durham and the Ayrshire. Oxen are used by 
some farmers for agricultural purposea, but not to 
generally as at a former period. The amall fiumeiv 
think the Irish breed the best, on account of its bebf 
thought more hardv and better suited to tbe food 
and the climate of the country ; but the large fiuneii 
consider the Durham, or the cross between that and 
the Irish, the most profitable, on account of ita ar- 
riving much earlier at maturity, its carrying uMNe 
meat upon less bone, its laying on meat upon toe parta 
most profitable to the butcher, and its hmTingaBBech 
greater capacity or aptitude for fotttning. The 
horses of the country are not kept in a proper i 

tion for working ; for they are turned oat to pwm 
from May to November, fed solely upon htf mii 
straw in winter, and supported with at beat poli^ 
toes and stale oats during their period of beevy werk 
in spring. The breed of pigs is inferior to thtt 
which prevails in most of the other oountiea cff huah 
ster, and has a considerable resemblanoe to tha 
lank, ungainly, and unprofitable breed of Coonenp^ 
In 1841, there were, within the mral diatrieta of the 
county, on farms or holdings not eateeediwy 1 i 



710 horff<Hi and mulef, 904 aineft, 1,898 cattle, 338 
»hef p. 7.5H*2 pigs, And 43,389 poultry, — on femns of 
from I arre tod acreit, 1,409 hornes and mules 1,214 
tsMS, 2.949 tmttle, 817 flbeep, 5,751 pigs and 30,94*2 
poultry, — on farm;! of from 5 to 15 acres, 3,868 
horses and mules, 362 asHcs, l'2,9()4 cattle, 3,09*2 
sheep, 8,8f{4 pign, and 54,818 poultry,— on fkrms of 
from 15 to 30 arres, 2,7*22 horses and mules, 161 
a»ses, 6,581 cattle, 4,979 «heep, 5,680 pigs, and 
31,637 poultry, — and on farms of upwards of 30 
aeres, 4,096 horses and mules, 227 asses, 17,882 
cattle, 38,283 sheep, 6,416 pigs, and 3*2,871 poultry; 
and within the civic districts of the county, on farms 
or holdings not exceeding 1 acre, 302 horses and 
mules, 7H asses, 4*24 cattle, 129 !<heep, 1,229 pigs, 
and 1,756 poultry, — on farms of from 1 acre to 5 
acres, 88 horses and mules, 5 asses, 160 cattle, 19 
sheep, 207 pigs, aiid 584 poultry, — on farms of from 
5io 15 arres, 113 horses and mules, 129 cattle, 34 ' 
sheep, 02 pigs, and 336 poultry, — on farms of from ! 
15 to 30 acres, 60 horses and muli>s, 47 cattle, 70 
sheep, 87 pi«r^. and 186 poultry, — and on farms of j 
upwards ot^) acres, 23 hort^es and mules, 16 cattle, i 
49 sheep; 17 pigs, and 15 poultry. The totals of , 
the classesof li ve stock, togtvther with their respective | 
estimated value, were, in the rural districts, 12,865 : 
horses and mules, £102,9*20,— 2,958 asses, £2,958, 
^41,7Ucattle, £271,141,-47.509 sheep, £52,260, 
— 34,273 pigs, £4*2,841,— and 202,657 poultry, 
£5,066 ; and, in the civic districts, 586 horses and 
mules, £4,688,— 83 asses, £83,— 776 cattle, £5,044. 1 

501 sheep. £331 1,632 pip, £2,040.— 4md 2,877 ' 

poultry, £72. Grand total of estimated value of i 
live stock in the rural districts, £477,186; in the j 
civir districts, £12,258. 

Wootia.'] — When natural forests sheeted nearly the ' 
whole county, the alder was the prevailing tree of , 
the low countries, and oak the prevailing tree of the , 
mountains ; but during many years past, little more I 
Mirvives of either natural timber trees, or under- j 
woo<] coppice, especially the alder, than little patches ; 
of brushwood, in such situations among bogs as are 
inarressible to cattle. The quantity of groupca planted ' 
timber which existed in 1841, and wa^ planted pre- 
vious to 1791, comprised \jXi5 acres of oak, 26 of ' 
a«h, 5 of beech, 150 of fir, 1,9^13 of mixed trees, and i 
123 of orchards; and the total quantity of planted 
trees, of all ages, existing in 1841, consisted of 1,413 
acres of continuous woods, and 11,488 detached 
trec^ of oak, 95 acres and 121,{Ji59 detached trees of 
ash. 2 acres and 21,3*23 detached trees of elui, 40 
acres and 33,030 detached trees of bi*ech, 1,530 acres 
and 46,(390 detached trees of fir, 8,1*23 acres and 
134,603 detarhtid trees of mixed plantations, and 4*21 
acres and 3,8(52 detached trees of orchards,— in all, : 
ll,f>30 acres of continuous woods, and 373,015 de- 
tached trees, equivalent to 2,331 acres, — thus mak- 
ing a grand total of 13.961 acres of planted timber. 

MoMu/actures and Trade.] — The manufacture of 
merges and stuffs was formerly so conslderublc as to 
nruduce fabric* to the aim ual value of about £100, 0(X); 
put previous to the dose of lu»t century it almost 
totally disappeared. The manufacture of woollen 
&bric^ empio\s at present about 3(>0 weavers; of 
Lr>cu &brics, about 105 weavers ; of i»tton fabrics, 
aiiuut 400 weavers ; and of silk fabrics, 2 or 3 weavers. 
B> far the larger part of the trade of the county con- 
«i»t» in the raising of agrirultural and dairy produce, 
the rearing of »tore and fat cuttle, and the exportipg 
vi t!ieec to the inarkctt of Dublin and Elngland. The 
»!atUt:r<« of pi*raonal occupations h.> furnished by the 
<>i.-jU!* of liS4l, atTord an excellrr.t close view of the 
r >«<««. AcHt ions and comparative amount of p^TFonal in- 
f:«*!ry; aj.d tbesi*, ex<rlusive of the clafsit^ engaged 
L: apiculture and the profc?!>ions, are as follow : — 

•fisherman, 1; millers, 100; maltsters, 3; brewers, 
15 ; distiller, 1 ; bakers, 136 ; confectioners, 25 ; 
saltera, 4( salumanulacturer, 1; tobacco^twistera, 
5; fishmongers, 2; egjtj^-dealers, 22; fruiterers, 6; 
«attle dealers, 16; pig-jobbers, 13; C(im-dealerB,10; 
seedsman, 1 ; flour-merehant, 1 ; butter-mercbant, 
1 ; huxteni and provision-dealers, 105; butchers, 103; 
victuallers, 61 ; grocers, 16; tobacconists, 4 ; wine- 
merchants, 4 ; fiax-dressers, 8; carders, 71 ; spinners 
of flax, 625 ; spinners of wool, 907 ; spinners of un- 
specified classes, 908 ; factory- workers, 136; winders 
and warpers, 118; wool-dressers, 279; weavers of 
cotton, 436; weavers of linen, 101 ; weavers of wool, 
len, 359; weavers of silk, 3; weavers of lace, 22; 
weavers of unspecified classes, 736 ; manufacturers of 
woollen, 8 ; dyers, 12 ; clothier, 1 ; cloth-finishers, 
2; skinner, 1; curriers, 6; tanners, 5; brogue-makers, 
191 ; boot and shoe makers, 734 ; tailors, 676 ; semp. 
stresses, 656; dress-makers, 616; milliners, 89; stay- 
makers, 12; eomb-makers, 4; knitters, 743: hatters, 
19; straw-hatters, 62; bonnet-makers, 155; straw- 
workers, 5; glovers, 5: hair-dresser and barber, 1 ; 
umbrella-maker, 1 ; leather-dealer, 1 ; hosier, 1 ; linen 
dtTip*rs, 5; silk-mercer, 1 ; venders of soft goods, 1 1 ; 
rag and bone dealers, 1 1 ; architects, 3; builders, 13; 
brick-makers, 5; potters, 16; stone-catters, 103; 
Ume-bum^rs, 8 ; bricklayers, 2 ; stone-masons, 331 ; 
slaters, 72; thatchers, 7; plasterers, 16; pavier, 1; 
sawyers, 57 ; carpenters, 938 ; cart-maker, I ; cab- 
inet-makers, 16; coopers, 181; turners, 9; mill- 
wrights, 83 ; wheel-wrights, 6 ; pump-borers, 4 ; 
shuttle-maker, 1 ; brush-maker, I ; basket-makers, 
10 ; broom-makers, 14 ; miners, 298 ; iron-founders, 
23; blacksmiths, 561 ; whitesmiths, 59; nailers, 142; 
cutlers, 6; tool-maker, 1 ; sickle-makers, 2 ; gun- 
smiths, 2; braziers and coppersmiths, 20; wire- 
workers, 3; plumbers, 4; tin-plate workers, 19; 
tinkers, 7; hiachine-makers, 3 ; watch-makers, 10; 
goldsmith, silversmith, and jeweller, 1 ; coach and 
car makers,' 8; saddlers, 30; harness-makers, 25; 
ro{)e-makers, 3^; letter-press printers, 17; paper- 
stainer, 1 ; mat-maker, 1 ; chandlers and soap-boilers, 
14; stardi-manufacturer, 1; painters and glaziers, 
57; net-makers, 2; sieve-maKers, 8; tobacco-pipe 
maker, 1 ; trunk-maker, I ; upholsterers, 2 ; sta- 
tioner, 1 ; booksellers and stationers, 3 ; coal-mer- 
chants, 7 ; ironmongers, 2 ; merchants of ur^pecified 
classes, 34; dealers of unspecified classes, 196; shop- 
keepers of unspecified classes, 285 ; shop-assistants, 
206; tradesmen of ufispecified classes, 10; and ap- 
prentices of uniiipecified classes, 23. 

jrairs.} — The principal fairs held within the county 
are the fono\»'ing, Abbeylcix, Jan. 26, March 1<, 
May 5, Julv 20, Sept. 20, and Nov. 4; Aghaboe, 
Aug. 2, and Sept. 2 ; Ballvcolhi, Jan. 23, March 26. 
May 3, Oct. 1, and Dec. 12; Ballickmvyler, March 
16, and Nov. 11; Ballinakill, the 16fh of every 
month, March 2^2, and April 22; Ballylinan, Jan. 
10, Feb. 10, May 10, Sept. 2, and Nov. 27; Borris- 
in-Ossory, Jan. 25, March 20, May 29, June 24, 
Aug. 15, Oct. 10. Nov. 21, and Dec. 20; (:a*tle^ 
brack, Aug. 12; Ca.*tIctown, June 29; (?lonaslee, 
Feb. 28, May 16, Aug. 11, and Nov. 7; Cullahill, 
May 27, and Oct. 2; Donagbmore, March 28, .Tui>e 
1*2, Aug. 31, as}i\ Dec. 12; Dysert, June 5, and Nov. 
13; Erril, June 12, March 9, and Dec. 25; Graigue, 
Jajoi.O, Feb. IB, April 1, and Oct. 6; Maryborough, 
Jan. 1. Feb. 24, >larch 25, Mjiv 12, Julv 5, Sept. 4, 
Oct. 23. and Dec. 4; Mavo. June 29, Oct. 18, and 
Nov. 22; Mountuiellick, "Feb. 1. March 17, May 2, 
July 20, Auir. 2(J, Sept. 29, Nov. I, and Dec. 11 ; 
Mo untruth, Jan. (>, Feb. 17, April 4, M.iy 5, Aug. 
10, Sept. 29, and Nov. 10; Portarlington, Jan. 6, 
March 2, Ea<iter-roonday, May 2*2, July 4, Sept. I , 
Oct. 12, and Nov. 23; Rathdowney, Jan. 27, April 



1, May 6. July 10, Sept. 12, Nov. 1, and Dec. 15: 
Stradbally, May 6, July 10, Aug. 21, Sept. 14, and 
Nov. 21 ; and Tin)ahoe, April 5, July 3, and Oct. 18. I 

Communications.'] — The Grand Canal and the I 
Barrow navigations are of prime importance to the 
county, and have already been noticed in the section 
upon ** Waters." The route of the main Trunk 
line of railway, an projected by the Public Commis- 
sioners, enters Queen's co. midway between Monas- 
tereven and Portarlington, and proceeds south-west- 
ward to a point 2( miles south-west of Maryborough ; 
and there it forks into the lines toward Cork and 
Kilkenny-.the former proceeding south-westward, 
and midway between Borris-in-Ossory and Aghaboc 
— and the latter proceeding southward, past Abbey- 
leix, and down the valley of the Nore. The three 
principal lines of road through the county are the 
post-road from Dublin to Birr, through Portarling- 
ton and Mountmellick ; the mail-road from Dublin 
to Limerick, through Ballybrittas, Emo, Mary- 
borough, Mountrath, and Borris-in-Ossory ; and the 
west mail-road from Dublin to Cork, through Strad- 
bally, Abbeyleix, and Durrow. In 1842, the county 
surveyor had under his charge 689 miles of road. 

Divisions and 7Was.]—r Queen's county is divided 
into the baronies of Tinnehinch, in the north-west ; 
Portnehinoh, in the north-east; Stradbally in the 
northern part of the east ; Ballyadams, in the south- 
ern part of the east ; Slievemargy, in the south-east; 
Cullinagh, in the eastern part of the south ; ClarmaU 
lagh, in the western part of the south ; Clandonagh, 
in the south-west ; Upperwoods, in the west ; West- 
Maryborough, in the western part of the interior ; 
and East Maryborough, in the eastern part of the 
interior. The quondam barony of Upper Ossory was 
a few years ago practically abolished, by being di- 
vided into the three baronies or cantreds of Clarmal- 
lagh, Clandonagh, and Upperwoods; and 7 town« 
lands of the parish of Durrow were transferred by 
the act 6 and 7 William IV., cap, 84, from Galmoy 
in CO. Kilkenny to ClarmaUagh in Queen's county. 
The barony of Tinnehinch contains 4 whole parishes ; 
Portnehinoh, 3 whole parishes ; Stradbally, 6 whole 
parishes, and part of ^ other parishes ; Ballyadams, 
2 whole parishes, and part of 6 other parishes ; Slieve- 
margy, 3 whole parishes, and part of 3 other parishes ; 
Cullinagh, 3 whole parishes, and part of 5 other 

r Irishes ; ClarmaUagh, 2 whole parishes and part of 
1 other parishes ; Clandonagh, 4 whole parishes, and 
part of S other parishes ; Upperwoods, I whole par- 
ish ; West Maryborough, part of 2 parishes ; and 
East Maryborough, 2 whole parishes, and part of 
5 other parishes. The towns and chief villages are, 
in Tinnehinch, Clonaslee, Rosenallis, and part of 
Mountmellick; in Portnehineh, Irishtown, Bally- 
brittas, and part of Mountmellick and Portarlinrton ; 
in Stradbally, Stradbally; in Ballyadams, Ballylinny ; 
in Slievemargy, Aries, Ballickmoyler, Graigue, and 
Sleaty-Graigue ; in Cullinagh, Abbeyliex, Ballina- 
kill, and Ballyroan; in ClarmaUagh, Durrow and 
BallycoUa; in Clandonagh, Borris-in-Ossory, Don- 
aghmore, and Hathdowney ; in Upperwoods, Castle- 
town and Coolraine ; in West Maryborough, Mount- 
rath; and in East Maryborough, Maryborough 

Dr. Beaufort, stating the number of parishes and of 
churches in Queen's county at respectively 50 and 
26, assigns 27 parishes and 14 churches to the dio. 
of Leighlin, 14 parishes and 6 churches to the dio. 
of Ossory, 7 parishes and 6 churches to the dio. of 
Kildare, 1 parish to the dio. of Killaloe, and part of 
1 parish to the dio. of Dublin. 

Statistics.'} — In 1824, according to Protestant re- 
turns, the number of schools in Queen's co. was 
275, of scholars 1 1 .763, of male scholars 6,624. of fe- 
male scholars 4,906, of scholars whose sex was not 

specified 231 , of scholars connected with the E<?tab- 
lished church 2.074, of scholars belonging to Pres- 
byterian communities 10, of scholars belonging to 
other communities of Protestant dissenters 94, of 
scholars belonging to the Roman Catholic commu- 
nity 9.426, of scholars whose denominational religious 
connection was not ascertained 159 ; and, accoriding 
to Roman Catholic returns, the number of school^ 
was 275, of scholars 1 1 ,^l 4. of male scholars 6,734, of 
female scholars 5.701, of scholars whose sex was not 
specified 74, of scholars connected with the Estab- 
Ushed church 2,191, of scholars belonging to Pres- 
byterian communities 0. of sdholars belonging to 
other communities of Protestant dissenters 103, of 
scholars belonging to the Roman Catbolic commu- 
nity 9,543, of scholars whose denominational relipious 
comiection was not ascertained 77. The statistics 
of education and of ecclesiastical matters for 1834 
are returned according to the diocesan divisions, and 
may be proximately estimated for Queen's co. by 
reference to the articles Leighuh and Ossory. At 
the dose of 1842, the National Board bad in opera- 
tion within the county 61 schools, conducted by 46 
male and 25 female * teachers, attended by 3,623 
male and 3,318 female scholars, and aided during the 
year with £787 13. 4d. in salaries, £65 lOs. in free 
stock, and £76 4s. 6^d. in school requisites at balf- 
price. In 1843, the number of persons committed 
on charges of felony was 625 ; the number of crim- 
inal cases before magistrates and petty-sessions was 
264; and the number of persons committed for 
drunkenness under the Act 6 and 7 William IV., 
cap. 38, was 25. Of the 625 persons committed on 
charges of felony, 156 were charged with offences 
against the person, 51 with offences against property 
committed with violence, 183 with offences against 
property committed without violence, 6 with ma- 
licious offences against property, 3 with offences 
against the currency, and ^6 with offences not in- 
cluded in the above categories ; 14 were sentenced 
to transportation, 212 were sentenced to imprison- 
ment, 51 were sentenced to pay fines, 150 were 
found not guilty on trial, 121 had no bill found 
against them, and 77 were not prosecuted. The 
constabulary force of the county on Jan .1, I844> 
consisted of 1 second-rate county inspector, 2 first- 
rate sub-inspectors, 4 second-rate sub^inspectors, 1 
third-rate sub-inspector, I first-rate head-constable, 
9 second-rate head-constables, 49 constables, 1915 
first-rate sub-oonstables, 48 second-rate sab-eonsta- 
bles, and 10 mounted police ; and the cost of main- 
taining this force during 1843 was £12,804 4s. 4id. 
The head-quarters of the constabulary are at Mary- 
borough ; and thQ fbroe is distributed among 41 sta- 
tions, in the 7 districts of Maryborough, BallckmOT- 
ler, Mountrath^ AbbeyUi^:. Mountmellick, Strad- 
bally. and Rathdowney^ The stafT of the eounty 
militia is stationed at Mountrath^ A stipoidiary 
magistrate resides at Maryborough. The covnt^r 
gaol, the county infirmary, and the district Imiatxe 
asylum for Queen's co.. King's co., and the coimtiea 
of Westmeath and Lofigford, are at Maryborough ; 
and there are bridewells at Abbeyleix, Borris-ia-Os* 
sory, and Stradbally. The assizes are held at Bfary- 
borou^h ; quarter-sessions, at Maryborough, Abbey- 
leix, Borris-in-Ossory, Graigue, and Stradbidly ; and 
petty- sessions at Abbeyleix, Ballycolla, BallickfBoy- 
ier, Ballybrittas, Ballylinan, Borris-tn-Ossoryt Gu« 
tletown, Clonaslee, Coolrain, Newchurdi, Dor* 
row. Maryborough. Mountrath, Mountmellick, Port- 
arlington, Rathdowney, and Stradbally. Savings* 
banks are at Abbeyleix, Portarlmgton, and SttiuU 
bally ; and loan funds are at Abbeyleix, Aghaboe, 
Cretyard, Durrow, Mountrath, Portarlington, md 
Timahoe ; workhouses are at Abbeyleix and MouBi- 



Biellick ; fever hospitals at lHaryboroogh and Mount- 
rath; and dispeiiBaries at Abbeyleix, BallycoUa, 
Ballickmoyler, Ballinakill, Ballybrittas, Borris-ixft- 
0«sory, Durrow, Clonaslee, Clandonagh« Mount- 
mellick, Mountrath, Newtovvn, Offerlane, Portar* 
lington, Raheen, Rathdowney, and Stradbally. The 
annual value of the property rated under the Poor- 
law is £168,750. The total number of tenements 
valued is 23,632 ; and of these, 14,206 were valued 
under £5,-3,905, under £10,-.1,919, under £15, 

aBft, iiiid«r £^ »7, mder iDtS,— 393, under 
£30,-^437, under £40,-256, under £50, ~4uid 870, 
at and above £50. The amount of grand jury pre- 
sentments in 1842 was £24,901. One member is 
sent to parliament for the borough of Portarlington ; 
afid two members are sent for the county at large. 
County constituency, in 1842, 1,778; of whom 432 
were £50 freeholders, 236 were £*20 freeholders, 34 
were £20 leaseholders, 877 were £10 freeholders, 83 
were £10 leaseholders, and 116 were rent-chargers. 

Pop. of the county, in 17^2, upwards of 82,000; 
in 1831, 145,851; in 1841, 153,930. Houses, in 
1792, 15,048: in 1831, 23,873; in 1841, 25,438. 
The following statistics are all of the year 1841. 
Males, 76,403; females, 77,527; famUies, 27,442. 
Inhabited houses, 25,438; uninhabited complete 
houses, 853; houses in the course of erection, 117. 
First -class inhabited houses, 682; second-class, 
6,172; third-ckss, 12,812; fourth. class, 6,772. 
Families residing in first-class houses, 796 ; in second- 
class bouses, 5,675; in third-class hoi|^es, 13,688; 
in fourth-class houses, 7.283. Families employed 
ehiefly in agriculture, 19,346 ; in manufactures and 
trade, 5,093; in other pursuits, 3,003. Families 
dependent chiefly on property and professions, 737 ; 
oo the directing of labour, 8,936; on their own 
manual labour, 17, 100 ; on means not specified, 669. 
Males at and above 15 years of age who ministered to 
food, 33,768; to clothing, 3,182; to lodging, 3,228; 
to health, 50; to charity, 8; to justice, 417; to 
education, 210; to religion, 95; unclassified, 2,(>20; 
without any specified occupations, 4,030. Females 
at and above 15 years of age who ministered to food, 
0,535; toclothing,5,227; to lodging, 21; to health, 
61 ; to charity, 12 ; to justice, 3 ; to education, 
144; to religion, 26; unclassified, 5,137; without 
any specified occupations, 32,709. Males at and 
ftbove 5 years of age who could read and write, 
27*350; who could read but not write, 14,006; who 
OMild neither read nor write, 25,702. Females at 
■nd above 5 years of age who could read and write, 
17,041 ; who could read but not write, 20,799; who 
oottld neither read nor write, 90,770. Males at and 
above 4 years of age attending primary schools, 
5i,0l4; attending superior schools, 193. Females 
at and above 4 ^ears of a^ attending primaryschools, 
AfdOQ : attending superior schools, 143. Per-cent- 
acB of male^ at and above 17 years of age unmar- 
nad,5r2; married, 43; widowed, 5. Per-centage of 
fff^u» at and above 17 years of age unmarried, 45; 
married, 42; widowed, 13. Physicians, 15; sur- 
geons, 18; apothecaries, 17; midwives, 7; nursc- 
tendera,M; coroner, 1. Barristers, 7; attorneys, 
15; clerks of the peace, 2; excise officers, 19; 
oAcers in law courts, 2 ; bailiffs, 29 ; gaol-keepers, 
1^: watehmeo, 17. Inspector of schools, 1 ; school- 
teachers, 197 males and 98 females; ushers and 
tators, 6 ; governesses, 46 ; music aiid dancing mas- 
ters, 4 ; tew^ier of fencing, 1 ; librarian, 1 . Clergy- 
men of the Establishment, 23 ; Methodist ministers, 
6; Roman Catholic clergymen, 42; ministers of 
reUgioQ whose denominational connection was not 
ipccxfied, 17; nuns, 24; sextons, 4; parish clerks, 
5; scripture-reader, 1. 

AmtaqmituM,'} — A perfect pillar-tower, with a con- 

ical cap, stands at Timahoe ; and the foondatiooa of 
two other pillar-towers occur at Rosenallis and KiU 
lesken. The principal ruins for extent, artistic in- 
terest, or historical association, are the Dominican 
abbey at Aghaboe, the priory at Aghmacart, the 
monastery at Rathaspeck, the churches of Bally- 
adams, Ballylinan, Coolbanagher, Killabin, Rille- 
chin. Slaty, and Straboe, the remains of military 
fortifications on the rock of Dunamase, and the cas- 
tles of Ballyadams, Castlebrack, Castlecuffe, Clon- 
aslee, Coolbanagher, Cullahill, Grange, Killenry, 
and Shean. Many other relics exist in both eccle- 
siastical and military architecture ; and, in some io- 
stanoes, they are emphatic memorials of important 
passages in history. Among other castles than those 
already named as in ruin, are, the castles of Bally- 
geehan, Ballymanus, Castletown, Milltown, Cobbler, 
Coolkerry, Gortneclay, Grant's- Town, Kilbredy, 
Lea, Moret, Rushall, Stradbally, and Shrule. Sev- 
eral religious foundations formerly stood deep in the 
recesses of the quondam great forest around Mount- 
rath ; and the chief of these was situated at Clon- 
enagh. A rude work of stone, an ancient judgment- 
seat of the Brehons, but popularly called the Fairy 
Chair, stands on Kyle hill, two nules from Borris- 
in-Ossory. Several barrows or tumuli, locally caUed 
moats, and Danish forts, occur in various parts of 
the county, particularly in the baronies ot Bally- 
adams and Tmnehinch. 

SittoryA — Queen's county was constituted shire- 
pound in the reign of Queen Mary ; and it received 
Its appellation in honour of that sovereign, as Kind's 
county did in honour of her husband Philip of Spam. 
The ancient history of the district is strictly that of 
the ancient principalities of Ossory and Leix, and 
has already been gumced at under the word Obbobt : 
which see. *' Although this Strict was consti- 
tuted a separate county in the reign of Mary," says 
Brewer, **it received no other additional English 
settlement than the fort of Maryborough, until the 
time of Queen Elisabeth, when the Fitzpatricks,' 
instigated by rancorous hatred towards their rivals 
the O'Mores and O'Conors on one side, and the 
Butlers and fiunily of Morres on the other, proved 
the most efficient allies of government in complet- 
ing the subjugation of a tract of country, so tnilj 
formidable whilst its native possessors remained 
united. It was chieflv during the government of Sir 
Henry Sydney that tie power of the O'Mores, who 
had formerly exercised almost unlimited sway in 
these parts, was finalhr broken. In obedience to 
the dreadful temper of the times, this object was 
achieved by the unsparing use of the sword. The 
followers of the O'Mores and their dependent septs, 
were banished into the southern counties of Cork and 
Kerry, then nearly depopulated. At this juncture, 
many respectable English fiunilies,t0 whom landsdesti- 
tute of hereditary owners were granted by the Grown, 
fixed themselves permanently in the Queen's county, 
their descendants, in several instances, still holding 
a distinguished place among the old resident gentry. 
Seven of these families, whose founders bore a pro- 
minent share in subduing the natives, and in build- 
ing forts and castellated houses for the defence of 
their estates, acquired the appellation of the Seven 
Tribes. The * tribes ' so called are the families of 
Cosby, Hartpole, Bowen, Barrington, Ruish, Hether- 
ington, and Hovendon or Ovington. In the reign of 
Charles I. very considerable grants of land in this 
county were made to VilUers, Duke of Buckingham, 
which now constitute the extensive manor of Vil- 
lier8. This great lordship descended to the late 
Duke of Chandos ; by means of whose only daughter, 
and sole heir, it is now the property of his Grace the 
Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. In the 




rtagn also, and during the busy Tears df the Repub- 
lic, the gentry of the county received additions in 
the fBoiilies of Pygot, Cook, Prior, Pamell, Pole, 
&c. Boon after the accession of William III., the 
list of distinguished residents, or possessors of 
estates, was mrther enriched by the noble &milies 
of Vescy, Viscount de Vescy, of Dawson, Earl isi 
Portarlington ; and also of Staples, Burrows, John- 
son, and others of high respectability/' 

QUEENSTOWN, an incipient or proposed town, 
on the coast of the parish of D&lkey, barony of Rath* 
doMm, CO. Dublin, Leiiister. Its site is at the east 
side of Malpas hill, otte of the group of the Killiney 
hills, 3 furlongs east of the Tillage of Dalkey, and 2 
miles east-south-east of Kingstown. - The scenery 
is brilliant and grand, and the shore possesses peculiar 
facilities for sea-bathing. In Sept. 1841; '^' Joint- 
stock Building Company, which had been formed for 
the erection of the town, advertised tbit they had 
completed their surveys, and that their proposed 
capital for effecting their design was £150,000, in 
15,000 shares of £ 10 each. But a Dublin periodical, 
MOW extinct, said three months previously. Or in June 
of the same year, ** Plans most satishujtory, and 
views prospective as well as perspective, of this 
as vet non-existent Brighton or Clifton; have been 
Uua before Khe piri)lie, with 'a view ta obtain the 
necessary ways and means to igive it a more sub- 
stantial reality; but, alas for the uncertainty of 
^uman withes I Qiieenetown, despite the' popular- 
ity of our Sovereign, is not likely for some time 
at least to present a rivalry in aity thing but its 
romantic and commanding site to thb baiy, bufirt4ing, 
and not very symmetrically built* towA, el'eeted in the 
hotiour of her august eldest uncle. The gded= p^ple 
of Kingstown may therefore rejoice ; their glory for 
some tame will not at least be eclipeed.- But howevt^ 
this may be, the first stone of the new town has been 
laid, nay, the first building-^no less a baiMing than 
Victoria. castle, has been actually erected. Like 
most naoderrt woUld-be castles, it has towers and 
crenellated battlements, and large windows' in abun- 
dance, and is upon the whole as unlike a real oBd 
castle as such structures usually are. it is, how- 
ever, a picturesque and imposing strudure of its 
kind, and what is of more consequence to its future 
occupants, a cheerful and commodious habitation, 
which is more than can be said of most genuine 
castles, and its situation on a terrace, on the south 
side of Killiney-hill, is one as comnaianding and ae 
beautiful as t:ould possibly bo imagineid/ ■ . > • ' 

QUERIN, a small harbour in the pariah 'and baN 
ony of Moyarta, co. Clare, Munster. It is situated 
on the north side of the estuary of the Shannon, 4^ 
miles west by south of Kiirush,. and 5 east-north-east 
of Carrigaholt. It has a narrow entrance, through 
which fishing vessels can run during westerly gales; 
and it is frequented by small boats, which. convey to 
Limerick the agricultural produce of the neighbour- 
ing district. Two embankments for keeping out the 
sea, and a wharf for the better accommodation ef 
boats and small vessels, were proposed to be built by 
the Commissioners for improving the Navigation of 
the Shannon, — the wharf to be constructed of rough 
ashlar in the front wall, and of rubble masonry in 
the wing walls, — and the whole work to cost £1,160. 
In the vicinity are Querin Point and Querin-house. 

QUIN, a parish, containing a village of the same 
name, in the barony of Upper Bunratty, co. Clare, 
Munster. Length, south-west by westward, 5 
miles ; extreme breadth, 3( ; area, 9,584 acres, 3 
roods, 31 perches, — of which, 232 acres, 1 rood, 32 
perches are in Lough CuUaunyheeda, and 72 acres, 
3 roods, 37 perches are in small lakes. Pop., in 
1831, 2,918 ; in 1841, 3,634. Houses 569. The 

surface descends to within 2^ miles oi the head A 
the estuary of the Fergus, and is watered nearly 
through the centre by the river Rlne. Lough CuU 
launyheeda lies on the eastern boundary. The land 
comprises a large proportion of bog and natural pas- 
ture ; yet consists, to a considerable extent, of good 
arable ground. In the southern district are several 
caves ; and on the estate of Quinville in the north- 
west, are valuable lead mines, opened in 1835. The 
seats are Ballykilty, Abbey view, Rathluby- house, 
Dangan-house, Knockpogue-castle, Coogaan-houae, 
and Quinville-abbey, — the hist the residence of John 
Singleton, Esq. ; the chief antiquities ore a cromlech, 
QuuL-abbey, Quiii-church, the ruins of five castles, 
Shankill-church, and the ruins of Earls-house ; and 
the principal hamlets are Ballyhannon, Keevagh, and 
Carrowroe. The road from Killaloe to Ennis, the 
road from Newmarket to Crusheen, and the direct 
road from limerick to Kilfenora, pass through the 

The lead and silver mines of Kilbricken, situated 
within the adjoining parish of Doora, 3 miles north- 
west of the village of Quin, may be noticed in this 
place. ** In the year 1833, attention was awakened 
by- the circumstance of the accidental discovery of 
lead ore, by persona in his employment, on the estate 
of John McDonnell, Esq., of New Hall, near Ennia. 
The first specimens were found by persons while 
cutting the new line of road between Moriesk and 
the new town of Clare ; after which moee important 
discoveries yere made on the iana of Mioniuve, bv 
the tenant, «K>hn Egan, while cutting a drain tbrougn 
his bog. The specimens and descnption of foil and 
calcareous spar, in which these stones of ore were 
discovered, having been submitted to tbe inspection 
of Mr. Taylor, in London, he determined. on send- 
ing agents to examine the district, and in conse- 
quence of their report, some experienced mincrt 
were despatched from England, through whosa exer- 
tions about twenty-five tons of lead ore were raised 
and shipped, which told at a very high price, being 
found to assay for lead 76 per cent., and for silver 
120 ounces per ton. At this time, however, the 
rush of water from the surrounding bogs was found 
to be an insuperable obstacle to furt^ progreaa, 
without the aid of machinery, and it waa then 
determined to stay the proceedings until a ateaoi- 
engiue of sufficient power to contend ogaintt the 
difficulty should be despatched from England. This 
engine was erected and put to work in 1^37 ; opera- 
tions are now-going on upon an exten«ve scnle, ad 
great hopes are entertained of a successfiil rondt* 
but it is too soon toform an aceurate opinion upon 
tUs point." - - 

The village of Qnin stands on the road<fron New* 
market to Crusheen, and on the right bonk of the rifer 
Rine, 3 miles east of Clare, and 3 north by eaat of 
Newaaarket«on- Fergus. Area, 19 acres. Pop., in 
1831, 173; in 1841, 173. Houses^. Fkira aie 
held on July 7 and Nov. 1. A dispenaary here is 
within the Ennis Poor-law union, . ind aef vea for n 
district containing a pop. of 10,650 ; and, in 18S^ 
40, it received £122 lis., and expended £146 Sa. 
The village itself is a wretched collection of poor 
cabins ; but it contains the modem and substantial 
though plain church and Roman Catholic chapel of the 
parish, the ruins of the old church, and the unroofied 
but otherwise well-preserved pile of Quin-abbey,— 
one of the most perfect and imposing old monastid 
edifices in Ireland. The abbey is a beautiful, strone 
building of black marble, erected in 1402, repoireg 
in 1604, and surmounted bv a lofty square tower; 
and it is described in the following terms by Bishop 
Pococke : *' Quin is one of the finest and most entire 
monasteries that I have seen in Irehmd ; it it aitiMled 




on a fine stream, with an ascent of several steps to 
the charch ; at the entrance one is surprised with 
the view of the high altar entire, and of an altar on 
each side of the arch of the chancel. To the south is a 
chapel with three or four altars in it, and a very Go- 
thic figure in relief of some saint ; on the north side of 
the chancel is a fine monument of the family of the 
Macnamaras of Ranee, erected by the founder ; on a 
tU>ne by the altar the name of Kennedye appears in 
large letters ; in the middle, between the body and 
the dmeel, is a fine tower built on the gable ends. 
The cloister is in the usual form, wiUi couplets 
of pillars, but is partieular in having buttresses 
round it by way of ornament ; there are apartments 
on three ndes of it,~the refectory, the dormitory, 
and another grand room to the north of the chancel, 
with a vaulted room under them all ; to the north of 
the large room is a closet, which leads through a 
private way to a very strong round tower, the walls 
of which are near ten feet thick. In the front of 
the monastery is a building, which seems to have 
been an apartment for strangers, and to the south- 
west are two other buildings." Mr. Dutton, in his 
itatistieal survey of the county, published in 1806, 
states that the abbe^ remained nearly in the same 
state as when descnbed by Bishop Pooocke, but 
ffreatly disfigured by the custom of burving within 
Ha walls: and Mr. Trotter, who vbited it in 1817, 
Mys, *' We were astonished at beholding it. Quin- 
abbey is one of the most perfect ruins in IreUnd, 
and of wonderful beauty. Its tower, cloisters, 
and aisles deserve great attention. There we saw 
an incredible quantity of bones and skulls, long 
blanched by Time's resistless hand — ^they were piled 
in great quantities in the abbey." The south end is 
mwh superior in neatness of execution to the adjoin- 
ing parts; and a curious representation of the crucifix- 
ion oecurs in stucco, on the wall near the high altar, 
but seems to have escaped the observation of most 
writers of Irish books of travels. The original 
abbey, or some ecclesiastical foundation on its rite, 
is alleged to have been built at an early period, and 
was dntroyed by fire in 1278; and the present 
atmcture was erected in 1402, by Mac-Cam-Dall 
MacNamara, lord of Glancoilean, and was granted 
IB Dec. 1563, with its manors and advowsons of 
Dareunwall, Ichanee, Downagour, and various other 
possessions, to Sir Turlough O'Brien of Ennistymon. 
Quin parish is a rectory and a vicarage, in the dio. 
«f RillaJoe. The rectory is part of the sinecure 
bcndlee of Ooashin : which see. Tithe composi- 
taoo, £71 Is. 6^. The vicarage, jointly with the 
▼icarages of Clomet and Dowbt [which see], con- 
stitutes the benefice of Quin. Vicarial tithe com- 
position of the parish of Quin, £61 4s. 7^d. A pro- 
portion of tithes called the prebendal, and amount- 
nif, in compounded value, to £23 Is. GJd., in each 
parish of the benefice, is appropriated to the prebend 
of Tnlloh. Length and breadth of the parochial 
«nioo of Quin, each 7 miles. Pop., in 1631, 6,548. 
Gross income, i:d02 3s. lO^d. ; nett, £268 6s. 7jd. 

Patron, the Earl of Egremont. The church wta 
built about the year 1792, by means of a gift of 
£461 10s. 9id. from the late Board of First Fruito. 
Sittings 200; attendance 55. The Roman Catholie 
chapels of Quin, Cloney, and Dowry, have an attend- 
ance of respectively 650, 500, and 300 ; and, in the 
Roman Catholic parochial arrangement, are mutually 
united. In 1834, the Protestants of the parisQ 
amounted to 40, and the Roman Catholics to 3,098; 
the Protestants of the union, inclusive of 8 dissent- 
ers, to 84, and the Roman Catholics to 9,094 ; 2 
daily schools in the parish — one of which was ia 
connection with the Kildare Place Society — had on 
their books 95 boys and 42 girls ; and 4 daily schools 
in the union had on their books 225 boys and 104 

QUINCE, or Squincs, a small inhabited isknd 
in tiie parbh of Myrosi, barony of West Carbery, 
CO. Cork, Munster. It lies within about a furlooy 
of the nearest part of the mainland, and 5 furlongs 
south by west of the headland at the west side of the 
entrance of Glandore harbour. It produces an herb* 
age which recovers and fiittens diseased horses. A 
tolerably wdl-sheltered anchoring-ground occurs be- 
tween its north side and the mainland. 

QUINTIN, a snuOl bay in the parish of Witter, 
barony of Ardes, co. Down, Ulster. It is situated 
on the east coast of the county, 2i miles east of 
Portaferry» and 3 north by east of Ballyquintin Point, 
or the entrance of Lough Strangford. On its shore 
stand trifling remains of a castle of some of the fol- 
lowers of John De Courcey. 


QUOILAGH. See Qdolagh 

QUOILE, the tidal or estuarial part of the An. 
nacloy or Ballinahinch river, baronies of Locale and 
Dufferin, co. Down, Ulster. It commences a little 
below Downpatrick, and extends 3 miles north-east- 
ward to Lough Strangford, and, to a certain degree, 
constitutes a limb of that ^cat and singular marine 
inlet. The chief islets in it are Hare luand, Castle 
Island, Gore's Island, Gibb's Island, Shane's Island, 
Long Launches Island, Little Launches Island, Salt 
Island, Shark Island, Green Island, and Jackdaw 
Island. Quoile Quay, near its head, in the parish 
of Saul, and about a mile from Downpatrick, is the 
port of that town, and is fre<^uented by vessels (k 
considerable burden, which bnng up coals, timber, 
slates, iron, &c., and carry away comparatively large 
quantities of Jigricultural produce. 

QUOLAGU, a ba^ in the barony of Bere, co. 
Cork, Munster. It is situated on the south-east 
nde of the Kenmare estuarv ; it commences 3} miles 
east-north-east of Cod's Head, and 4 south-south- 
east of Lamb's Head ; it measures 1^ mile across the 
entrance, and penetrates the land east-north-east- 
ward to the extent of 2} miles ; and it is partly covered 
by the small island of Innisfenard, but is quite ex- 
posed to the west. At its head is an anchoring- 
ground ; and on its extreme shore is the hamlet of 





RABBIT-ISLAND. See Ragged Island. 

RAC AV AN, or Rathcavan, a parish in the bar- 
ony of Lower Antrim, co. Antrim, Ulster. It con- 
tains the town of Brouohshane: which see. Length, 
south-west by westward, 8J miles ; extreme breadth, 
4i ; area, 17,563 acres, 36 perches, — of which 2 roods, 
25 perches lie detached. Pop., in 1631, 4,479; in 
1841, 5,356. Houses 926. Pop. of the rural dis- 
tricts, in 1831, 3,651 ; in 1841, 4,416. Houses 771. 
The surface reaches to within 3 miles of Glenarm, 
and descends to within ^ a mile of Ballymena ; and it 
includes the greater part of the southern half of the 
valley of the Braid, and a grand and romantic por- 
tion of the heights which are piled round the central 
water-shed of the county. Slemish mountain, the 
highest ground, has an altitude above sea-level of 
] ,457 feet. The soil of the vallev-grounds is light 
in colour and in texture ; and though well cultivated, 
and favourable for potatoes and oats, it is not suit- 
able for wheat, or even for barley. Whether its 
comparative infertility is occasioned by some property 
in itself or by the vicinity of the mountains, seems 
not to have been ascertained. Yet the white thorn, 
which is supposed to indicate considerable strength 
of sub-soil, flourishes in the district, and well-kept 
fences of it ornament much of the country between 
Broughshane and Ballymena, and impart to the land- 
scape an aspect of improvement and comfort. The 
road from Ballymena to Glenarm, and that from Car- 
rickfergus to Ballymonev, intersect each other in 
the interior. — This parish is a rectory, and part of 
the benefice of Skebrt [which see], in the dio. of 
Connor. Tithe composition, £316 168. Id. The 
church was built about 67 years ago, at the private 
expense of the ancestor of^ Earl 0*Neill. Sittings 
400 ; attendance, from 70 to 80. There is a Pres- 
byterian meeting-house in Broughshane. In 1834, 
the parishioners consisted of 142 Churchmen, 
3,825 Presbyterians, 4 other Protestant dissenters, 
and 751 Roman Catholics; 2 Sunday schools at 
Teeloy and Lisnamurgan were usually attended bv 
about 85 children ; and 5 daily schools — one of which 
was salaried with £10 a-year from the National 
Board — had on their books' 211 boys and 122 girls. 
In 1842, the National Board had 4 schools at respec- 
tive!]^ Broughshane, Racavan, Buckna, and Lisna- 

RACOOL (The), a rivulet. See Kilcorket, 
CO. Cork. 


RACKWAI.LI8. See Monaghan (Parish of). 

BADDONSTOWN, or Balraddan, a parish 
in the barony of Upper Deece, co. Meath, Leinster. 
It lies on the southern verge of the county, and con- 
tains part of the town of Kilcock: which see. 
Length, southward, 2 miles; extreme breadth, ]^; 
area, 1,621 acres, 3 perches. Pop., in 1831, 651; 
in 1841, 634. Houses 119. Pop. of the rural dis- 
tricts, in 1841, 424. Houses 76. The greater part 
of the land is of prime quality. The river Rye flows 
on the southern boundary ; and the Grand Canal ap- 
proaches within a few yards of the parish at Kilcock. 
The seats are Raddonstown-house, Stream-house, 
Calgath-house, Knocknatulla-house, Newtown-Pros- 
pect, and Dolinstown-house, — the last the residence 
of A. U. Gladstanes, Esq. The principal hamlet is 
Knocknatulla.— >This parish is a rectory, in the dio. 

of Meath. Tithe composition, £120; glebe, £1 10s« 
The rectories of Radaonstown, Balvsiohan, Kii»- 
CLOAM, Gallow, and Drum largam [see these arti- 
cles], constitute the benefice of Raddonstown. 
Length, 5^ miles ; breadth, 3. Pop., in 1831, 1,915. 
Gross income, £485 Ss. ^d. ; nett, £427 13s. 9jd. 
Patron, the Crown. A curate receives a salary of 
£90. The church, though very old, is in tolerable 
condition. Sittings 130 ; attendance 50. The Rad- 
donstown and Kilcloan Roman Catholic chapels have 
an attendance of respectively 380 and 420 ; and, in 
the Roman Catholic parochial arransement, are 
united to the chapel of Batterstown. In 1884, the 
Protestants of the parish amounted to 66, and the 
Roman Catholics to 658; the Protestants of the 
union to 98, and the Roman Catholics to 1,873 ; a 
pay daily school in the parish was usually attended 
by about 45 children; and there were two daily 
schools in the other parts of the union. 

RAGGED-ISLAND, a small island in the pariah 
of Myross, barony of West Carbery, oo. Cork, Mini- 
ster. It lies i a mile from the nearest part of the 
mainland, and 1^ mile east by south of the entnmoe 
of Castle- Haven. It measures } of a mile in Iei^[th« 
and extends from north-east to south-west. 

RAGHAN. See Rahan. 

RAGHERY. See Rathum. 

RAGHLEY, or Raughlbt, a peninsula, and a 
fishing- village and harbour, in the parish of Drom- 
cliffe, barony of Carbery, co. Sligo, Connau^t. 
The termination of the peninsula is the moat west* 
erly land in the barony, and lies 7i miles north-west 
of Sligo, in a straight Une, but 10 miles by the near- 
est practicable road. The peninsula commences in 
the vicinity of Lissadill-house, and measures 3| miles 
in length, and about 2} in breadth; and its coasts, 
though not picturesque or attractive, possess much 
curious interest, from exhibiting the effects of the 
long and poweiful action of the tides, both upon 
limestone rock and upon a permeable and oompara- 
tively flat shore. *' Near the small fishing- village of 
Raughley, and on the western side of the small pen- 
yisufa wnich also bears that name," says Mr. Fmer, 
in '* the naturally cavemed limestone rock has aided 
the formation of that remarkable feature called here 
the Pigeon Holes. At high incoming tides» partico^ 
larly when impelled. by the westerly winds, the aea 
rushes by various narrow subterraneous channels iato a 
large, deep, open basin, at a considerable distance from 
the shore, where the agitated waters roar, boil, and 
foam, to an extent which ia often terrific ; at all timea 
the hoarse murmurings of the retiring waves through 
the low vaulted caverns is sublime. Adjoining ua 
island of Raghley, as it is here called, the devaa- 
tating effects of the drifting sea-sand along the iat 
shore are seen to a fearful extent. The process haa 
long been going on, but within the last 20 years it 
has greatly increased, and during that period, hun- 
dreds of fertile acres have been ruined. Instead of 
endeavouring to check the progress of the sand, as 
has been successfully done in many parts of tho 
British coasts, and in this very neighbourhood, by 
Lord Palmerstown, both landlord and tenant here 
retreat as it advances, — the latter, however, clinging 
to their wretched hovels so long as the roofr sustaiii 
the superincumbent mass in which they are imbed- 
ded. There are few more desolate scenes in our 




island than that which the once fertile plains of Ragh- 
ley now presents. It requires no stretch of the iaia- 
ffination, as at Bannow, to describe what may have 
been the appearances of this place ; the remains of 
many houses can still be traced, and at least a hun- 
' dred yet inhabited huts, nearly overwhelmed, pre- 
venting more the appearance of the dens of wild animals 
than the habitations of human beings. The frag- 
meats of tlie ancient church, with the taller of the 
rude tombs^ are still seen peeping over the aeeumu* 
lating sand ; and the ruins<»t Artarmon-castle, the for- 
mer seat of the ancestors of Sir Robert Gore Booth, 
Bart., the present possessor, still preside over the 
desolate scene. At the western point of this dis- 
trict, the small but beautifully verdant Knock Lane 
rises to a height of several hundred feet from the 
water's edge ; from it the whole of the adjoining tract 
can be disUnctly traced, as also the mouth of Sligo 
bay wnI the subjacent coast. Along the latter, from 
the numerous scattered rocks, the broken waves dash 
and foam with ineoneeivable fur^ against the low 
beetling headlands." Ba^hley is a fishing and a 
ooaat-guard station; and, m 1836, there were em- 
ployed in the fisheries within its district 99 row- 
boats and 495 fishermen. An artificial harbour has 
been constructed, at the cost of £1,606 88., partly 
contributed by Sir Oore Booth and the Dublin Com- 
mittee, but cniefly advanced by government. The 
work consists of a very neat stone pier, extending 
nearly 200 feet from the top of the beach to low water, 
with a kant or return of 40 feet at the head, all sub- 
stantially built in hanunered limestone, paved on the 
seaward side and end, with a cordon course and par- 
apet of sound masonry ; an inner harbour or dock, 
excavated within the land, a statute acre in area, 
lined with stone, and provided with a small groin 
pier, of 75 feet in length, on the side of the entrance, 
opposite the main pier ; and a small reservoir, pro- 
vided with a stone dam and sluice, to retain back- 
water for scouring the harbour. " The quay wall 
if in hammered limestone, of good scantling, 14 feet 
high, and 40 feet long along the head or kant; 
thence 300 feet along the pier and dock, with two 
stairs, the exterior one accessible by small boats at 
low water neap-tides ; this quay proceeds 200 feet 
further, in a more sloping form, to the dam of the 
reservoir, making the whole extent of quay 540 feet. 
The opposite side of the entrance is also quayed for 
75 feet along the groin, and 160 feet more al^ng the 
entrance. The dock is of a triangular form, 142 feet 
on either side, lined with a sloping stone pavement, 
and with a slip for hauling upboats on the land at 
the not them vertical angle. The beach on the north 
side of the groin has also been cleared and levelled 
for the purpose of hauHng up boato. The whole 
of the piers and quays are substantially and neatly 
executed, and provided with stone mooring -posts. 
Raghley Head i^ords the most advantageous site for 
a fishing station in the bay of Sligo. It may be ap- 
proached on one side or the other in all winds, and 
IS in the immediate vicinity of the fishing grounds 
outside of Carriganean. At a quarter of a mile from 
the head, is the winter turbot ground. At half-a- 
mile, an round the Wheaten Rock, the Seal Rocks, 
and at the west end of the Black Rock, there is 
abundance of rock cod, &c. Two miles off, along 
the »outh shore of the bay, are the turbot bank of 
Portevad, Ruarybraddogh bank, for haddock and cod, 
and the whiting bank of Tubberpatrick. The out- 
shore of Sbgo ledge abounds still more in cod, ling, 
lic, but there are no boats fit for proceeding thither 
except in fine weather, as the shore has no place for 
protecting large craft. The village is built at the 
isthmus whidi is only 50 fathoms across, and the 
yawls are launched on either side, according to the 

wind. The inside is a broad shallow strand, and 
only accessible at high water ; the outside is a small 
cove, opening to the north-west, and in winds from 
that quarter, which are the most severe on this coast, 
a tremendous sea sets into it, so as to wash over the 
isthmus, and wreck all boats which are not removed 
high up on the land." [Nimmo's Coast Survey.] 
Area of the village, 9 acres. Pop., in 1831, 122 ; in 
1841,170. Houses 32. 

RAGHTINMORE, a mountain in the parish of 
Clonmany, barony of Innishowen, co. Donegal, Ul- 
ster. It overhangs the east side of the entrance of 
Lough Swilly ; and is the loftiest of the bleak and 
sterile heights on that side of the Lough. Its sum- 
mit is situated 2^ miles south-east of Dunaff Head; 
and has an altitude of 1,656 feet above sea-level. 

RAH AN, or Raohan, a parish in the baronv of 
Fermoy, 2a^ miles east of Mallow, co. Cork, Muo- 
ster.' It contains the rillage of Balltmaooolet : 
which see. Length, 6 miles ; breadth, 2) ; area, 
10,083 acres. Pop., in 1831, 3,781 ; in 1841, 4,061. 
Houses 673. Pop. of the rund districts, in 1841, 
3,849. Houses 637. The suriace is part of the 
south side of the valley of the Black water, and part 
of the north side of the chain of Nagles mountains. 
About six-sevenths of the land are of good quality, 
but in a state of bad cultivation ; and the remaining 
seventh is waste mountain, all capable of being re- 
claimed and improved. The principal seat is Rock- 
forest, the residence of Sir James L. Cotter, Bart. 
The road from Mallow to Fermoy passes through 
the interior. — This parish is a vicarage, and a separ- 
ate beneficci^ in the dio. of Cloyne. Vicarial tithe 
composition and gross income, £242 6s. 2d.; nett, 
£174 Os. 3d. Patron, the diocesan. The rectorial 
tithes are compounded for £242 6s. 2d. ; and are im- 
propriate in Col. Longfield, of Longueville. The 
church was built in 1792, by means of a gift of £461 
lOs. 9|d. from the late Board of First Fruits, and a 
donation of £184 12s. 3}d. from the late Sir Jamea 
L. Cotter, Bart. Sittings 150; attendance 35. In 
1834, the Protestants amounted to 72, and the Ro- 
man Catholics to 3,843; a parochial daily school, 
supported by annual subscription, and by a donation 
of £8 a-vear from the Association for Discounter 
nandng Vice, was usually attended by about 15 chil- 
dren ; and 4 other daily schools — one of which waa 
salaried with £10 a-year from subscription, and one 
with £12 a-^ear from William Latouche, Esq;* and 
a bequest of'^unreported amount from the late Henry 
Cotter, Esq.,— had on their books 138 boys and 66 

RAH AN, or Raghan, a parish in the barony of 
Ballycowan, 4^ miles west of Tullamore, King's co., 
Leinster. Length, southward, 5} miles; extrema 
breadth, 4^ ; area, 14,985 acres, 3 roods, 6 perches. 
Pop., in 1831, 4,032; in 1841, 4,311. Houses 705. 
The surface is a flat, bleak, disinal expanse of bog, 
traversed across its middle by the Grand Canal, 
bounded along part of the west by the sluggish and 
ditchy Brosna, drained westward in the interior by 
the bog-stream Clodagh, and partially intersected 
and patched with belts and pendicles of good land. 
The parish is remarkable chiefly as a retreat of 
monasticism, both ancient and modem ; it possesses 
ruins of an old abbey in the interior, and vestiges of 
a quondam convent on the southern boundary ; and 
it is the site of both an existing convent and a 
Jesuits' College. The seats are Rahan-lodge and 
Derrycooley - houAe. Two constabulary stations 
occur respectively in the north, and on the banks of 
the canal This parish is a vicarage, and a perpe- 
tual curacy, in the dio. of Meath. The vicarage 
forms part of the benefice of Fibcal: which sea. 
Vicarial tithe composition, £71 9s. 6|d. ; glebe. 




£7B 7s. lid. The rectorial tithes are compounded 
for £138 9s. 2^d.; and are impropriate in the Mar- 
quis of Downshire. The perpetual curacy is a se- 
parate benefice. Tithe composition belonging to the 
incumbent, £55 Ts. S^d. ; fflebe, £15. Gross in- 
come, £]07 7s. 8id.; nett, £105 17s. 2jd. Patron, 
the incumbent of Fircal. The church was built in 
1732. Sittings 120; attendance, from 15 to 50. 
The Roman Catholic chapels of Rillina and Kilpa- 
trick, have an attendance of respectively from 700 
to 800, and from 500 to GOO ; and, in the Roman 
Catholic parochial arrangement, are mutually united. 
The Convent chapel has an attendance of from 70 
to 100, and is under the care of the parochial Roman 
Catholic clergyman. The Jesuits' College chapel 
has an attendance of from 400 to 500 ; and is under 
the care of the Jesuits of the college. In 1834, the 
Protestants of the parish amounted to 179, and the 
Roman Catholics to 3,964 ; a daily school in the 
nunnery was supported and taught wholly by the 
nuns, and was attended by from 50 to 60 girls in 
summer, and from 30 to 40 in winter; a boarding 
school at the Jesuits' College had on its books 50 
boys ; and 7 other daily schools — one of which was 
salaried with £2 a-year from the vicar, £2 from the 
curate, and £4 and other advantages from Mr. 
Acres, one with £10 from the National Board, and 
one with £10 from the London Irish Baptist Society 
— ^had on their books 333 boys and 106 girls. In 
1842, the National Board had two schools at respec- 
tively Rahan and Killina. 

RAIIARA. See Raharrow. 

RAHARNEY, or Ratdfarne, a village in the 
parish of KiUucan, barony of Farbill, co; Westmeath, 
Leinster. It stands on the rivulet Deel, and on the 
road from Killucan to Ballivor, 2 miles east-north- 
east of Killucan, and 4^ north of Kinnegad. It con- 
tains a church, a Roman Catholic chapel, and a con- 
stabulary barrack ; and in its vicinity are. the seats 
of Joristown, Grangebeg, Graddoostown, Grange- 
more, Wardenstown, and Curristown. Area of the 
village, 17 acres. Pop., in 1831, 259; in 1841, 190. 
Houses 34. 

RAHARROW, or Rahara, a parish in the bar- 
ony of Athlone, 4| miles south-east of Athleague, 
CO. Roscommon, Connaught. Length, east-south- 
eastward, 3| miles ; extreme breadth, 2^ ; area, 
5,362 acres, 2 roods, 24 perche8,~of which 161 
acres, 1 rood, 38 perches are in Lough Ballagh. 
Pop., in 1831, 1,630; in 1841, 1,514. Houses 272. 
The whole of the land is profitable ; most of it is 
good in either tillage or pasturage ; and the highest 
ground, Wind-Hill, has an altitude above sea-level 
i./,.../v» \ ^ 4^ ^eet. LoygLJO^allagfa lies on the soathern 
/ boundarv, and Eas a surface-elevation above sea-level 
of 219 teet. The seats are Lackan-house, Rahar- 
row-house, and Longfield-house ; and the villages 
and hamlets are Lackan, Raharrow, Dally's-villuge, 
New-mountain, and Ballagh. The road from Ath- 
league to Athlone, passes through the interior. — 
This parish is a vicarage, and part of the benefice of 
KiLLEKYOY [which see], in the dio. of Elphin. 
Vicarial tithe composition, £66 5». 9d. ; glebe, £10 
Is. 3d. The rectorial tithes, jointly with those of 
Kilmain and Killenvoy, are compounded for £186 
7s. ; and are impropriate in the Incorporated Society. 
The Roman Catholic chapel has an attendance of 
450 ; and, in the Roman Catholic parochial arrange- 
ment, is united to the chapels of Kilmain, St. John's, 
and Killenvoy. In 1834, the Protestants amounted 
to 19, and the Roman Catholics to 1,518; and a 
hedge-school had on its books 45 boys and 30 

RAHEEN, a village in the parish of Knocklong, 
barony of Ccwhlea, aibout 6 miles east by south of 

Braff, 00. Limerick, Munster. Pop., in 1831, 174. 
Houses 24. 

RAHEEN, a village in the parish of Clonenagfa 
and Clonagheen. barony of West Maryborough, 
Queen's co., Leinster. It stands on the road from ^ 
Mountrath tO' Ballyroan, 3^ miles north by west of' 
Abbeyleix, and 44 south-east by east of Mountrath. 
A dispensary here is within the Poor-law union of 
Abbeyleix, and serves for a district containing a pop. 
of 6,600; and, in 1839, it expended £52 Is. 6d., and 
administered to 1 ,567 patients. A Roman Catholic 
parish in the dio. of Kildare and Leighlin, takes 
name from Raheen, and has chapels here and at 
Springmount. In the vicinity of the village are the 
seats of Tinnakill and Raheen. Pop. not specially 

RAHEENS See Castlebar. 

RAHELTY, or Rathealtt, a parish in the 
barony of Eliogurty, 3 miles north-east of Thurles, 
CO. Tipperary, Munster. Length, southward, 8 
miles ; extreme breadth, 2^ ; area, 4,875 acres, 38 
perches, — of which 1,385 acres, 5 perches form a 
detached district of 2 miles by 1^, situated a little 
south of the main body, and nearly 2 miles east of 
Thurles. Pop., in 1831, according to the Census, 
1,740, but according to the Ecclesiastiial AutJ^ori- 
ties, 1,174; in 1841, 1,765. Houses 287. Aeon- 
siderable portion of the eastern district of the nnain 
body is bog, but the remainder of the main body and 
the whole of the detached district prevailifigly con- 
sist of good land. The main body contains a con- 
stabulary barrack, and is traversed by the road from 
Thurles to Moyne ; and the detached district con- 
tains the seats of Archerstown-house, Rathmanna- 
house, and Turtulla-house, and is traversed by the 
roads from Thurles to Two-Mile-Borris and KiUe- 
naule — This parish is a vicarage, and part of the 
benefice of Thurles [which see], in the dio. of 
Cashel. The vicarial tithes are compounded for 
£98, and the rectorial for £90 ; and the latter are 
impropriate in the representatives of Nathaniel Tay- 
lor, Esq. of Noan. In 1834, the Protestants 
amounted to 24, and the Roman Catholics to 1,2U; 
and there was neither church, chapel, nor school. 

RAHENY, or Rathent, a parish, containing a 
village of the same name, in the barony of Coolock, 
CO. Dublin, Leinster. Length, south-westward. 
If mile; extreme breadth, Ijt; area, 920 acres, 1 
rood, 19 perches. Pop., in 1831, according to the 
Census; 608, but according to the Ecdesiaetieal 
Authorities, 612; in 1841, 722. Houses 117. The 
surface lies on the middle of the northern sea*board 
of Dublin bay ; consists, for the most part, of eaeel- 
lent land ; is traversed by the Dublin and Drogheda 
railway, and by the road fi*om Dublin to Howth ; 
and, in common with the adjacent districts, is bril- 
liant and beautiful, at once in natural luxurianee, ill 
artificial decoration, and in free command of a most 
lovely and gorgeous landscape. The prindpai of its 
mansions and villas are Biaryville, Ralieny«park, 
Watermill-cottage, Raheny-house, MiUbroos-eot* 
tage, Edenmore, Walmer-cottaffe, Belmont, and 
Foxhall. The shore is much frequented for sea* 
bathing, and terminates in a fine strand, higUy suit* 
able for the purpose. The village stands 4 uiles 
north-east of Dublin, on the nor^ road thenoe to 
Howth, and about 5 furlongs from the shore. It 
contains the parish-church, an elegant sdiooUuNMe, 
a dispensary, and several commodious and nrnimni 
tal villas. The church bears an inscriptioii, wlddi 
states it to have been built in 1712, but wfaidi majr 
possibly refer only to an extensive alteration or a 
thorough repair; and the pile is thought by aooie 
persons to have been really built in l&O. It is a 
small and humble structure, and baa at iU\ 




m elevmted pier, perforated with niches, one of which 
contains a bell. '* This species of flat bell-turret," 
remarks Mr. Brewer, ** requires little attention as 
an architectural object ; but is worthy of notice at 
this place, so near to the usual entrance of Ireland 
from Britain, on account of its frequent occurrence 
in the smaller ecclesiastical buildings of this coun- 
try." The dispensary is within the North Dublin 
Poor-law union, and serves for a district containing 
a pop. of 4,106; and, in 1830, it expended £97 i9s., 
and administered to 1,369 patients. A court of 
petty-sessions is held on every alternate Saturday. 
The village, together with the adjoining lands, was 
for several generations in the possession of a distant 
branch of the ancient family of Grace of Queen's 
county, and the county of Kilkenny ; and so early as 
the reign of King John, it gave the title of Baron to 
John De Courcey, supposed by the best genealogists 
to have been a natural son of Sir John De Courcey, 
Earl of Ulster, and one of the first Anglo-Norman 
conquerors of Ireland. Area of the village, 12 acres. 
Pop., in 1831, 282; in 1841, 295. Houses 49.--- 
This parish is a rectory, and a separate benefice, in 
the dio. of Dublin. Tithe composition, £142 3s. 
ed.; glebe, £157 7s. 6d. Gross income, £302 Os. 
Id. ; nett, £267 8s. lid. Patron, the Crown. Sit- 
tings in the church 100 ; attendance, from 10 to 50. 
In 1834, the parishioners consisted of 103 Church- 
men, 8 Protestant dissenters,' and 530 Roman Cath- 
olics; and 2 daily schools — the one of which was 
supported principally bv private subscription, and 
the other wholly with JtAO a-year from the rent of 
8 cottages under the ^vill of the late Samuel Dick 
— had on their books 82 boys and 72 girls. 

RAHILL, a parish in the barony of Rathvilly, 2 
miles north by west of the village of Rathvilly, oo. 
Carlow, Leinster. Length, south-south-eastward, 
3j miles ; extreme breadth, 2 ; area, 2,684 acres, 1 
rood, 38 perches. Pop.,*in 1831, 269; in 1841, 498. 
Houses 76. The surfiJce includes the most northerly 
ground in the county, is traversed by the road from 
Tallow to Baltingliun, and consists, in general, of 
Tery good land. The summit of Rahill Mound, in 
the north, has an altitude of 499 feet above sea-level. 
The seats are Rahill-cottage and Broughilstone- 
iKWse. — This parish is an impropriate curacy, and 
part of the benefice of Rathyiixt (^ which see], in 
the (Bo. of Leighlin. Tithe composition belonging 
to the incumbent, £61 10s. 9d. The rectorial tithes 
are eompounded for £122 19i. 6d. ; and are appro* 
priated to the deaa and chapter of Leighlin cathedral. 
In 1834, the Protestonts amounted to 21, and the 
Roosan Catholics to 292 ; and two free schools, the 
ooa for makes and the other for females, and each 
endowed with £30 a-year under the will of Benja- 
jamin D'lsfaeli, had on their books 49 boys and 75 

RAHINE. See Raheen and Castlbbar. 

RAHOLP, a village in the parishes of Saul and 
Bnilyculter, barony of Lecale, oo. Down, Ulster. 
It stands 3 miles north-east of Downpatrick, on the 
road thence to Strangford. It contains a school; 
and in its vicinity are the ruins of a church. Pop. 
not specially returned. 

RAUOON, a parish, partly within the municipal 
borough of Gal way, and partly in the baronies of 
Galway and Rahoon, co. Galway, Connaught. It 
contains part of the town of Galwat : which see. 
Length, westward, 6 miles; extreme breadth, 3|. 
Area of the borough and the barony of Galway sec- 
tion, 11,014 acres, 3 roods, 5 perches, — of which 
281 acres constitute the borough section, 232 acres, 
3 roods, 6 perches are water. Area of the Moy- 
enllen section, 4,154 acres, 1 rood, 25 perches, — of 
t 28 acres, 19 perches are water. Pop. uf the 

whole, in 1831, 14,140; in 1841, 14,433. HooMf 
2, 370. Pop. , in 1831 , of the borough and the barony 
oif Galway section, both of which then lay in the 
quondam county of the town of Galway, 13,510; 
of the Moycullen section, 630. Pop., m 1841, of 
the borough section, 6,377 ; of the barony of Gal- 
way section, 7.133; of the Moycullen section, 923. 
Houses, in 1841, in the borough section, 1,035; in 
the barony of Galway section, 1,182; in the Moy- 
cullen section, 153. The surfiice extends westward 
from the Corrib river to a point on the shore of Gal- 
way bay nearly 3 miles beyond Bama, and northward 
from Galway bay to very nearly the foot of Lough 
Corrib ; it has already, to a considerable extent, been 
noticed in the articles on the Corrib river, the town 
of Galwat, and the villages of Barna and New- 
CASTLE; it is strictly identical with the western 
parts and suburbs of the town of Galway, and by far 
the best portion of the northern sea-board of Gal- 
way bay ; and it presents considerable variety of 
surface, — contains a considerable aggregate of good 
lands and pleasant grounds, — commands superb views 
of the Bnrren mountains, the intricate eastern shore- 
line of Galway bay, and the fine perspective of the 
Arran islands, — and offers agreeable drives along the 
shore, and round what is called by courtesy the Cir- 
cular Road ; yet, in spite of all its advantages, it haa 
a prevailingly bleak, broken, and rocky character, — 
abounds in squalid huts, and nauseous displays of filth 
and debasement, — and too sadly harmonizes in Its 
country parts with the prevailing disagreeableness and 
dirt of the great town upon its eastern margin. Salt- 
hill road and village, along the shore in the vicinity 
of the town, are pleasant localities, thickly powdered 
with good villas, and neat lodges and cottages, and 
deservedly frequented bv multitudinous families of 
both town and country for the purposes of summer 
sea-bathing. The large fishing village of Claiv* 
DAGH [which seej), is an unique feature : and MuT- 
TON-IsLAND [which also see], fibres conspicuously 
in the bay. A coast-guard station, with its clean 
cottages, occurs beyond Claddagh, and adjacent to 
Salt-hill. A rather large baths'-house on the shore 
in front of Salt-hill was, not many years ago, in 
common with a large pendicle of reclaimed and em- 
banked land, overwhelmed by a tempestuous onset 
of the sea. A neat and comfortable, but small new 
baths'-house, was, soon after this calamity, erected 
farther to the west, and on a more eligible site. 
The villa, the seat of the Very Rev. Warden Daly, 
and West Lodge, the seat of James O'Hara, Esq., 
are pleasant features on the western outskirts of the 
town ; and the series of villas and cottages at and 
near Newcastle, fling decoration over the outlet t^ 
ward Oughterard and Clifden. Two principal sesti 
in the parish are Rahoon-house, J. J. Bodkin, Esq^., 
and Baima-house, Mr. Lynch. Other seats, princi<^ 
pally villas and cottages om^es, are Rock.lodg«p 
Newcastle-cottage, Newcastle-house, Straw- lodg^ 
Belmount, Shantalla-hou^e, Nile- lodge, Taylor's^ 
hill-house, White-Strand-house, Sandymount, Seii- 
mount-lodge, Kingstown-house, Bath-lodge, St. 
Helen's, Albana-villa, AsMey-park, Bui^by-park; 
Lake view, Glenlough, Albana-cottage, St. Oraii's- 
cottage, Newpark, Brown ville, Woodstock-house, 
Bama - lodge, Glenacarra • lodge, Nermon - lodge, 
Marino-cottage, East Derryloughauii-house, West 
Derryloughaun-house, and Furraghtf>hou8e. The 
principal hamlets, or segregations of from 3 to 19 
huts, are Derrvcrigh, L^ttergYinnet, Polleany, 
Ballymahawn, Ballyvoddy, West Knockaunakit, 
East Knockaunakit, Forramoylebeg, Forramoyle- 
more, Knockaunacurra, Trusk, Cloghscoltia, Aille, 
Corballymorgun, Corballylynch, CorcuUen, Atty- 
shonock, Tonabrocky, Ballybourke, Cappagh, Bal- 




lybeigewaun, Boherrard, and Litteragh. A height 
2^ miles north- west of the town has an altitude above 
sea-level of 355 feet ; and Lough Inch, situated on 
the boundary between the baronies, and the largest 
of numerous small lakes within the parish, has a 

superiicial elevation of 118 feet This parish is a 

rectory, and part of the benefice and wardenship of 
Galway. Tithe composition, £117 la. 6d. The 
Bushy-park and the Barna Roman Catholic chapels 
have an attendance of respectively from 300 to 400, 
and from 600 to 800 ; and, in the Roman Catholic 
parochial arrangement, are united to one of the divi- 
sions of the large Roman Catholic chapel of Galway. 
The chapel of the Presentation Convent at the 
town has an attend^ce of 200, and is under the care 
of the clergymen who officiate in the parochial 
chapels. The chapel of the Presentation Convent 
at Poulraroona has an attendance of 200 ; and is un- 
der the care of a chaplain. The chapel of the Domi- 
nican friary at Claddagh has an attendance of from 
700 to 800 ; and is under the care of the Dominican 
friars. In 1834, the parishioners consisted of 406 
Churchmen, 18 Presbyterians, and 14,540 Roman 
Catholics ; a daily school was taught by the nuns of 
the Galway Presentation Convent, had on its books 
529 girls, and was supported by £30 a-year, and the 
usufU accompanying advantages from the National 
Board, the proceeds of a collection at an annual 
charity sermon, and the produce of the children's 
needlework ; a free school at Killourky had on its 
books 9 boys and 20 girls, and was supported by £9 
a-year from the London Ladies' Hibernian Society, 
and a graduated allowance from the London Hiber- 
nian Societv ; a classical and mathematical school 
had on its books 8 boys ; and 7 common pay daily 
schools had on their books 200 bovs and 65 girls. 
In 1842, the National Board had schools at Galway 
and Bushy-park, and in Galway workhouse. 

RAHUE, RAHUGH, or Rathuoh, a' parish in 
the barony of Moycashel, 3 miles south-east of Kil- 
beggan, co. Westmeath, Leinster. Length, west- 
south-westward, 4 miles ; extreme breadth, 2 ; area, 
4,973 acres, 2 roods, 15 perches. Pop., in 1831, 
1,129; in 1841, 1,255. Houses 209. The surface 
lies on the southern margin of the countv ; and is 
traversed by the Kilbeggan branch of the Grand 
Canal, and by tbe road from Tyrrel's-Pass to Tulla- 
more. The land hasj in general, a light soil, and 
averages, in annual value, from 25s. to 30s. per plan- 
tation acre. A very considerable proportion of tbe 
surface, however, is bog. The highest ground is in 
the north-west, and has an altitude of 393 feet above 
sea-level. The only seat is Judgeville; the only 
hamlet is Rahue ; and the chief antiquities are the 
ruins of Rahue-abbey, And the castles of Mountrath 
and Kiltober. Archdall alleges that the founder of 
the abbey was a St. Aid, who died in 588— This 
parish is a vicarage, and part of the benefice of Ard- 
NURCRER [which sce], in the dio. of Meath. The 
vicarial tithe composition is reported in cumulo with 
that of four other vicarages. The rectorial tithes are 
compounded for £64 12s. 3d. ; and are impropriate 
in the Marquis of DoWtishire. The Baptist meet- 
ing-house has an attendance of about 50. The Ro- 
man Catholic chapel has an attendance of from 400 
to 600 ; and, in the Roman Catholic parochial ar- 
rangement, is united to the chapel of Kilbeggan. In 
18^, the parishioners consisted of 140 Churchmen, 
14 Protestant dissenters, and 995 Roman Catholics ; 
and 3 pay daily schools — one of which was also a 
boarding school, and classical and mathematical 
schooU-had on their books 39 boys and 16 girls, and 
were attended by about 12 other children. 

R AIL STOW N, a parish in the barony of Middle- 
third, 3| miles south-east by east of Cashel, co. Tip- 

perary, Munster. Length, westward. If mile ; 
extreme breadth, I ; area, 904 acres, 1 rood, 31 
perches. Pop., in 1831, 290; in 1841, 256. Houses 
32. The surface consists of arable land, worth 
about 30s. per plantation acre per annum. Tbe only 
seat is Ballyduagh-house — This parish is a rectory, 
and part of the benefice of Fethard [which see], in 
the dio. of Cashel. Tithe composition, £73 158. 
ll^d. In 1834, the parishioners were all Roman 
Catholics ; and a pay daily school was usually at- 
tended in summer by about 50 children. 

RAILWAYS. See Armagh, Belfast, Bebb- 
HAVEN, Cork, Dublin, Kingstown, Limsbics, 
Leinster, Ulster, and many other articles, par- 
ticularly those on most of the counties and the busi- 
ness towns. 

RALOO, or Ralloo, a parish in the barony of 
Lower Belfkst, 3| miles south-west of Larne, co. 
Antrim, Ulster. Length, south-south-eastward, 3| 
miles; extreme breadth, 2|; area, 6,106 acres, 3 
roods, 20 perches. Pop., in 1831, 2,171 ; in 1841, 
2, 179. Houses 406. One-fourth of tbe land is ex- 
tremely good ; one-fourth is middle rate ; and one 
half is bad, boggy, and mountainous. The road 
from Lame to Carrickfergus and Belfast passes 
through the interior. The chief hamlets are Gienoe» 
Mackey's-Town, and Raloo. ** In the parish of 
Raloo,*' says a pretty well-known antiquarian writer 
of Carrickfergus, **are 16 large stones standing- 
closely together, called, in the Scottish idiom of the 
neighbourhood, Ceanorth's Wa's. They are situ- 
ated on a swelling eminence ; and from several stones 
of a similar size lying about, and others removed 
within memory to the adjoining fences, it is evident 
that formerly a considerably greater number stood 
here than at present ; — and from an examination of 
their probable number, it is certain there could not 
have been less than thirty. The greatest height of 
those remaining is about 4^ feet above the ground ; 
and on these rested a stone about 6 feet in length by 
4^ feet in breadth, which many years ago was cast 
from its level position by the lovers of destnictioa 
ajid mischief. A few years ago, on removing some 
large stones on the east side, whitish ashes were found 
undemeatb, and amongst these were numerous par- 
ticles of a dead white colour, which Ml into duet 
on their being exposed to the air. These partidea 
were supposed to have been bones in their last stage 
of decay. The original names of these stones have 
fortunately been less corrupted than those of numcrona 
other relics of antiquity ; from which dreumstanoe we 
may feirly conclude, that such monuments were f 

pies of the sun Cean grioth, from which the | 

name is evidently derived, literally signifies *tiia 
head of the sun,' the worship of wmch great hmU 
nary being prior to the introduction of ChriiAianitj 
into this kingdom, the great obiect of Pagan ador»« 
tion. At some distance is a hill encompassed by an 
earthen embankment and a trench, in digging within 
which have been found stone hatcheta, with apear 
and arrow-heads made of flint. These last are CHled 
elf stones, and are generally believed to i 
discharged by fairies at catue, against wb 
charms are still used by the credulous. Alittln 
northward are two rows of large grey*sionea stand* 
ing upright ; the rows are about 16 inches asunder, 
and a few inches between each stone. In an i , 
ing field are several caves, believed to have ' 
the winter habitations of the ancient inhahttanta nf 
the country, who were called PthtM (PictiO**'— . 
This parish is a rectory, and part of the benefice nf 
Cariuckfergus [which see], in the dio. of Connnr. 
The church was quite recently erected by tbe Cbnrdi* 
Extension Society. The Roman Catholic chapsi 
has an attendance of from 200 to a004 end* in Om 




Roman Catholic parochial arrangement, is united to 
the chapel of Lanie. In 1834, the parishioners con- 
aisted of 1,773 Presbyterians, 143 other Protestant 
ditsentert , and 363 Roman Catholics ; and 6 dail? 
schools— each of three of which was salaried with 
X8 frcHn the National Board — had oo their books 
196 bm and 88 girls. 

RAMELTON, or Rathmelton, an alias name 
of the riTer Lsanan : which see. 

RAMELTON, or Rathmelton, a poet and noar- 
ket town in the parish of Aughinish, barony of Kil- 
macrenan, co. Donegal, Ulster. It stands on the 
road from Strabane to RathmuUen, and on the river 
Leanan, a little above its entrance into Lough 
SwUly, 4| miles east of Kilmacrenan, 5 south-south- 
west of Rathmullen, 6 north-north-east of Letter- 
kenny, 10| west by north of Londonderry, 19^ 
north-north-west of Strabane, and 121 k north-north- 
west of Dublin. The vale or glen of the Leanan is 
ptctaresque and beautifully wooded ; aud the imme- 
diate environs of the town are agreeably varied, con- 
siderably improved, and as rich in scenes of romance 
and beautv as some of the districts of Ireland mo&t 
celebrated by tourists. Within 2 miles of the toMm 
are Shellfield-house, Croghan-hiU, Killydonnel-ab- 
bey, Ballyarr-wood, Drummonaghan-wood, Glen- 
cam-house, Ballyarr-house, Clara-house, and Fort- 
Stewart, — ^the three last the seats of respectively J. 
Cochran, Esq., J. Watt, Esq., and Sir James Stew. 
art, Bart. The town presents in its interior a plea- 
sant and prosperous appearance ; and it contains a 
church, two Presbyterian meeting-houses, and a 
Methodist meeting-house. The chief appliances of 
industry are extensive corn-mills, large corn-stores, 
a brewery, a bleaching-green, and numerous linea- 
weavers' looms. In the town are two snudl im», 
at which ears can be hired ; and on the Leanan, 
immediately below the town, and at the com- 
mencement of the river's small estuary, is a land- 
ing-place at which small sea-borne vessels take 
in and discharge cargoes. Fairs are held on May 
Id, July 18, and Nov. 16. A court of petty-ses- 
sions is held on the second Thursday of every 
■Kmth. In 1841, the Ramelton loan-fund had a 
eapital of £2,167, circuUted £9,692 in 3,272 loans, 
realiied a nett profit of £171 Is. Id., and expended 
for charitable purposes £275. A dispensary in the 
town is within the Millford Poor-law union, and 
serves for a district of 21,194 acres, with a pop. of 
a,088; and, in 1839^40, it expended £122 3s. lUd., 
and made 3,537 dispensations of medicine to 1,466 
patients. Area of the town, 39 acres. Pop., in 
18S1, 1,783; in 1841, 1,4*28. Houses 245. Faroi- 
Hea employed chiefly in agriculture, 68 ; in manuiac- 
toKs and trade, 140; in other pursuits, 69. Fami- 
liea dependent chiefly on property and professions, 
18 ; on the directing of labour, 134 ; on their own 
BBanual labour, 116; on means not specified, 9. 

R AMOAN, or Rathmoan, a parish on the coast 
of the barony of Carey, co. Antrim, Ulster. It con- 
tains the town of Ball ycastle: which see. Length, 
south by eastward, 6 miles ; extreme breadth, 4^ ; 
area, 12,066 acres, 1 rood, 35 perches. Pop., in 
1881, 4,739; in 1841, 4.807. Houses 844. Pop. 
at the rural districts, in ia31 , 3,056 ; in 1841 , 3, 1 10. 
Hooaes 570. At the western extremitv of the coast 
ia the headland of Kenbane : which see. The 
magmfi(3ent and curious mountain of Knocklayo 
[which also see], lifts its summit of 1,685 feet of 
altitude above sea-level on the southern boundary, 
and spreads a great mass of its body and skirts within 
the interior. The surface, with the exception of 
this mountain and of three bogs, is all arable Innd ; 
and though very various in qualitv, it generally ha.s 
a good, productive, light soil. The three bogs bear 

the names of Cairn- Saggart, Cairn-Duff, and Cairn* 
Sampson. An extensive coppice, the remains of an 
ancient forest, which formerly clothed the skirts and 
sides of Knocklayd, exists on the southern border. 
The principal plantations are those upon the demesnes 
of Glenbank and Clarepark ; but they are of no great 
extent. The Glenshesk rivulet flows on the eastern 
boundary ; and a tiny estuary forms a snuiU harbour 
at Ballycastle. The rocks, like those of most of 
the coast of Antrim, are principally basalt and in- 
durated chalk ; and both are quarried — especially 
the latter — under the name of limestone. Some fine 
crystals have been found at Knocklayd; and some 
fine pebbles, chalcedony, zeolite, belemnites, and 
dendrites, have been found upon the shore. A tol- 
erably good salmon fishery exists at the mouth of 
the Glenshesk ; herrings, in great quantities, some- 
times visit the bay ; and rock-cod, mullet, red gur- 
net, sea-trout, turbet, soles, and flounders, are 
pretty abundant along the coast, but, in consequence 
of the boldness of the shores and the violence of the 
surf, they cannot be caught during the months of 
winter. The' demesne of ClareparK is situated on 
the coast, 1| mile north-west of Ballycastle, and on 
the road to BalUntoy ; and the demesne of Glenbank 
is situated in Glenshesk, 3^ miles south by east of 
Ballycastle, and on the road to Broughshane. The 
views from the coast are extensive and ver^ brilliant 
and varied. ** North-east lies the island oi Rathlin, 
above which, on a dear day, the dome-like moun- 
tains of Jura seem to rise, — 

' A« if some viewless hand had traced 
An airy palace on the skjr.' 

To the east the sea- view is terminated by the lofty 
mountains of Argyleshire, above whose summits the 
steep crags of Arran are £iintly seen, softened by dis- 
tance into a delicate and almost ethereal tinge of 
blue. South-east, the basaltic promontory of Fair- 
Head projects its grave and impressive outline to 
the sea. Due south, Culfeightrin extends, dotted 
with white houses, and interspersed with the mo- 
nastic ruins of Bonamarga, Churchfield, &c. South- 
west, Knockleade rises in a graceful waving line on 
the horizon, while Danish raths, distant cottages, 
and the spire of Ballycastle church glittering above 
the trees, give an admirable finish to the whole.'* 
Kenbane- castle, anciently belonging to a chieftain of 
the sept of Mac Allister, is situated on a chalk cliff 
which projects with a lofty perpendicular front into 
the ocean ; it consists at present of only one massive 
tower, and, in consequence of the romantic character 
of its site and its appearance, it is much frequented 
by parties in summer. Dunniny-castbf is distant 
about half-a-mile from Ballycastle, and is situated 
on the verge of a rock, which rises nearly 300 feet 
above the ocean ; but it survives in only a few frag- 
ments, and does not figure in any historical record 
or even plausible tradition. Gobbin's- Heir-castle is 
situated on the banks of the Glenshesk rivulet, about 
a mile from Ballycastle, and appears to be the oldest 
extant building in the district. ** In the massive 
ruin which remains, no sculpture is visible as in the 
other neighbouring castles, no cornice, no dawning 
of taste, to relieve this ponderous load of human toil, 
which seems intended more for imposing terror than 
for exciting admiration ; the situation, however, is 
pleasing. All history of thi^ castle is also involved 
in obscurity ; but imagination has supplied the defi- 
ciency of authentic arcountir, by inventing many a 
wondrous tale of fairies and spectres, who are still 
said to frequent it." Another castle, the most mo- 
dem of the four within the parish, stands at Bally- 
castle, and gives name io that town. Several raths 
occur, some terminating in a pointed apex, and others 




having the form of a truncated cone. Several cav- , 
erna occur in the coast between Ballycafltle and 
Kenbane-Head ; and one of these is remarkable for 
its height and beauty, forms a superb Gothic arch, 
penetrates a considerable way into the coast, and 
produces a series of admirable echoes under the 
power of a French horn. The fata morgana is oc 

casionally seen upon the coast This parish is a 

rectory, a separate benefice, and the corps of the 
chancellorship of Connor cathedral, in the dio. of 
Connor. Tithe composition, £400; glebe, £39. 
Gross income, £439; nett, £;343 7a. 3d. Patron, 
the diocesan. The church was built in 1812, by 
means of a loan of £369 4s. T^d. from the late Board 
of First Fruits. Sittings 250; attendance 150. 
The chapel-of-case at Ballycastle was built in 1754, 
at the cost of £2,769 4*. 7id., all defrayed by the 
late Col. Hugh Boyd ; and it is served by a chaplain, 
who has a gross income of £55 8s. 5|d., and a nett 
income of £25 88. 54d. Sittings 300; attendance 
200. Two Presbyterian nteeting-houses have an 
attendance of respectively 200 and 150. The Metho- 
dist meeting-house has an attendance* of from 20 to 
100. Two Roman Catholic chapels have an attend- 
ance of respectively 300 and 150; and, in the Roman 
Catholic parochial arrangement, are mutually united, 
and are under the care of an officiate. In 1834, the 
parishioners consisted of 1,718 Churchmen, 1,549 
Presbyterians, and 1,710 Roman Catholics; 6 Sun- 
day schools were usually attended by about 423 
children ; and 1 1 doil v schools had on their books 
301 boys and 296 girls. One of the daily schools 
was a charter school, salaried with £22 a-year ; one 
was a National school, salaried with £8 a-year ; and 
four were schools of the London Hibernian Society, 
salaried or aided in the usual way by that society, 
and two of these four salaried also with respectively 
£7 a-year from Miss Boyd, and £5 from the London 
Ladies' Hibernian Society. In 1842, the National 
Board had one school for boys and another for girls 
at Moyarget. 

RAMOR (Louoh), a lake in the parishes of 
Castleraghan, Lurgan, and Munterconnaught, barony 
of Castleraghan, co. Cavan, Ulster. It has a surface- 
elevation of 270 feet above sea-level ; measures 3| 
miles in length, and 1 mile in breadth ; and com- 
prises an area of 102 acres, 2 roods, 3 perches in the 
l^arish of Castleraghan, 774 acres, 1 rood, 29 perches 
m the ptarish of Lurgan, and 965 acres, 2 roods, 8 
perches in the parish of Munterconnaught. Its form 
IS demisemidrcular, commencing with a direction 
toward the east, and terminating with a direction 
toward the south. Its feeding-streams are Virginia- 
Water and the other rivulets of the south-east dis- 
trict of the county; and its superfluent waters form 
the river Blackwater: which see. Numerous 
islets lie sprinkled upon its bosom, and are, for the 
most part, tufted with wood. Its outlines are, in 
several places, considerably varied; and its shore, 
are diversified with demesnes, plantations, fine fiu-mss 
and the town of Virginia. ** On the western end, 
the shores are beautified by the plantations of Lord 
Hertford's fine deer-park, which stretch for two 
■liles around them, and connect with the improve- 
ments of Fort-George, the residence of the Rev. 
John Rowley, rector of the parish, and also with the 
plantations of Fort- Frederick, the beautifully situ 
ated demesne of Richard Scott, Esq." 

RAMSFORT, a demesne in the parishes of Kil- 
cavan and Gorey, barony of Gorey, co. Wexford, 
Leinster. The mansion is the seat of Abel Ram, 
Esq., and is a handsome modem structure, after 
designs by Mr. Semple, and situated 1} mile north of 
the town of Gorey. The former mansion was a 
magnificent edifice, and was destroyed during the 

rebellion of 1798. " At that melancholy period,* 
says Mr. Brewer, ** the insurgents battered tlut 
house from the elevation termed Gorey-Hill, with 
two six-pounders and one curricle gun. After they 
had obtained possession of the building they burned 
it, leaving the bare walls to reproach the perpetra- 
tors with this act of Vandalism, so dispaoeful, in 
all respects, to a civilized country, as bein^ levelled 
at once against the arts and i^ainst distrnguisbed 
private virtue. This ruined mansion had been erected 
by the late Colonel Ram, in 1751 and the following 
year, after the designs of Mr. George Semple, the 
able architect of Essex -bridge, and other publie 
structures, in the city of Dublin. It occupied the 
site of a former building, that in its turn had re* 
placed a more ancient dwelling, both of which were 
consumed by accidental fire. The family of Ram 
has enjoyed a high share of consideration in the 
county of Wexford for more than two centuries; 
the first of the name who settled here being Dr. 
ThoiM Ram, a native of Windsor, in Berkshire, 
who is mentioned in our list of the bishops of Leigh- 
lin and Ferns. That prelst*» at the lame of the 
settlement of this coimty, obtained from tka CrowB 
extensive grants of lands, the greater part of whie& 
has descended to his posterity.'* 

RAMSGRANGE, a village in the parish of St. 
James and Dunbrody, barony of Shelboume, co. 
Wexford, Leinster. It stands on the road from Bal- 
lyhack to Tintem and Clonmines, 1| mile north- 
north-east of Duncannon, and 2 miles east of Bally, 
hack. Here is a Roman Catholic chapel. Fairs are 
held on March 17, May 1, Nov. 1, and Dec. 20. 
Area of the village, 22 acres. Pop., in 1831, 220; 
in 1841, 183. Houses 30. 

RAM'S- ISLAND, an island in the parish of 
Glenavy, barony of Upper Massarene, co. Antrim, 
Ulster. It lies across the entrance of Sandy bay, in 
Lough Neagh, 1^ mile west of the nearest part of 
the mainland, and Sh miles south-west by west of 
the village of Crumlm. Its area is 6 acres, 3 roods, 
23 perches. It is seen from all parts of the lake, like 
a mass of dark foliage on the surfiu^ of the water; 
it possessed much beauty by nature, and has acquired 
surpassing loveliness from the embellishments <n art; 
and it is known in one of the songs of the pettsantry 
as *' Bonny Ram Island.'* It was greatly bcMitifiea 
bv a former proprietor of the name of Wiiittle, who 
planted it with a profusion of shrubs and treea, had 
out upon it an orchard and a garden, and laboaried to 
render it both a handsome and a picturesque object t 
and it has been gorgeously decorated by its pf escnt 
proprietor. Earl O'Neill, who erected upon H an 
extremely pretty and most tasteful cottage, adoptedl 
it as his occasional residence, and converted ita Bur> 
fiice into a most luxurious demesne. " The entire 
ground is laid out into walks, and covered with vecw 
dure. Several hundred rose-trees and thoae plants 
and flowers which constitute the pride of our gar- 
dens, all flourish luxuriantly. Even those sides of 
the island which are almost perpendicular are ■d om e i 
with all those creeping plants and hardy shruba wMch 
are adapted to the situation.^ The island seems to 
have been, at no very remote period, connected wMi 
the continent ; and when the lake is at its at 
level, a bank is seen extending from the is! 
Gartree Point. A pillar-tower stands on the i 
43 feet in height, 30 feet 5 inches in cir camfrr i ho tj 
and 2 feet 8^ inches in thickness of waU. in tlio 
first story is the door ; in the second, a window 
facing the south-east ; and in the third, a window 
fiicing the north, and measuring 8 Ibet by I), 
** There are two rests for joists, and io tiio first 
story there is a projecting stone about 6^ feet firoa 
the surface. Certain letters or characters appear to 




fw cut in the stones in tiie inside ; bat so obliterated 
•re they by time, that they are quite illegible. A 
follow sound or echo is heard on enterinfi^ the build- 
u^ : this induced a person who lived in the island to 
dig 5 feet below the surface, where he found several 
buman bones and some coffin boards. A skeleton 
was discovered near the tower some time since, 
and bones and skulls in many parts of the island." 
An old fisherman of the name of David Macarevy 
obtained possession of the island by prescriptive right; 
Conway Macniece, Esq., purchased it about 40 years 
a^o, for 100 guineas, from Macarevy ; Mr. Whittle, 
then an inhabitant of the parish of Glenavv, but 
afterwards a merchant in Liverpool, obtained it in 
exchange for an adjoining fiirm, from Mr. Macniece ; 
a:id the Right Hon. Earl O'Neill purchased it from 
Mr. WTiittle. 


RANDALSTOWN, a post and market town, 
and formerly a parliamentary borough, in the parish 
of Druromaul, barony of Upper Toome, co. Antrim, 
ULiter. It stands on the nver Main, on the road 
from Banbridge to Coleraine, and on the direct road 
from Belfast to Londonderry, 2 miles north of the 
nearest part of Lough Neagh, 4 north-west by west 
of Antrim, 5| east of Toome-Bridge, 7^ south of 
Ballymena, 17 north-west by west of Belfast, and 
8d| north of Dublin. The environs consist of a 
beautiful and richly wooded portion of the glen or 
vale of the Main ; and they are seen with fine effect, 
both above and below the to\vn, from the bridge 
across the river. Earl O'Neill's gorgeously wooded 
demesne occupies most of the vale southward to 
Lough Neagh, and constitutes by far the largest 
and most attractive feature of the landscape. See 
Shanb's-Castle. The town has a pleasant site, 
and a neat appearance; and it contains a church, 
two Presbyterian meeting-houses, a barrack, a mar* 
ket-house, and a comfortable inn. A parade for the 
military was laid out in front of the barrack, and is 
now the town mall or public promenade. The mar- 
ket-hottse is a handsome building, and has over it 
an assembly-room. A dispensary in the town is 
within the Antrim Poor-law union, and serves for a 
district of 47,464 acres, with a pop. of 19,810; and, 
in 1839-40, it expended £71 15s., and made 2.520 
dispensations of medicine. In 1840, the Randals- 
town loan fund had a capital of £4,260, circulated 
£14,968 in 3,860 loans, cleared a nett profit of £234 
14«. 4d., and expended for charitable purposes £35 
2s. 6d. The principal trade carried on is the spin- 
BiDg of cotton and the weaving of calico. Iron- 
works were formerly in operation about a mile from 
the town, and on the Main water; but, in conse- 
quence of either a want of fuel or a deficiency of 
ore, they were discontinued. An abundance of 
agricuHwal produce is sold at the weekly markets f 
a very tolerable linen market is held on the first 
Wednescfaiy of every month ; and fairs are held on 
July 16, and Nov. 1. A court of petty-sessions is 
held on the third Tuesday of every month. The 
seneschal of the extensive manor of EdendufTcarrick 
holds in Randalstown hi« manor-court, exercising a 
jurisdiction in personal actions to the extent of £20 ; 
and he likewise holds a leet-jury of 23. who annually 
present a few pounds to be levied off the manor for 
the repair of the manor- pound, and of that part of the 
OMrket-house in which the court is held. Charles 
IL, by a charter of Sept. 15. 1683, *• according to 
a eomraission of the 14th March in the same year. 
in coiiMderation of a fine of £200 from Rose, Mar- 
chioneas of Antrim, and according to an agreement 
and orders of componition of the 2d and the 4th 
oi Augurt, granted to her the manor of Edenduff- 
evrick* ke., and further appointed, ordained, and 

declared thAft the town of Ironworks, alias MaiiW 
water, with its rii^kta. members, and appurtenances, 
vrithin the said manor, should be called for ever by 
the name of the borough of Randalstown, and by 
that name he constituted it a free borough, and 
granted that the said borough and the greater num- 
ber of the inhabitants of the said town, and thei^ 
successors for ever, should have authority to return 
two members to the parliament of Ireland. And 
he further granted to the inhabitants and their suc- 
cessors, that the sheriffs, &c. of Antrim, to whom 
writs of election were directed, should make pre- 
cepts to the sene^hal of the manor of Edenduff- 
carrick for the electing and returning the burgesses." 
The borough limits included simply a narrow stripe 
of land along the west side of the Main, and are still 
recollected. Not anv corporation appears to have 
been constituted. The right of sending two mem- 
bers to parliament was fonnally or professedly that 
of a potwalloping borongh, but was practically the 
private property of the ancestors of Earl O'Neill ; 
and the whole of the £15,000 of compensation for 
disfranchisement at the Legislative Union was paid 
to Charles Henry St. John, Earl O'Neill. Area of 
the town, 67 acres. Pop., in 1831, 618; in 1841, 
588. Houses 108. Families employed chiefly in 
agriculture, 36; in manufactures and trade, 59 1 in 
other pursuits, 24. Families dependent chiefly on 

I>roperty and professions, 8; on the directing of 
abour, 61 ; on their own manual labour, 40 ; on 
means not specified, 10. 

R ANELAGH, a suburb of the city of Dublin, in 
the parish of St. Peters, barony of Uppercross, co. 
Dublin, Leinster. It stands | of a mile south of the 
Grand Canal, A north-east of Rathmines, | west- 
north-west of Donnybrook, ^ east by north of Har- 
old's-Cross, and 1 j south-south-east of Dublin-castle. 
It began to be greatly improved about half-a-century 
ago ; and it now contains a large number of good 
houses, and is both an extensive and a pleasant 
suburb. An elegant mansion of the bishop of Derry 
formerly stood at Ranelagh, and was surrounded by 
public gardens ; and a Carmelite convent, having 
about 12 nuns, and educating about 150 poor chil- 
dren, now stands near the mansion's site. Ranelagh 
gives the title of Viscount in the peerage of Ireland 
to the noble family of Jones, descendants of Sir 
Richard Jones of Middleton in Lancashire, and of 
his son Thomas Jones, archbishop of Dublin, and 
I«ord-chancellor of Irebind. In 1628, Sir Roger 
Jones of Duriiam's-town in Westmeath, and son of 
the archbishop, was created Baron Jones and Vis- 
count RanelaR:h; and, in 1674, Richard, the third 
Viscount, was advanced to the dignity of Earl of 
Ranelagh. In 171 1. at the death of the Earl, all the 
titles became extinct ; and, in 1759, those of Baron 
Jones and Viscount Ranelagh were revived in favour 
of Charles Jones, Esq. The suburb or village of 
Ranelagh comprises two sections, called North and 
South. Pop., in 1831, of both sections, 1,990. 
Pop., in 1841, of North Ranelagh, 932. Houses 
154. Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 14 ; 
in manufactures and trade. 59 ; in other pursuits, 
121. Families dependent chiefly on property and 
professions, 40 ; on the directing of labour, 75 ; on 
their own manual labour, 25 ; on means not speci- 
fied, 54. Pop., in 1841, of South Ranelagh, 1,358. 
Houses 177. Families employed chiefly in agricul- 
ture, 32; in maimfiictures and trade, 70; in other 
pursuits. 170. Families dependent chiefly on pro- 
perty and professions, 66 ; on the directing of hibour, 
138 : on their own manual labour, 44 ; on means not 
speci6ed, 24. 

RAPE-MILLS,ab«mK?t in the parish of Reynagh, 
barony of Garrycastle, King's co.» Leinster. It 




itandB 3 miles north by west of Birr, on the road 
thence to Banagher. It has a police-barrack ; and 
MJ^acent to it are the residences of Mount.£rin, 
Hill-house, and Ballaghanoher- house. Pop., in 
1831, 64. Houses 9. 

BAPHARN, an alias name of Lough Feogh, in 
the barony of Burrishoole, co. Mayo, Connaught. 
See Feooh. 

RAPHOB, a barony of the county of Donegal, 
Ulster. It is bounded, on the north, by the baronies 
of Kilmacreiian and Innishowen ; on the eaitt, by the 
counties of Londonderry and Tyrone; on the south, 
by the countr of Tyrone ; on the south-west, by the 
baronies of Tyrhugh and Bannagh; and, on the west, 
■by the barony of Boylagh. Its length, south-west- 
ward, is 24 miles ; its greatest breaudth is 14| ; and 
its area is 2SO,7'23 acres, 1 rood, 6 perches, — of 
2,062 acres, 3 roods, 38 perches arc fresh water, and 
771 acres, 3 roods, 32 perches are tideway of the 
river Foyle. The river Swilly, and the upper part 
of Lough Swilly describe most of the northern 
boundary ; the lower part of the river Finn, and the 
upper half of the river Foyle describe most of the 
eastern boundary ; the Moumebeg rivulet describes 
part of the soutfiem boundary ; and the rivers Peel 
and Finn flow eastward through the interior. The 
northern district, and the district along the Foyle, 
consist for the most part of low and fertile land ; 
and, though considerably diversified in surface, com- 
prise few lofty hills, and only one mountain, — and 
even this situated on the southern verge of the dis- 
tricts, and possessing no greater an altitude than 888 
feet above sea-level. The other districts consist, in 
a general view, of a congeries of uplands, divided 
into three bands or sections by the vales of the Deel 
and the Flrni. The principal heights on the north 
screen of the Deel are Gronaglack, 1,127 feet above 
sea-level, — Cark, 1.108 feet, — Cronamuck, 1,132 
feet,— Herd's-Seat, 781 feet,— Mullafin, 934 feet,— 
and Bennior, 629 feet ; the principal between the 
Deel and the Finn are Three-Tops, 1,177 feet, — and 
4 other heights, res|)ectively 707> 7U7. 634> and 722 
feet ; and the principal, south of the Finn, are Alt- 
napaote, 1,199 feet,— White-Horse, 907,— Barnes- 
more, 1,225, — Iron-hill, 0(^, — a height on the cast 
idde of the Gap of Bamesmore, 1,489, — Croagh, 
1,260,— LismuUyduff. 867,— Brandy-hill, 601,— and 
another height, 603 — This barony contains part of 
the parishes Conwall and Amcy, and the whole of 
the parishes of All-Saints, Clonleigh, Convoy, Don- 
aghmore, Killea, Kilte vogue. Leek, Raphoe, Ray- 
moghy, Stranorlar, and Taughboyne. The towns 
and principal villages are Newtown- Conyngham, 
Ballindruit, Convoy, Castle -Finn, Killygordon, 
Carrigans, Raphoe, Manor-Conyngham, Ballybophcy, 
Stranorlar, Creaghdoss, St. Johnstown, and part ojf 
Liflbrd. Pop., in 1831, 66,673; in 1841, 65,472. 
Houses 11,216. Families employed chiefly in agri- 
culture, 8,123; in manufiictures and trade, 2,076; 
in other pursuits, 803. Families dependent chiefly 
on property and professions, 212; on the directing 
of labour, 3,319; on their own nuuiual labour, 8,237 : 
on means not specified, 134. Males at and above 5 
years of age who could read and write, 9,883 ; who 
could read but not write, 6,371 ; who could neither 
read nor write, 1 1,093. Feniales at and above 5 years 
of age who could read and write, 4,756; who could 
read but not write, 10,251 ; who could neither read 

nor write, 14,208 Raphoe barony is distributed 

among the Poor-law unions of Letterkenny, Lon- 
donderry, Strabane, and Stranorlar. The total 
number of tenements valued is 9,544 ; and of these, 
5.102 were valued under £5,-1,830, under £10,— 
815, under £15,— 540, under £20,-373, under £25, 
—241, under £30,-289, under £40,-143, under 

£50,— and 211, at and above £50. The total nett 
annual value of the property rated is £70,739 12s. 
5d. ; and the sums Jevieid under the grand warrants 
of spring and summer 1840 were £5,S^1 8s. 6d. and 
£5,306 3s. 3d., and under the grand warrants of 
spring and summer 1841, £7,657 Ids. 2d. and 
£5,582 86. 3d. 

RAPHOE, a parish, containing a town of the 
same name, in the barony of Raphoe, co. Donegal, 
UMer. Length, south-south-westward, 7 miles; 
extreme breadth, from ^ to 5; area, 13,224 acres, 
2 roods, 3 perches. Pop., in 1831, 6,227; in 1841, 
5,694. Houses 1,030. Pop. of the rural districts, 
in 1831, 4,819; in 1841, 4,332. Houses 790. The 
surface is agreeably varied, and consists, for the moat 
part, of fertile and well cultivated arable land. The 
seats are the quondam episcopal *palace, the deanery, 
Oakfield-house, and Greenhills.hou8e,>«the last the 
residence of W. Fen wide, Esq. The road fivom 
Liffbrd to Letterkenny, and that fit>m Stranorlir to 
Londonderry, intersect each other in tlie interior. — 
This parish is a rectory, a separate benefice, and 
the corps of the deanery of Raphoe cathedral, in the 
dio. of Raphoe. Tithe composition, £900; glebe, 
£150. Gross income, £1,050; nett, £771 Is.; but 
these sums are exclusive of respectively £426 5s. 
lOd. and £390 2s. 7d. arising from renewal fines and 
rents of lands belonging to the deanery. Patron, 
the Crown. Two curates receive each a salary of 
£75. The benefices of Stranorlar, Leek, Killygar- 
van, and Lettermacward, were formerly united to 
the benefice of Raphoe ; but by order m Council, 
dated March 24, 1835, these beneficea were " dis. 
appropriated fi-om and out of the deanery of Raphoe, 
each of the benefices of Leek, Killygarvan, and Let- 
tennacward, with its respective perpetual cure, was 
erected into a separate and distinct parish or bene* 
fice ; and the rectory and vicarage or Raphoe bene- 
fice which alone constituted the new eoipa of the 
deanery; and in the parish of Stranorlar, as there 
were two endowed perpetual cures, one named Stran- 
orlar, and the other Kilteevock, the rectory and 
vicarage of Stranorlar were united to the perpetual 
cure oiF Stranorlar, and erected into a separate and dis- 
tinct parish or benefice. And it was further directed 
by said order, that the dean of Raphoe and Ms suc- 
cessors shall continue in the possession of the aevcral 
glebes belonging to the deanery, with the ezeeptioii 
of those of Drumdany and Drumfiid, which were 
united to the rectory and vicarage of Killygarvan, 
to the use of the incumbent thereof and his succes- 
sors for ever." The church is an old buildiiig, and 
serves as the cathedral of the diocese. Sittings 500; 
attendance 300. The Presbyterian meeting-house 
has an attendance of 375. In 1834, the parwiioDen 
consisted of 1,149 Churchmen, 2,552 Presbyterians, 
and 2,730 Roman Catholics ; 2 Sunday schooli at Rft- 

phoe, and 2 at Creggan and Milltown, were nsmllr 
attended b^ about 225 children ; and 10 daily Bchodls 
bad on their books 332 boys and 173 girls. One ef 
the daily schools was aided with £850 a-year from 
royal endo%vment ; one, with £7 from the Nafioiial 
Board ; one, with £11 Is. 6d. from RoUnson^ 
Benefaction ; and one, Mith £7 from the Associatioii 
for Discountenancing Vice. 

RAPHOE, a post and market town, and the seat 
of a diocese, in the parish and barony of Raphoe, eo. 
Donegal, Ulster. It stands on the road froa Stan* 
orlar to Londonderry, 1^ mile west-south* west of the 
road from Lifford to I^etterkenny, 2 mrt nnrth cast 
of C-onvoy, ^ west-north-west of Liflbrd, 6| north- 
east of Stranorlar, 6i south-east of Letterkeniiy, 
1 1 } south-west of Londonderry, 85 west-north-wot 
of Belfiwt, and 108 north-north-west of DabHiL 
The environs are beautifully diversified in wuxbet. 



•bonnding' in undulations, and occasionally shooting 
np in coniiderable hills ; they possess much fertility 
of soil, great beauty of cultivation, and considerable 
embelUshment of wood and demesne ; they contain, 
at the distance of about 2 miles from the town, a 
bill which commands a very extensive and a hij^hly 
opulent panoramic view of a great section ot the 
basin of the Foyle ; and they boast the presence of 
the deanery, the quondam episcopal palace, and two 
or three handsome private scats. The deanery stands 
at a short distance from the town ; and the episcopal 
palace is an elegant and spacious edifice, and adjoins 
the south-east side of the town, in the midst of a 
handsome park. The town itself consists chiefly of 
a market-place and three small streets ; and is well 
built and respectably inhabited. The cathedritl is a 
plain cruciform edifice, of unknown date of erection, 
with a square tower, added in the 18th century. 
The free school was founded by Charles I., and en- 
dowed Mrith 2,305 acres of arable and pasture land, 
and 8,729 acres of mountain and bog. A school for 
the clothing, instructing, and apprenticing of 20 
poor boys, a widows' house for the support of four 
clergyman's widows of the diocese of Raphoe, and 
also a public library, were founded a little upwards 
of a century ago, by Bishop Foster of Raphoe ; but 
the most valuable portion of the books in the library 
were contributed by Bishop Hall of Dromore. The 
market-house is a neat structure, and stands in the 
market-place. An ecclesiastical establishment, usu- 
ally but erroneously styled a monastery, is said to 
bave been founded at Raphoe, then called Rathboth, 
by St. Columb, the reputed founder of the great and 
wide-spread community of the Culdees, and to have 
been restored and extended by St. Adamnan, the 
successor of St. Columb in the Hebridean island of 
lona i and this establishment is commonly alleged to 
bave been both the nucleus of the town, and the 
original pile of the cathedral. A dispensar^^ in 
the town is within the Strabane Poor-law union, 
and serves for a district of 33,306 acres, ^^-itb a pop. 
of 12,017 ; and, in 1839, it expended £98 19s., and 
administered to 861 patients. In 1840, the Raphoe 
Loan Fund had a capital of £2,324, circulated 
1:9,685 in 2,682 loans, and realised a nett profit of 
Jl92 16s. 5d. A weekly market for the sale of agri- 
caltural produce is well attended ; and fairs are held 
on Mmy 1, June 22, Aug, 27. and Nov. 4. A court 
of petty-sessions is hela on the second Saturday of 
ev«7 month. A presbytery of the General Assem- 
bly of the Presbyterian church in Ireland has its seat 
in Raphoe, exercises inspection over 10 congrega- 
tions, and meets on the second Tuesday of Feb., 
May, Aug., and Oct. Two of the ten corporations 
are at BaUylennan, and the others are at Raphoe, 
Alt, I>onarhmore, Conooy, Newtown-Conyngham, 
Carnooe, St. Johnstown, and Ballindreat. Area oJF 
the town, 74 acres. Pop., in 1831, 1,408; in 1841, 
1,36^ Houses 240. Families employed chiefly in 
agricalture, 80; in manufactures and trade, 121 ; in 
other pursuits, 79. Families dependent chiefly on 
property and professions, 13; on the directing of 
Uhour, 120; on their own manual labour, 128; on 
means not specified, 19. 

The diocese of Raphoe lies wholly in the county 
of Donegal, and comprises upwards of two-thirds of 
that county. Its length, southward, is 44 miles; 
its greatest breadth is 32 miles ; and its area is 
6M,d65 acres, 21 perches. Pop., in 1831, 200,068. 
The bishopric is alleged by mottt writers to have 
been founded in the 9th century by St. Eunan, and 
bv sooie to have been founded much earlier by St. 
Adaouian or St. Columb i but it may fiurly be pro- 
nounced to have had no existence, at lea^t in the 
atrietly prelatic sense of the word, till the 12th cen- 

tury. Gilbert or Gilconage O'Caran was in the tee 
in 1160, and was translated to Armagh in 1175; but 
he Mras called bishop of Tyrconnel. Another early 
bishop is spoken of; but as his name is not given, 
and no particulars respecting him are recorded, he 
cannot with propriety be pronounced a person known 
to history or to ecclesiastical annals. Maelisn 
O'Dorigh was bishop of Raphoe in 1203; Patrick 
O'Scanlane, a Dominican friar, was afterwards buriiop, 
and resigned in 1261 ; John De Alneto, a Frandscm 
friar, was bishop in 1261, and resigned in 1265 ; Cor- 
brac O'Scoba, a Dominican friar, was bishop in 1266, 
and died in 1275; Florence O'Ferral was bishop in 
1275, and died in 1299; Thomas O'Nathan, archdea- 
con of Raphoe, became bishop in 1299, and died in 
1306 ; Henry Macancrossain became bishop in 1306^ 
and died in 1319 ; Thomas O'Donnel, abbot of Ash- 
roe, became bishop in 1319, and died in 1837 ; Pat- 
rick Ma^onail became bishop in 1360, and died in 
1366; Richard Macrassain became bishop in 1366; 
John, a Cistercian monk, became bishop bv papal 
provision in 1397; Cornelius MacCormie became 
bishop in the same year as the preceding, and 
died in 1399 ; Anthony became bishop in 1399, and 
died in 1413; Robert Mubire, a Franciscan friar, be* 
came bishop by papal provision in 1414; John Mac- 
Cormie became bishop in 1415, and died in 1419; 
LaurenceO'Galchor I.,dean of Raphoe, became bishop 
by papal provision in 1419, and died in 1438. " It 
appears," say the annals, *'that upon the death of 
Laurence O'Galchor I., the see was vacant for about 
four years. But John Prene, archbishop of Armagh, 
was defender of both the spiritualities and the tern* 
poralities, and that with a vengeance. For O'Don* 
nel, prince of his clan, leaguing with the dean and 
chapter of Raphoe, having usurped and seised the 
revenues of the bishopric, Prene adling them to ac- 
count, prosecuted them to suspension, excommuni- 
cation, and interdict, declaring at once that O'Don' 
nel was a heretic, since he was obstinate. He de- 
prived the dean and chapter of their benefices and 
offices, and disabled them from obtaining others. 
And to disable them still further, he granted forty 
days' indulgences (I suppose from his own penances) 
to whoever would fall upon their persons and seise 
and dissipate their substance. And he took care 
that this should not be a brutum fulmen, for he had 
recourse to the secular arm of Henry, the eldest son 
of O'Neil, to execute his sentence, giving him to 
understand that if he neglected a due and speedy 
execution of it, he should incur the same himself. 
John Mac-Gilbride became bishop in 1438; Laurence 
O'Galchor II. became bishop in 1469, was proceeded 
against **for incontinence and several other enor- 
mous crimes," and died in 1477; Menelaus MacCar- 
machan became bishop in 1484, and died in 1515 ; 
Cornelius O'Cahan was in the see in 1550; Donat 
Magonail was in the see in 1563, and died in 1589; 
George Montgomery was in the see in 1605, held it in 
conjunction with the sees of Derry and Clogher, and 
resigned in 1610 ; Andrew Knox, bishop of Orkney, 
became bishop of Raphoe in 1611, was soon after 
made a privy councillor, and died in 1632; John Leslie, 
bishop of Orkney, became bishop of Raphoe in 1633, 
and resigned in 1661 ; Robert Leslie, bishop of Dro- 
more, was translated to the see of Raphoe in 1661, 
and resigned in 1671 ; Ezekiel Hopkins, dean of Ra- 
phoe^ became bishop in 1671, and designed in 1681 ; 
William Smith, bishop of Killalla and Achonry, vras 
translated to Raphoe in 1681, and was translated in 
1693 to Kilmore and Ardagh ; Alexander Caimcross, 
archbishop of Glasgow, was translated to Raphoe in 
1693, and died in 1701 . *' Caimcross," say Harris and 
Ware, ** was ill treated alike by both parties ; — was 
driven from Glasgow for not being a Presbyterian, 




lad d«p<W3d hf King James fur not hvMg nPiapist. 
It wai BiBhop Burnet ^bo pifocurcd hh ti^mbtion 
to tbii see. He w«i Mtst to ir«knd pnrtly to opfn 
tin ial^t. ajid harbour in hie diot^efts to a n>}ony of the 
SiiDttisli E|ltsoopal c>(frg)\" Robert HiiiUio|r*^m, a 
proimnciit fi^nirant in histofyt wi» mwle bJMion of 
H^pboe in IJiili btit di«d in the taine Ttur; J^hn 
Pbolcv, bisWp of Cloy ne, wiu tnuiftlateo to tbt sec 
of Rapftoe in 1702, mid died in 17 1^2; Thomas Lind- 
aftr* biahop of Killaloe, was translated to Rapbo« in 
Ifl^t but re^igrjed in the e*me yesir, and wn^ aft*r- 
T((iwdg translated to Amian'bj Edsvnr^l Syiig;** \*ti« 
mttde bifthop of Rafitkoe in 17l4i mid ^'ost tninislated 
to Ta^ III 1716; Nicholas Fo^ti^rt biisbop of Killn- 
ld«, wftif tfiAniilated to the see of Raphoe In 1716; 
ahd Williini Barnard becaitie biahop in 1744, Phrlip 
Twiaden in 1747* Bobert Downea In \l&^t Johrt 
Oswald in 17*53, Jame* Haukim in 17^^ Lord 3, 
G. Berafford iti 1^03. WitElam Magee in 1810« mift 
Williftm Bss!*et m lt^22. By the Act of 1»38, the 
see 'of Rspboe berame iinited to tbat of Dwty ; and 
sfnce leOJ Jt baa beehbeld by Dr- Eichitrd Ponaonby, 
w]io previously woa bi«hop of Kill aloe. Tbe grv^i 
irid the nett amount of Epbt^opai'in^^m^, upo^h ihe 
iveraj^e of 3 years ehding ori 0cc, 3), 1851, are re- 
•pectirely £5 J87 2*. 2d. and £5,0A-i 1 U. Sd. The 
digTutaries of the wathedrai, togiether with the pfros? 
amount of income derived from the benefice! which 
eonititiite the eorp^i tbeir reispective digrntiC!;, are, 
tbe dean, £2,135 ; the archdeat^n, no cmoiumtnt j 
tbe prebendary ^jfDnvmbcjbn, £903 10s, 7d. ; the pre- 
bendary of Killymard, £71)5 3s. Id. ; tbe prebendary 
of Xnver, £560 ; and the prebendary of Clondeborkyt 

'' Number df parisbefl in tbe diocese of Eaphoc» 3j ; 
df benefices J 34 ; of re*-ident incumbents, Si. Tithe 
ctnapofition i^c\ol^^n^ to ' the benefiees, £11,. 502 5s, 
2|d. ; glebes, £4jm \^. Gross income, £W,^OZ 
1%. 3id. I tiett, £13JJ55 8=. 7d. Patron of 5 bene- 
fices, the Crown; of 15, tliedioce^n; of 5^ incum- 
bt!nt» \ of 9, laymen and eorporatiotia, Number of 
s^pendiary curates, 15 ; ^^qi^s, amount of tbcir sti- 
pends, £lfl35. Nbmberofchurcbe5p34f sittings, 
10,596. Coflt of butMihg 21 and of repairing a^id 
efiiBrjgmg 2 of the churches, £l8,fll4 8*. 6id.»— of 
whieE £7,0-21 lOs, 4Ad. u-eregifledby thclateBo^rd 
(^Flrsst Fruits, £6,7^4 12*. ajd. were lent by that 

51'oard, £3,007 13s. I Od, were coiit Kb uted by private 
pnation, aod i|2,O20 12i, Q|d. were rallied by paro^ 
chJalassf^sinent, Kevvchu r cbes have reconllybeen 
built) ebiedy by tneaiis of contributioni from the 
funds of tbe Eocteij^ticsl Conunii»siotier^, at Augb- 
aniinshtn, Kilbarroir, Lec^, and Tullyobigley ; a 
cburch was recently built ni Lahy, at tbe !c;o£t of 
pniiate parties; aud tbe churches of Cgnvoy and 
Ctondehor^y were jeceiitly enlarge dj chiefly by aid 
froui the EcclejiijiLiliral Coinuii&dioner*- Ui 1634, 
the nujuberof pre^acbifig'ij'UHiona connected witji th« 
^tabliflbmeut was 7; of . P iViih ) te rian jnee tin g:«bb u^e^, 
27; of Protebtant dissent iiig tnectiujs!:-- koiLse** no^ 
Pjeibyteriftn, I4;.ij>4 of JUunan Ciit)ioUc cl^da,, 
3^. In the same yenr, tbe inh^bitar^ts coisni^ted of 
33,567 Cburciimen, 28.&I4 Presbyterians, 24 otber 
Protestant di$M»eutor«, 4uid 14a, 3S5 Eomnn €atbolic« i 
each of 2 b^efices ^p^itained not more than 20O 
members of tbe vE^tablished fburch, each of S not 
more tbsn ioO, each of 12 Fiot mote than 1,000, e»cb 
of 9 not more than 2,000, ai^d each c^ 3 bQtvroen 
2,000 artd 5,000; 2til daily licboohs, whi^h made re- 
tuma of th^ir attendance, had on their bookie 9,2iS4 
boys and 5,1 00 girli^ 2 otber daily «chool« which 
made no returns were computed to be atteiided by 
1 10 cbiliLren, and 13^ of the total nunthor of school !j 
Wire enpiiorted wholly or purtiailyby eudowmontor 
aubscription; and uf these 130 iichoola, 4 were in con- 

Mntott wiCtf tfae'Ntfti(^iA B<)6r4,'3<uitii tli^'Aaw- 
ciHtion for : DiacOuntehartciniif Vi(M>*, -9 WAh the IkMini 
of Erasmus BtYvith, 8^'itk th^'Klldaire Place Society^ 
and 43 A\dth< the Lotidbn H4bemi«iA Society; - : > ^>' 
' Tbe Romah Catholic dibcese 'of ' Raphoe iii ^It 
unanrtexed, and is diVide*d into'l27 pttrisNs'or |f«r>. 
ochml benefict^s.* The Catholic Directory f©r 18*8 
iays, " Alihoygb tweitCyyeafiiftiro, Mtb^l^^famertofri- 
i#fnt of tbfe present Iri^bii^^ ftppwtrtitftijt, tb*re wei^ 
only 23 prk'tttVin Ihe enffre dfo^we^ tb*re *rt^ now 

50 oil aiiivc duty, vliH\ Wol-k f^u- lOniflre. ■ * Tft^ 
b^wi collcjT*' at iJettefbeMfiV f* in <i fldtrt-J^hiufi" eo*Mll^ 
tibti»" The bishop'* rew^Cnre ts At lA^tterVerrnf; 
The tuiTOCJ^ of the V^'*^'?^* nnd of ib^ *^4rs of thfc> 
^c*pcct1v^chapc^^, »Hf !. Ki}lv[:Wvan,l_Kfll'vjtan«i6 
and Tnl!y ; 2, Kilbarrim,— HHl?v!*bmmtyn and't^titlei 
ha^di 3, Kiflybcg* utid Krihxghty,— Kfllyb^fp"^ tind 
Killii^^itv; 4* Strn]3orlarj^SiitraiJor1ar;'S/IirTtt!tk«*il 
i^Glputfpsi and rill tniVTT ; rt< Hnpboe. — Cohrtiy nti^ 
Ibnmjkoen; 7- KlTrar, — Kilrar; f«, Mpvfi^b.^Me- 
vagh^9. Dromho1m,^B!iniintni; 10. nart^,_TitL 
min an 1 ! Gfl rt an ; U . T aim n v el Iv , — Dein C^l \ ' I i2 '* 
Tern pi ec t-orte y ~ A rran ruirtt a>f <l K hi t-rt A 1 ^K ; 1 3 ' Tul - 
lo^h b ipTy, —V» o rty U u rk : 1 4. C} OM dc h OrWy, — Doe ; 
J5. Kiimat3-cnftif+ — Kilfiiafr^ririn and Bmtdin ^ \fj, 
F^llyjniui , ^K il ! y m»^ i ; 17. I h vi:' r ^ — Tn V^t r, an d t wp 
othtr pliites ; 1$ OU'ti'^olhtrriljkill, ^ GU'n arid 
Bridget o vvn J 19 ; A riiHrJV — -'^ ^ d nra j 50 . Ctm wifl^ 
— b img1 oe i 21, 1 ^f 1 1 e' rin ac wa rcl . —l^'a t f v'^ m at wai^^ 
tetter EenJiy* and (^Ieni4vjUy ; 22. Riky^nagbey, 
Kill ea, Le., — Xt w t v n 1 1 - Coiiv n gb am , St. J u h ii j- 
^O^yn, and DiLimuclinl ^ 211. Clo^dtvwdcuik, — Kcmt- 
!nm, P'annot', and fikiivlr; 24. Ra,ymorit^rf^oiley,-i- 
HMii^ontefdoriey i 25. AMJStbru^h.-^Atjgbiiisli ; 3^, 
lyjtavock.^Kiltuvor'k ; !27. Aghiiunrlan and t*ecV^ 
' — AtfhnurrHtiii itnd L*^i*k. 

.HASCAX^'FX ASH Af^riACOPRA, a bO^ iti 
the brirotry of ClLiTungurlc^, H mile vvcst-*oulb-\vt^!*t 
of lii-vna^v, CO,. Kirrry, Mun.dtjr, Li^nf^tb, da^iwanl, 
fj mile ; hrpijdU\. ii area, LI IP unt*. It is a very 
wet red bog, on a Emeatone notttim. An M ctmaf, 
servinif as a main dmirt, was fiirn»*d H^;^ tbe side of 
i^v\ bog .t<* the dt'cr-park, by out of ibtr Earls of 
Kqrry ; anti,, thowgh much fiTlciI up, mipht be clcMed 
for navijra;tipn-, ,Sqnie , tolecn^ilt^ niLBcimv ba^ beeii 

Jkfoduced, tjpQri a. j)qrtli>n of boj; b^tw^j^'n ti aJid J 
eet deep, bt^twecn the drain and the 11 metope n»ck. 
Estimated co^t of total liccJaiimiiofu fCl^^ , . .- 
BASH. See \loi3^NTjoTf-rp|iEsT,' I . } 
B A S 11 AB-K IN , » pitrUh in the barony pf Kilcon* 
way, 5 mi Ws uortb of Portglfuone^co, Antrioi, VI* 
fltcf-, , Wn^ii* nn^stiv^rd, Ck uules? ; CJtticme treiidU^ 

5 1 Rfca. 1^,337 acix*, 3 roods, 5 perdje,%-*,pf wKljfS 
a4.a<^r^t 1 rood, ^. n«r4h*,*s are iip ,tlje ri>tr JlawUp 
and 2 acres ^ rood?, iiy p^rehcs are iu Vtcs. t*op*, 
in 1831, r.481i in 1B41. 7,507. Won^ef 1,$^L 
T^i! i^urfacji Liqs on the \a eMern border of tlie coi3ut¥,| 
and is l>ound4jd ou th* ^bok of tli(p wtht cud by tl^e 
rJTer Jloim, .T1^^ cft^tern. district h tiscaily aXl huSi 
ml tbe central an4 tbp wi^fiUrq di^tnejs pncviolAi^lv 
f^pnabt of low light J km^^ of an^ewreilcnt fffuiUty^W 
flax, oaXf* mi^ dlav^r^ . OThe road^ fr^m Ah^^b4u 
aad J^aUymei>a to Baitymoneyjt fnd tW troin KiIp 
vea to Cnftlwfndalij [mj^ througb Uif Jnti^fiQf » Tbt 
principal. n>N}iiou in i^tt^et^mok ■ v^hA tbi' chief li^ni:' 
let i£ JtAsharkin^-^Tbijp jf^r^K •iM »> t uiarage , in tJk 
dip, «£ Cotmofr Vicarial, tithe coinpo^hioi}^ £^^ 
7«.4 giebe» £40 Wa. jOnfit pprtigfl pf ,lh« rectoFiat 
titbe*. (Hjmpotimled fur £56 J5»- 34-* bel««b^A te 
Robert ilnhrvey; Esq. ; 4«ii<aAlier^ com pound t'd ffir J^^ 
11^ 4^., W»loni(tih to Bir Tk(^Miit». I^t^ple^, Bart. ; Mi-i 
Oth**r, f^oiniiimrkdrd tnr i->l tSr*. J-i],^ b^^-Jo^i^ u* 

Edward Cauliield, .£»q. ; and uwthtr^ mmpontMk 
fw £46 3«. Id., belonicsto^ilie •Up1«iiir«£ /fiwKp^ 
Dawson chapelry. The vicarage otRaiharkiii, ud 




Um redories of Finvot and KiLiiAaHT«, sud ike 
gimBgecf Kih0XLLoeK, or Bai^lvbashanr [net 
Ukm articles], ooMtitute tlie boneficse of lUfiharkin, 
and the corps of Rasharkin prebeiid. The paridbes 
are not contiguous. Area of the whole. 26,454 
acres, 9 perches. Pop., in 1831, 10,300 ; but this is 
exclusive of t^ perpetual curacy of Fiovoy. Gross 
inoooie, X8U 17s. ; nett, ^£731 18s. 6d. Patron, the 
diocesan. The church is of uidLnown date. Sit- 
tings 400; attendance^ from 40 to 50. There is a 
church also in Finvoy. Two Presbyterian meeting- 
houses in Rasharkin parish have an attendance of 
respectively 300 and 500. There are also three 
Presbyterian moeting*houses in Kilraghts, and one 
in Finvoy, The Roman Catholic chapel of Rashar- 
kin has an attendance of 900. There is a Roman 
Catholic diapel also in Finvoy ; and, in the Roman 
Catholic parochial arrangeroeiit, these two chapels 
are mutuaUy united. In 1834, the inhabitants of 
Rasharkin parish consisted of 6G3 Churchmen, 4,069 
P rr ^byterians, 16 other Protestant dissenters, and 
3.01^2 Roman Catholics ; the inhabitants of the 
union, exclusive of Finvoy, consisted of 724 Church- 
loeu, 6,6^ Presbyterians, 16 other Protestant dis- 
aentera, and d,3« 4 Roman Catholics ; 8 Sunday 
schools in Rasharkin parish were usually attended 
liy about 560 children ; and 17 daily schools in Rash- 
arkin^ 3 in Kilraghts, and 1 in Kildallook, had ob 
their books 609 boys and 307 firls, One of the 
daily schools in the parish was salaried with £2 from 
the rector ; one, nith X3 from the London Hiberniaa 
Society ; one, with £6 from the National Board, and 
£8 from Miss Beinie ; and one, with £13 from Miss 
Beime. In 1842, one National school at Dunmio- 
fiirig was salaried with £12, and attended by 39 boys 
ai)ir24 girlft ; one at Rilcreen was salaried ^nth &, 
and attended by 29 boys and 17 girls ; . one at Bally- 
maroidy was salaried with £8, and attended by 28 
boys and 21 girls; one at Belloughv was salaried 
with £8, and attended by 56 boys and 46 girls ; one 
at Gortereghy was salaried with £8, and attended 
by 39 boys and 46 ^rls ; one at Dromore was sal- 
aried witD £10 13s. 4d., and attended by 31 boys 
and 23 girls ; one at Drumron was salaried \%ith £8, 
and attended bv 31 boys and 22 girls ; one at Killy- 
cowan was safaried with £8, and attended by 29 
boys and 12 girls ; and one at Rasharkin was salaried 
with £6 and attended bv 38 boys and 44 girls. 

RASH ED AG ft, or ftASHEDOOE, a village in the 
parish of Con wall, barony of Raphoe, co. Donegal, 
Lister. It stands on the northern rem of the 
barony of Raphoe, on the right bank of the river 
SwiHt, and on the road fVom Letterkenny to Glen- 
ties. &| miles wMt by south of Letterkenny. Fairs 
are held on the 1 1th day of every month. Pop. not 
specially returned. 

R.4SHEE, a parish in the barony of Upper An- 
trim, ^ miles north-north-west of Ballynare, co. 
Arrtrim, TTlster. Length, sooth-eastward, 4^ miles; 
evtreme breach, 2| ; area, 6.460 acres, 2 roods, 11 
p erc h es, — of which 5 acres, 1 rood, 5 perches are 
water. Pop., in 1841, 1.545. Houses 258. Both 
the Census of 1831, and the EcclesiR<ttical Reports, 
rrtfim it as part of Ballteavton : which see. Part 
t4 the snrfiice is mountain ; and part is good arable 
land. The road from Ballvclare to Brou^tishane, 
ami the «oiith road from ^ells to Lame, interH>ct 
Mek oclier in the interior. The highest ground, 
Rfr CoiloN mountain, forms part of the water-shed 
bets ite w the Hit- .Mi 1c- Water and the Glenwherry 
nver, and attains an altitude of 1,159 feet above sea^ 
kevrl. The principal «eat in Tilderg-honse. — This 
|Mri«h {• a rectory, aiwi form* part of both the bpne- 
irv of CAntNCASTLF.. and the perpetual curacy of 
BaLi.i*CAtToir [f«e these articles], in the dio'. of 

Connor. Rectorial tithe composilioir, jointly wkk 
that of BalWcor, £130 15a. 4d.; curatial tithe coi» 
position, jointly with that of Ballycor, £69 4s. 6d. 
The church is of unknown date. Sittings 200; at- 
tendance, from 30 to 80. All other statistica aM 
given under the word Ballteaston. 

RATAINE, RsTAUiE, or Rath;athe, a pariah 
in the barony of Lower Navan, 3| miles north» 
north-east of Trim, co. Meath, Leinster. Length* 
eastward, 2^ miles; extreme breadth, 1^; area, 
1,631 acres, 3 roods U perches. Pop., in 163I, 
370 ; in 1841, 403. . Houses 71. The aurface ooop 
sista wholly of profitable laad^ And is traversed 
across its east end by the road fpom Trim to MaTan« 
The seats are Philpotatown-house and Rataine-coi* 
tage,^t^ former the residence of John T. Tounga 
F««q.— This parish is a rectory^ and part of the bene- 
fice of Abdbraccan [which see]^ in the dio. tf 
ftleath. The tithe composition ia returned in cttmvla 
with that of the other rectories of the benefice, ia 
1834, the Protestanta amounted to 9, and t^a Ro- 
man Catholics to 873; and there was neither churchy 
chapel, nor school. 

RAT ASS, or RathasSi a parish in the barony 
of Trughenackroy, co. Kerry, Munster. It containa 
a small part of the to^'n of Thauec [mhich see], 
and stretches eastward thence up the vale of tha 
Lee* and along the road to Castle^Island. Length, 
3f miles; breadth, 2; area, 2,365 acres. Pop., in 
1&31. 2,365; in 1841, 2,838. Houses 410. Pop. 
of the rural districts,, in 184U 2,065. Houses 312. 
A considerable portion of the surface is mountain ; 
but the low grounds consist of good land. Bally- 
beggan-house, situated about 2 miles east by north 
of Tralee, is the principal scat ; and was described 
by Dr. Smith, in 1750, as *'an handsome modem 
house, built soon after the Revolution, the old house 
having been burnt down by the Irish." •• Here," 
says he, " are some good old^ improvements which 
escaped the universal devastations of the times, par- 
ticularly some fine avenues of walnut, chestnut, and 
other trees; with a large, old, but thriving orchard, 
planted in a rich limestone ground, beneath which 
are several subterraneous chambers lined with staluo- 
tical eiudations. These eaves have a communica- 
tion with each other; and there is a large stream 
of running water that flows under ground, which 
empties itself at a considerable^dlstanre into the open, 
air ; and, what is very surprising, this underground 
current is not destitute of fish, as not only eels, but 
also trout have be^n taken out of it.** In the vicin- 
ity of the site of the mansion formerly stood a high 
and strong castle, which commanded an important 
pass between Tralee and Castle- Island, and was re* 
duccd during the wars in the reign of James. — This 
parish is a rectory, and a separate benefice, in the 
dio. of Ardfert and Aghadoe, Tithe composition, 
£336 18s. 5}d.; glebe, £30. Gross income, £366 
188. 5|d. ; nett, £^12 6s. 4}d. Patron, the Crown. ' 
The irectory of Ratass, and the sinecure rectory of 
Kiilanear, and part of the sinecure rectory of Ard- 
fiprt, constitute the corps of the deanery of Ardfert 
cathedral. Gross income of the sinecure portions of 
the corps, £212 10s. 7d. ; nett. £178 10s, lid. The 
incnmbent holds also the benefices of Kilmore, Kil- 
naneave and Lisbunny, in the dio. of Rillaloe ; atid is 
resident in these benefices. A curate for the orra- 
sional duties of Ratass receives a salarv of £13 As. 
Ud. In 1834. the parishioners consisted of 103 
Churchmen, 4 Protestant dissenters, and 2.422 Ro- 
man Catholics : there Mmn neither church nor chapel ; 
and 3 hedge-schools had on their books 74 boys and 
43 girls. 

KATES H. a village in the parinh of Kilconla, 
barony of Dun more, co. Gal way, Connaught. k 




niirnds 6 irtUeti we^t-Tiorth-wMt of Tuam, and 1| 
inil«» south of the mail-road from Dublin to Wesf- 
port. Within a mile of it are KilcoTila church, a 
HOman Catholic chapel, the rmm of Kilshaunv 
churieh, a National school, a site of a caRtle, Blin(i- 
welUhouse, Millbum-bous^, Rockwell- house, Car- 
triti-cottagfe, and the hamlets of Tronpool, Beagh, 
Bettghwell, Umtnoon, Carrabaon, Ballvhear, Cloon- 
teeu, and Derryglass-hill. Area of the village, 10 
a6res. Pop., in IB41, 309. Houses 50. 

'RATH, a parish in the barony of Inchiquin, IJ 
mite south-south-west of Cbrrofin, co. Clare, Mun- 
st^. Length, westward, 6| miles ; breadth, from 
^ to 2| ; area, 8,488 acres, 3 roods, 38 perches,— of 
which 151 acreH, 1 rood, 37 perches are water. 
Pop., in 1831, 2,521 ; in 1841, 2,647. Houses 398. 
The surface consists variously of mountain, moor, 
bog, rocky ground, lake, and arable land ; and it is 
to a considerable extent unprofitable, and contains 
yery little good soil. A ncight on the northern 
boundary has an altitude of 629 feet above sea-level ; 
and SlieveTiacarroWdnfF, near the centre, has an 
altitude of 506 feet. Loughs Inchiquin, Attydaun, 
Bajlyijuliinan, Shanvally, and Drumcara lie on the 
boundaries; and the small lake Raha lies in the 
interior. Among the antiquities are the ruins of 
Rath-castle, MoyhlU-castle, Bohneill-castle, Magh- 
era-castle. and three other castles, — Kylewore-fort, 
Kvlebreedia, and Knockaraheen-fbrt, and the ruins 
oi a church. The hamlets are Knockreagh, Ballina- 
lecka, Knockmagarra, Knocknacarta, Cloncarragh, 
IMI^rtj-yroe, Martrybcg, Martrvmore, West- Knock, 
arradaun, and East-Rnockarradaun ; and the princi- 
md residences are Adel phi-house, Applevnic-nouse, 
Rdckstown-house, and Cahoo-house. — This parish 
is a vicarage, and part of the benefice of Kilkeboy 
[which see], in the dio. of Killaloe. Vicarial tithe 
composition, £25 lis. 8d. ; glebe, £19 I6s. lOd. 
The rectorial tithes are compounded for £51 3s. 4d. ; 
and are appropriated to the prebend of Rath iu 
Killaloe cathedral. Tbe Roman Catholic chapel 
has an attendance of 400. In 1834, the Protestants 
amounted to 64, and the Roman Catholics to 2,645 ; 
and 2 daily schools — one of which was salaried with 
j£10 a^year from the London Hibernian Society, and 
£15 from Mr. Syuge — had on their books 74 boys 
and 34 girls. 

RATH, a village in the parish of Bruracullen, 
barony of EgUsh, King's co., Leinster. It stands 4 
miles south-west of Frankford^ on the road thence 
to Birr. In the village are a Romaii Catholic chapel 
and a cpnttabulary barrack ; and within a mile of it 
are the seats of DovehiU, Thomastown, Raheen- 
glass, and Springfield. Pop. of the village, in 1831, 
107. : Houses 15. 

RATH, a quondam parish in the north-west 
comer of the barony of Rathvilly, 4 miles north by 
west of Tullow, CO. Carlow, Leuistcr. 

RATHANGAN, a parish, containing a town of 
thfi aaoie name, in the baronies of W&it Opiialy and 
Eaat Ophaly, go. Kildare, Leinster. Most of tlie 
West Ophaly section, containing the town of Rath- 
aogan, and comprising the townlands of BaUinure, 
North Ballyaooghan, South Ballysooghan, Boher- 
kill, Ballygaddv, Bonaghmore, Coolelan. Cushaling, 
IncbanearU KilUnthooias, Killyguire, Kilnabooley, 
MuUantine, Newtown, Rathanffan, Rathangan de- 
mesfie^ and Shecao» was transferred by the Act 6 
and 7 WiUiaia IV., cap. 84* to the barony of Eaitt 
Ophaly. Pop. of this district, in 1831, 2,3:24; in 
1841, 2,388. The present West Ophaly section is 
uiiiahabited. Length of the parish, south by east- 
ward, i5| nules; breadth, from 1 to 3|. Area of 
the We«t Ophaly section, 50 acres, 1 rood, 19 
perchet'; of the East Ophaly section, 11,480 acres. 

5 pelrhes. Pop. of the wboliv, in 1881v 2^015; lA 
1841, 2,991. Houi^es 498. Pop. of the rmtd dia^ 
tricts, in 1841, 1,958. Houses 336. ThenOrlhert 
dif»trict is the narrowest, and consists wholly of bog*'; 
and the other districts consist of tend of rtiddle- 
rate quality, and worth, on the average, about Si's. 
per pluntation acre. A hill on the southern boun. 
dary has an altitude of T^ feet, above sea-level ; "but 
the highest ground in the interior has an altitude bf 
only ^ feet. The Fragile riire^ Tttriti along the 
northern boundary ; and the Little Barrow niM 
through the int^nor. The Monastereven brsi^cb of 
the Grand Canal, and the roads frotn PortarllngtOn 
to Robertstown and from Monastereven to Carbery; 
also pass through the interior. ' The seats atie 
Tiillylo, Ophaly-castle, Mount-Prospect, Ratban^ 
gan- house, Kilmoney- cottage, Mont -rilla- lodge, 
Killinthomas- house, and PrestOnbrook.' A pro- 
minent and pleasant feature on the southem margin 

of the bog district is Killihthoinas wood Thfe 

parish is a rectory, and a separate benefice, in tl^fe 
did. of Kildare. Tithe comporitlon, '£355 7s. Id.'; 
glebe, £43 10s. Gross income^ £598 17s. Id.; rtett, 
£517 15s. Id. Patron, the dioce»n on6 tiini, and 
the Diikc of Leinster two turns. The incambent 
holds also the benefice of St. Andrews jn tbe dty 
and dio. of Dublin ; and equally divides bis time 
between his two benefices. A curate for Rathan- 
gan receives a salary of £70. Tbe church was built 
in 1828, at the cost of £700, raised by parochial 
assessment. Sittings 150; attendance, from GO to 
120. The Quakers' meeting-house has an attend- 
ance of 40. The Roman \ ailmVu: vli.t±i\trT ] nn 

attendance of from 1,000 to 1,100; atid, ijj iLt? 
Roman Catholicparochial Hrriii]|;giQerjt» U> luiited to 
the chapel of Kildare. In 1834, thv parishioners 
consisted of 217 Churchman, ^ Prot^^staiit di=«^ci«t* 
ers, and 2,743 Roman CathditTs ; 3 daily schpol^^— 
one of whidi was chiefly suin>tirli;il by Lord Harber- 
ton, and the other two ude<l by xlie Nationul Board 
— bad on their books 85bo)» and V'^gi^I^; aiad.$ 
other daily schools were su|i ported whoUy by fee^, 
and were usually attended by ubout 7^ boys and 45 

RATHANGAN, a small market and post town* 
in the parish of Rathangan and. barony of Enal 
Ophaly, CO. Kildare, Leinster. . It stands . on t^e 
Little Barrow river, on the north bank of die Mon- 
astereven branch of tbe Grand Canal* at the iutersec- 
tion of the road from Prosperous to Portarlingtoa 
with that from Kildare to PhiUipstown, and imine* 
diately north of the route oif the pcoposed naior 
trunk railway from Dublin to tbe soutn and Muth* 
west of Ireland, 4| milea north^-nortli-west of mH* 
dare, 5} north- north-east of Monaatiereyan,; 71 
north-east by east of Portarlington. and SiS4 W^t- 
south-west of Dublin. It contains a c^tircli, » Bot 
man Catholic chapel, a Quakiers* meenng-koufa, fi 
dispensary, and a constabulary banme^. Th^, ia/h 
pensary is within the Edauderry Poor-law. ■iii|if»i 
and, in 1839-40, it expended £\Q^ lla.,7d^^aiwl 
administered to 1,600 patients. Faira ^^ Md ^ 
Whit^Tuesday, Aug. 26, JOardi 25, aad JN«v.. ll 
A court of petty-sessions is held ou..tlie..aeiwpJ 
Monday of every mouth. The towa ia admliif 
geously situated tor country buaiBeaa» an4.(E. 
the amplest facilities of oommunicKtion li^, 
but, though it has of late yeara ezpcricnettd f ~ 
ment, it enjoys far less prosperity than n 
acquired from the fair use of its advantya - 
large dour-mills are situated on tbe Uttla BaRair« 
In May 1798, a body of rebels entered Rmtbi^^ffii, 
and massacred a number of the iidiabitanta.j^ i^ 
they were not expelled from the town vrithoiii «» 
siderable slaughter among their rude aoldiery, ana 




Ihe ««ptere'(if sereralof their kaden, who after* 
ward* were tried and lexeented. Area of the town^ 
a> Bcrea. Pop., in 1831, 1,165; in 1841, 1,038. 
Houses 1G2. Faaiiliea employed chiefly in agrifiul- 
ture, 87 ; in nanuiketurea and trade, lUS ; in other 
pursuits, 31. Families dependent chiefly on pro- 
perty aad professiooa, 13; on the directing of labour, 
IL2 ; oo their own buumuI Idsour, 89; on means not 
•pacified, 7- 

RA.THASPECK, or Rathabbuck, a parish S 
mites aoutL40ttth.west of Athy, and partly in the 
barony of Fassadining, co. Kilkenny, but chiefly in 
the baronies of SUevemargy and Ballyadaini, Queen's 
CO., Leiiister. Length, south-south- west ward, 6 
miles ; breadth, from. } to 2}. Area of the Fassa- 
dining section, 639 acres, 3 roods, 30 perches ; of 
the Slievemargy section, 3,438 acres, 2 roods, 15 
perches; of the Baliyadams section,- 4, 138 acres, 3 
rood^ 17 perches. Pop. of the whole, in 1831, 
4.082 ;* in 1841, 4«I33. Houses 720. Pop. of the 
Fassaduiiog section, in 1841, 500. Houses 91. 
Pop. of the SUefemargy section, in 1831, 1,097 1 
in 184I> 1,7^. Houses 313. Pop. of the Bally- 
•dams section, in 1831, 1.859; in 1841, 1.873. 
Uoujies 316. The Fassadining and the Slieve- 
nargy sections, and the south-western and western 
parts of the Ballyadaros section, aro prevailingly 
mountainous and better adapted for pasturage than ' 
tillage ; but the remaiiung part of the Baltyadams ' 
section, and a belt along the east of the Slievejnargy | 
section, comprise some good arable land, and pre- j 
aeiit a warm and pleasant appearance. Hackct*s- | 
bill, near the centre of the SUevemargy section, has j 
an altitude of 885 feet above sea-level ; a height i 
Bbout 1 mile north of HackeVs-hill, has an aUitude ! 
of 895 feet ; and the highest ground in the Bally- ■ 
adaros section, is at the church, and has an altitude of 
375 feet. The collleriet of Mullaghmore are situated 
near the centre of the Ballyaaams section ; and ; 
several extensive collienetare situated in the Slieve- ' 
margj section, and immediately connected with j 
Doonane ami Newtown collieries in the adjoining 

Cri"*h of Killaban. •< The glebe or rather church. 
id of Rathaspeek," says Gorton, *'was undermined 
by the collieries of Dunane, part of the great coal- 
field of Leintter, hi consequence c^ which the last 
church beeame in!«eeure. and was abandoned." The 
seats are GraccHeld-house, luch-houAe, MiUtown- 
faottse, and Boley-honse. We formerly culled from 
ao eztensiTe description by Brewer a few brief in- 
terestiag notices of GracE7I£lii [which see] ; snd we 
BOW copy from the same author a notice of the other 
trtifiriol objects of chief interest within the parish. 
** The monastie rains of Rathasbuek, the BishopV 
fort, on the estate of Sir William Grace, Bart., 
fonaefiy presentled an interesting object from the 
boBse of Oracefield. Its ivy-mantled walls, high 
belfry, and large eastern window, were conspicuous 
fai the sceaery at the distance of about half-a-mile to 
the north. From the materials of these ruins, the 
adjoining church of Rathasburic parish has lately 
been erected, w^icb, in common with most buildings 
of the kind in this country, wants the characteristic 
appendage^ of a remfortable vicanMTL'-hou^e. In the 
top og r a phical eolleetions of ShetHeld Grace, Esq., 
P.S.A., a faithful representation of the<<e \*ery an- 
ecnt renaiMs, as they appeared previou!« to 1813, is 
prMfved. Their <Jothic simplicity, and apparent 
antiq«itf , with the broken outline of the monastery 
wbIK pff«»eDt a happy subject for the pencil. The 
■ooaaCery wfbs apparently on a small and humble 
seile; aiid wa^ probacy only a cell, subordinate 

• TlM CtOMn* of tsn itatM th« pop. in 1831, at 3fiK ; bat ! 
cakasaoi»»tAec«r«li»Kab««4teliif McUoa ' 

to the more considerable religious establishment,^ 
Old-Court, situated on the townland of Cloopieroa, 
about two miles from hence. Tothe family of O More, 
princes of l*eix, the foundation of this structure, and 
of that last-mentioned, are ascribed. At the dist^ncB 
of about 150 yards to the south«west of these xuiiis 
are the remains of a rath, or fort, the appellation of 
which evidently assists la forming the name of thif 
parish ; and the adjunct of ' Asbuck * (Bishop) Is 
strongly indicative of primeval importance. Under 
the site of buildings connected with the ibrmer 
churoh, three vaulted chambers continued, until ihe 
year 1813, in perfect preservation, in one of which 
was a well of remarkably fine spring water. In 
these vaults were found, some few years back, two 
cuaibrous door- keys, with curiously constructed 
wards and huidles. together with an ill.sha()ed drink- 
ing vessel, and some coins. In the adioining fields 
have, likewise, been discovered several relics of an« 
tiquity, including many pieces of ancient coin^ a short 
digger, or sw^ord, of brass, and a pin, five inches long* 
with a chased broach, of the same metal, adorned 
with four yellow stones. These ornamented broaches 
were formerly used for fastening the collar of tho 
loose cloak, mantle, or toga, oTthe ancient Irish.' 
It may also be remarked, that a tract of land, con- 
sisting of about four acres, on the north and south 
sides of the church, have been long remarkable for' 
containing vast quantities of human bones. A fond 
tradition thus accounts for the circumstance of thes< 
traces of mortality lying over so considerable an ex- 
tent of surface. When the * great plague ' ringed in. 
this country, and all human effort to arrest its fury 
was unavailing, the monastic boundaries of Rathas- 
buek offered a secure asylum to the despairing peo-' 
pie. Whoever took refuge within these holy limits 
escaped contagion ; for such was the unalterable vir- 
tue of the place, that those who arrived there sick 
died in a few hours, without spreading the Infectioiu 
and were buried on the spot where they breathed 
their last. Several thousands of people are said to 
have been interred here at that time, and the numer- 
ous temporary habitations erected by the survivors, 
suddenly converted these sequestered scenes of re- 
ligious meditation into the resemblance (^ a largtt 
and populous town. The origin of this tradition 
cannot, perhaps, be satisfactorily developed ; bat Ar 
is a singular fart^, that, on levelling a long earthen 
bank, ot considerable thickness, and covered with 
low scrubby underwood, forty-twD fire-places were 
found in a line, at the distance of about 20 feet 
asunder. Thev were chiefly constructed of imall flat 
brick, and had no appearance of being deslfffed for 
grates. Tfaecastle of Milltown (Bally vallllng) and 
Inch-house, its opposite neighbour on the western 
hill, are also situated on the estate of Sir William 
Grace. We are not enabled to ascertain the onsin of 
the former building ; but its antiouity is evidentif 
great, and beyond the reach of local document or tra- 
dition. One square tower constitutes the principal re- 
mains of this structure, to which is attached a modem 
dwelling-house. Most of the outworks, consisting 
of walls and earthen momids, are now levelled, 
whilst stagnant fish-ponds occupy the site of the sur- 
rounding fosse. The situation of this castle would 
appear to have been calculated for domestic comfort, 
rather than for defensive warfare. The building is 
placed by the side of a shallow rivulet, and is well 
sheltered by hills in every direction, except towards 
the south." — This parish is a rectory, and a separate 
benefice, in the dio. of Leighlin. Tithe composition 
and gross income, £3U0; nett, £258 iS«. lid. 
Patron, the dioreitaii. The rhurrh was built in 1813, 
bv means of a gift of £553 18s. Ud. from the hito 
Board of First Fruits. Sittings 90 1 atfwndHMv 90. 




Tbd Retain €tt<hoU4 chapel of Wot/biU %a« «» •^ 
tBndance of 375 ( «nd/(ui the' Rofflon '>GaiboUe pw^ 
Mtd arrangtftMnti'k Irihited to two chapels in thh 
pariihei of BtllyadtiMk tmd Tvlk»wi«ioy. The RdL 
Ittaa CaChoUc diapbl at Doozume has an attendance 
«f. 1,290; and, in the Koknan'CatboUe parpchM W- 
rangement, ia anited t^tba ehapal'of Kulabane. ■ Iti 
ISai, tha pviiUaneft liiiiualed of 7B OhiHrchmen, IS 
FrotfstiiitdiMcnter^'wld 8^1 Roman Gatholicfil; 
fi MuHiaj 9<Aooll^ held in the tWo R^man Cathollic 
chapeU, were -usually attended by about 550 chil- 
jdreni anid 5 daily achooU w«f« sdpported wholly by 
ftes, and had on their books 200 boya and I8S ffirto. 
Ill ia42,:thb Matioaal BoaM had 2 «eho6l8 at Wdf- 
hilL ' • 

R ATH ASPECK, a pariah in the barony of Forth, 
2^ dulet BOuth..iOutbwwtiit of Wexford, eo. Wexford, 
Leinster. Length, we»t-horth- westward, S} mlM; 
breadth, from | to 2; area, 2,80iarrea, 1 rood,^l 
perches. Pop.v in ladl, 626; in 1«41. 7^. HouMs 
100. The extreMe westt ia p4rt of the Forth vkovih. 
taint ; but the other idistrkts lie low, and pi«>^l- 
incly contist of good land. The summita of the MHs 
eail^ CarrickliMrle^Rock, and Cairickadea-Roek, 
•nd situated on the western boundary, have altitudes 
abore aea-leivel of retjp^ctively 6^7 tati 77H feet. 
The s^ata are Crubatown4>ouseik Rathaspeck^iquse, 
UavBtdwn-house, Johnstown-castle, FairMd«hduse, 
«na Lammcrttown-bbiHe). The roads from WeKford 
to Daneormack and Oomaines passthnniigh tbein- 
tehok«.— This parish is: a rectory, and part of the 
benefice of St. Patriek^[l' of Wexford, in tboiHo. 6f 
Eemn. Tithecompoiittbii, £l20tli;7j^. A evrate 
Idv Rathaspeek and Kildhvin receif<et a sala^ of 
£60 4a. 7kd, The chureh waaenlai-ged in 18M by 
means ^f a loan of £276 18e. 5|d. from the late 
' Board df First Fhiita. SiUingsaOOi attendat^ce 180. 
In 1834, the Protestants amounted to 176, and tbe 
-Roohui Catbolica to 500; a 6u<iday« ' bchool >was 
osually attended by about 50 children ; and a dailly 
ichool was u^oUy 'supported by Mm: Orogan Mor- 
gan, and had on its books 76 boys and 74 girls. 

RATH ASPECK, a parish in the barony of Mo;, 
goish, eo. Wefttmeoth, lieinsfer. It- contains the 
small town of RAtvoWEK't which see. Length, 
aouth-castward, 5 milet; breadth, froai i to 2}; ar^ 
7>664 acres, I rood, 8 perches, — of which 134 acres, 
24 perches are in Lough Iron, 19B acres, 8 roods, 80 
pei-chea are in Lough Glen, and 4^ acres are in the 
rirer Inny. Pop., in 1«81, 2,170; in 1841, 2,185. 
Houses 383. Pop. of the rural districts, in 1881, 
1,565 ) in 1841, 1,586. Houses 248. Lough Glim 
lies on the western boundaryv and has a surfoee- 
elevation of 206 foet aboTe sea^level ; Lough Iran 
lies on the eaatem boundary, and has a surfkce- 
riemtion of 204 feet above seit-level i the river Imiy 
lows along the south-eastern boundary 7 artd the 
creeping rivulet, called the Blaekrriver, flows through 
the interior ta Lough Iron. The surfoce Kes on the 
western margin of Westmeath, is all low, and forms 
part of the great plain of the central counties of 
'Leiaster. The western diatriet Is prevailingly boggy; 
bat the other districts oonsiaty for ihe most part, (yf 
aood land. The seats are Rockfield; Pairyfaall, No- 
iagh.lodge, Newpack-eoMage, and Newpass-house, 
—^he last the residenOa of Mr. Whitty. The mail- 
rbad from Dublin to Sligo traverffee the interior. — 
This parish is a perpetual curacy, and a separate 
benefice, in the dio. of Ardagh. Glebe, £18. Grots 
inoome, £110 6s. 74r<^. ; nett, £100 6s. 8|d. Patron, 
Sir John Bennett Piers, Bart. Tha tithes are com- 
pounded for £128 fin. ; and are impropriate in the 
patron. The ehureh was built in 1814, by means of 
agitt of £788 Os. 2|d. from the late Board of First 
Fruits; and enlarged Im 1881, by means of a loan of 

£184"12U.' 9fd. frte thkt Boa^d. ' '8Ht«ngs 2J9f 
Ktt^ida>H!e>90. - The Rotaian Cat ht^ic 'ifaApel hte an 
attendance of 9T5; diid, in the Roman CatKobeparA 
ochial arringement, is united to the cMipd of RasL 
E»gh, Ih 1884, the parishioners ^orisisted of 216 
CAiurchmen. i, PresbJrterians, and 1,965 Roman GatlU 
olica; li Profiestant Sundaf school trte utually'ikbr 
tended by about 40 children ; and 4 driily tehoob:-:. 
one of wiri^h was salaried with £6 a^yeftrfrem iHjb 
Ardagh Association and £1 from the cbrate, and^efn^ 
with £10 from the Ardagh Association- ItUd £4 fr&th 
Mr. Crawford— had dn their b6dks 02 <l»bys - and| 75 
rirfs. -.,..'.■ ..-. ;..!./ .1 
RATHASS. See RaYam. 
RATHA6SIL. See Armkttkh. • '^ ' 
BATHAYNE. 8ee RATJkiMlB. •- " 
R ATIIB-ARRY, a parish, 8 miles south bf Cton. 
akiity, antd partly in the western divisk>o of tbe 
bilMny of Etot Carb^ry; biit chiefly In the hironf Hi 
Ibane and Barryroe, eo. C6rk, Munskr; Length, 8 
miles ; breadth, 2k. Area of the X;aH>e]'v aeetrori, 
876 acres ; 6t the Ibaiie and Barmoe seetldn, 4,800 
acres. Pop. of the wh^le^' in 1881 , 2,748 ;* ih 1841, 
2,729. Hoibes429. Pdp. (tf the Ibane and Banyrbb 
section, in 1^1, 2,548. Ubuses-SO^. ThetorMe 
Iks on the east side of Rwssflwbourr hs tantag^- 
grounds comteand superb views of theintrieale ooaM- 
Une, and tbeadja<$ent and> httersectimr seas away^-b 
Toe Heed; its coast is picturesque, fiven«fi«d, ind 
occasionaAy bold ioti roinantie ; and -iti irt<eri<Hr is 
greatly bertitified \rith Lord Carbery^t bindMMe de- 
mesne of CASTLfc-FRKKB^ #Weh' see.' 'ttaiUbakry. 
cattle, the Offginifl (lilednthe si^of thejpfe^nt taUuU 
sion of Cattle-Preke, was an undent fortified resi- 
dence of the Barrys This pariiih is a vicarage, ^tfid a 

separate benefiee, in the di6. of Ross. Vleuridl tithte 
composition, £174 2s. ll|d.; glebe, £4 Itls. Qrc^s 
uiciome, £178 12s. lUd.; nett, £169 4«.8d. Patron, 
the Rev. Henry Stewart arid his h«irs. One por- 
tion of the rectorial titties, compodnded for £174 
9^. 11^., is Impropriate in Capt. Roberta arid hi 
ThonUM Wade Post, Esq. ; ami another portion, 
compounded for £68 7». 1 Id., is appropriate; The 
chureh wat built in I8i5, by means of a gift 6f 
£880 15s. 4}d., from the faite Board of Krst Fruits. 
Sittings 150; attendance 45. The Roman Oitholftc 
ehi^ hii an attendance of 1,500; and, in the Ro- 
man Catholic parochial arrange^ient, is united to the 
chapel of Ardfidd. In 1834. the ProteHakA^ kmohnt- 
ed to 67r «rrd the! Roman Cutholics to 2;466; a Pro- 
testant Sunday school was usually atttnded bv About 
17 children ; and two daily vehoola-^ihe one of which 
was supported with £30 a-year from Lord^CarberV, 
and the other sahtried with £15 frohn the NatiohU 
Board^had oti their books 87 boys and 75 girls. ' 

RATHBEAGH, a parish, 2| mifes nortb-eaat of 
Freshford, and partly in the barony of Passadiitiar, 
l>nt chiefly in that of Galmoy, co. Kilkenny, Leih- 
ster. Length, eastward, 21 milet ; hnNMlth^ fl«a | 
to 2i. Area of the Faasadining section, 854'acrjn, 
> rood, 28 perches; of the Galmojr section, 2^460 
acreif, 88 perches. Fop. df the whele^ in -1831 , 786 ; 
6) 1641, 1,014. Houses 168. P<ft>. of tlte OahMN»y 
section, in 1841, 886. Houses 186. The rffer 
Hore, pursuing a southerly course, fbtnsthe Itoe of 
division between the two sections; and Ifte sMkdl 
lake Power lies in the Fassadining- sciefiMf;' Tie 
highest ground is on the sonth-n^t bttrder of tile 
Gahnoy section, and his analthttde'or2daiMkboVa 
tea-level. In comparathrely very tlAdiea!t'4Mik 
copper and tOTer ores werefoiM iBthlir)iMA'iiyd 

*^ ; - : ■ '■ •ur 

• This it the sUtemeni of the EccMbttticiJ AuUnrHifa. 
the Centui of 18S1 nukes the flgilueO^;^U tt^Khe 
notieeortlMOsrbwysMrfUa. -..^ r . - -w. :.. ■ .u-.r . 




Apr ol 3k<iaoi:R« t>*'^i<'^ ^^1* i»:Un?f di^ ofrOss^of/. 

p^Li|f54t4;it^ ftiODimitid tu lil, ^ji^ tilts IWiEvii) CatJbor 
licji W liftiOj fti}d ^ iliiil) >£.ljorilfi i'^f re j^mU>s t^Uried 
^11^ h , Xf i ^ ^ ^-y*t ^r fxit \u ! 1 1 i ! > ,'jf oj lid, ilv«u;4 ^iiil ^<^ 

lup jiua h^Klf'irU. / Mfj .,L.-.:t Nl'i .V 

f^l^A-TUtJlXi, rive OfcjiFiiK 4.1 -t J I •" 

RATH[JE(iGAN» h prtri*U in the barony of SUir 
oath, *2} miles south Jj^y w^ of the ¥il)iif?iof iUit- 
Mtb, CO. Meathi JLttW^te^. J^ength, ^east bj toiith- 
ward, '2\ miles; AJQtr^rp^ br«a(lthf 2| area, ^j865 
Miv9,;3 ihhmU, 24 perches, Po|v. i^ 18)^1, S28'4( in 
il&li, 3(M» .HouMt 47. The ««rfaQe consuts ef 

ab««4(Ui9 to li^bhfi. ^'mrj^v m.t^« ,<rntifi H,th^ 
bamlct of JiW^-ISw^i.^Xfti^ pvi^^h i^ ^ rirafa^ti, 
mnA a fepatsiie WiieJ^, i^tbBiiif>-<jf Mt-atb., ,Vrra- 
fiiii. tithe c*jiiipo«twm^ £M Is, 6<L^ d^ic, Xl^. 
Gf©** .incoHK, Silvia )^^ tk^. : nqtt, Xj|^ 4i. 7^. 

tAti»«««re!foinpouiuM ^r -£^£^ ^. :3]il^; m4 a^e ua- 

Etpriato ^m (b« n»Nori^ Tb*f clui/cU vvaa t^uUt- ui 
l7*by»A^'*two£*f»£^<>f Jt^TOB »i^ 2jrt. fr^in the 
Ute Bparil ^aC FirA( y.r^t4'-^ Sitrlt]g« i5rtJ; ifttenrl- 
aiMM, Croitt U to 20,1, JUi, Mi34f the Prat^ata^ts, 
•lOQuntMi f:<* ^^1 AJid tba B^runu iJafholk^ to *i58, 

&ATiiHl>^^ A ^u()fO!^ilUioati parL^li m rrv Kil- 
kenny, Jj«tt4i^f r. Mi:> T^t?hc\ Ui fiiji SutUticoL UU- 
•errationa ML'ki^ve to tjjd i'i)ttntj o^f Kilkt-nny, a^jt, 
. ** MoHcktowii «QcL ^EUthbia yrere probfribly in the bar- 
•nyi qf Gowran^ but theu* utuations are not kMOwn." 
The Fourth Report of the CofDiaissioneu on Eiccle- 
aia«Uo»l ^tvennta and Patronage, itatea Rathbin to 
ke a cactory, an4 part of tha bene fica of Burnchiuch, 
in Ihe Ao^ of Oaiory) and asf igua to il as a parbih in 
1831 a popalatioa of. \5S ; yet that very Report da- 
claraa it ta ba ** unknown: as a parish,.'! ana repte- 
aenu it aa a mera tituUr deupmiuation in the incua- 
beat'c titles. Tiui First Report of the Commission- 
era of Ptffaiic InstrM<'tion returns Rathbin, Omrnn* 
and Mpocktoifn, as tliree parishes, and assigns to 
thrn anittffUy a pop., ii^ 1831, of lo8, all Roiaan Ca- 

RATJiBOU&NEY, p, pariah in the baronv of 
Barren, :^ mile* south-aquth-wevt of Hallyvaugnao, 
CO. Clare. Munster. . ^ei^tl^ southward's wiles; 
eUPtaM! Ueadth,.4;, area* 9»<)23 acres, a& perclHw. 
P«ip^ in- 1831, d4«i, in lfi4l« 1,000. Houses 177. 
By fa^he graatar pant of the .KUiCtra ja mountain- 
ous ; «Bd rery much ia -exaeedingly rocky^ and eitiyer 
^uita wa t a or aaarely pairtonil. CappaaayaUaf noun- 
Ian, on tjt^ inortkarn boundary^ has au altitude of 
I,4tt3 iaat abpre sea-lavel; a height on the southern 
.b^iudanr haa an altituda of (505 ieet ; a height on the 
aaaum border has alio a^ altiftuda of 63i5 teet ; and a 
kfight ofr the we^tera border has an altittt<le of Oil) 
fart. The handets are Knockatun, Ussaroo, Cahir- 
■Mtfufk and Cro«Mr|i ; tha chief aeat w iiailyalljii)afl- 
kMi«« ; aiid the principal antiquities are the ruins of 
LoHghiaV-caatle, Craggan-caf^le, Johnsgrave-house, 
■bd tw#rkufches, and tlie sites of Lissyislieeu-castle 
aal aiioUiai rastle. The road from Dally vatighan 
to £oniskynion traveracs tha interior. — This parish 
M a ncXQtyt in tke dio. of Kilfanora. Tithe coiq- 

Khiou, iilUO. The rectories of Ratiidournky, 
oMcaaiiY, Oi,A2<inagu, and Killonauhan [see 
these article:*], constitute the iMsnefice of UHtlibour- 
ne>. LeiifTth, 8 miles ; breadth, 4. Pop., in 18.*)1, 
4*i-')8. Uross inromc. £330; nett, X312 5s. IV 
Uoik, the diocesan. The ckurch is of unknown date. 

Sittw^OO; attavdanca 9. .The iRdtaaa Cfltkone 
cbap^W of Rathbouriiey aad KlUonagiHn Jbave an a6- 
taadanoa of respeetivTly 600 aad 460; and^ iil tltc 
Ripnan iCathoUc parodiial arrangeaifWt, ane. oautuaUy 
united. In 1834; the inhaMtatits of the parish af 
Rathhourne|^ constated of 1 Qhuichman,.and QOOiB^ 
nan CathobOP} the inbabitaiitft ef the nnioa coi>- 
sisted of 21 Cburchinan, 4 Presbyterian^ and 4ifiS9 
RooMn Catholiot; a pay daily acboel in thaparifli 
had on its books 12 boys and 50 girls; aud theft 
was also a daily school in Killonagfaan. 

RATHBOVKE, or BAiAalUBOTitE, a parish t24 
Dfilas'soiith by eaat ef Kalla, and partly in the burooir 
eC I:iow«r Jfaran;. but chiefly in that df Upper Kielll, 
CO. Meath, Leinster. Length, west by southward, 
a^ miles; extreme breadth* 2. .ArHief ihd Lotver 
JNaran aection, 509 wtten, 2 rooda, 23 perobea i of ike 
Upper KeljlasectioB, 3^382 acres, 1 rebd, 27 perchiel. 
-Pop. of the whole, io 1831, 1.271 ; in 1841^ 1,235. 
Houses I^. ;Pot)4oftbe Upper KoUs xectiitai, ,«fi 
1831. 1,031 ; in 184K 1.O60L Homes IM. The 
aurfisce eoasists. in l^enetal, ef good land raUd ia tra- 
versedt across the wedt end, by the road from HLells 
to Athboy. Tho seats are Cortown-castlt, BaUy- 
beg-hoase, and Charleifort, — the-kist tho midenee 
of Jolpi TiodaU, Esq. Ad|ioiiiing Ball>'beg is the 
oldest and neat extensive tret narnenr in. IrckrUl. 
.^Thia parish' is a rectory, and part of the benofiie 
of li£iA.» [which see] Jin the dio. ef Meath. Tithe 
composition, £277. The Romeii Catfaolie cfaapel 
has an attendance of about 1 ,000 ; and, in the Roman 
CathoUe parochial aM-atigement, ia united to tke 
eha|>els of Bohermetn and Boyerstoa-n, in the parlfli 
of Ardbraccan. la 1834, tbfe Protestants amounted 
to 04, and the Roman Catholics to 1 , 176 ; and 2 daily 
schools— ^Hie of which wa< salaried with £16 a*year 
from Mr.. T>wialU.had on their bobks ao boys aUd 
08 girls. 

RATHBEAN, a pariah in the baraay of Upptr 
Talbotstown, co. Wicklow, Leinnter. It contaiDS 
ther town of STBATtoBo-vpoN-SLAKCT : which see. 
Length, southward, 3^ miles ( extreme breadth, 24; 
area, 4831 acres, 3 roods, 1 pe/rh. Pop., in 1831, 
2,833; in 1841, 2,221. Houset339. ThesurfiMwis 
bisected south^aouth- westward by the Slaney; and 
consists of a pleasant aad beautiful portion of the 
valley and ktll-screens of that river. The elevati^ 
above sea-level of. the Slaney's bed at the poist 
where the stream leaves the pariah is 304 feet. TIk 
sammitof Rathcoran mountaiQ on tkesouthem bonn- 
dary has an altitude above sea-level of i,256 fee4 ; 
the summit of another height on the northern border 
has an altitude of 045 feet ; and the most rcmarkaUe 
height, additional to these, is Rathnagrcr, a littie 
north-west of liatlicoran. The seats are Saundem- 
ville, Goldenfort- house. Bally hook, BallinarroW, 
and Saunder»'^rove,««4iie last the residenee of M. 
8. Saunders, Esq., and pre^ienting a close resem- 
blance to the old English manor-kouse. The otter 
featares and obrjects of ijiterest will be noticed en 
connection uith Stratfonl. The interior is travers«l 
by the road froui Dublin to Wexfonl^ by way bf 
Blessington and NcMtownbarry. — This parish was 
fornwrly a part of the parish of Baltinglass, but is 
now a perpetual curacy, and a separate henetioe, in tke 
dio. of Leighlin. iSlebe, £21. Gross income, £113 
7s. Id. ; nett, £08 I4s. 1 l^d. Patron, the Hon. Johji 
Win^icld. The tithes belong to the iitcuinl>«nt of 
Baltinghm. The charch was built in 1790. at tke 
private cost of the late Edward. Earl of Aldbu- 
rough. Sittings 150 ; attendance 60. The Prcftby- 
tcrian meeting-house has an attendance of 80. The 
Roman Catholic chapel has an attendance of 1,050; 
and, iu the Roman Catholic parochial arranfft^ment, 
is united to the chapel of Baltinglaaa. la 1834^ the 




iwrisliionerg consisted of 310 Ofaurcbmen, ISO Pres- 
mrtmians, and 2,4<% RonUin OathoUc:! ; a Protestant 
^nday school was usually attended by about 40 
drildren ; and 6 pay daily bcdooIb — one of which was 
a classical school tor boys — had on their books 160 
boys 'and 125 girls. 

RATHBRAN, co. Mayo. See RATiniEA. 

RATHBRIBE, a banilct in the parish of Tally, 
barony of East Opbaly, co. Kildare, Leint^ter. It 
stands adjacent to the north-west extremity of the 
Ciirragh of Kildare, and 2h miles north-north-east of 
the town of Kildare. A fair is held on July 5. In 
iSke vicinrty are Rathbnde-hou^e, Rathbrido-cottaffe, 
and Rathbride Hare-Park, — the t^vo latter within 
th4 limits of the Currag^ and within the parish of 
Hildare. Pop. of the hamlet not specially returned. 

RATHCAVAN. See Racavan. 

RATHOLARE, a village in the barony of Orrery 
and Kilmore, co. Cork, Munster. Post-town, But- 
te\'ant. Fairs are held on April 26, July I, Nov. I, 
and Dec. 17. Pop. not specially returned. 

RATHCLARIN, a parish in the eastern dimion 
of the barony of East Carbery, 44 miles south by 
east of Bandon, co. Cork, Munster. It contains the 
nUage of RiLBRiTTAiif : which see. Length, 3^ 
miles; breadth, 2^; area, 5,901 acres. Pop., in 
1^1, 2,775 ; in 1841, 2.907. Houses 471. Pop. of 
the rural districts, in 1841, 2,619. Houses 428. 
The sur£ux is washed oa the south, partly by the 
Arigadeen river, but chiefly by the upper streteh of 
the bay of Courtmaciherr^. The land is, in general, 
of only middle-rate quality ; . but in consequence of 
ike ^Mility with which seapnuuiure can be procured, 
it is of greater value than land of the same quality 
at a distance from the coast. — This parish is a rec* 
tory, and a separate benefice, in the dio. of Cork. 
Titht coflapositioii, £650; glebe, £36. Gross in- 
come, £QS6 ; nett, £615 10s. Patron, the diocesan. 
The church was built about the year 1650. Sit- 
tings 200; attendance 50, The Roman Catholic 
chapel has an attendance of 3,000. In 1834, the 
Protestants amounted to 140, and the Roman Ca- 
tholics to 2)563 ; a Sunday school was usually at- 
tapded by about 8 children; and G daily schools — one 
of which was salaried with £6 a^year from the rcc 
ior and £8 from tbe Assodatipn for Discuunteoandng 
Vice, one with £6 from 5Ir. Sealy. one with about 
^14 from thQ London Hibernian Societies, and one, 
which admfitted 40 poor children, with £4 from the 
{Iqpa^n Catholic clergyman— jUad on their books 267 
boya and 197 ^rls. ; 
..RATl^CLlNE, or Rathlinb, a barony of the 
county of Longford, Leinster. tt is bounded, on 
the, morth, by the baronv of Moydoe ; on the eaat, 
Vy the baronv of Abbeysnruel ; on the south, by the 
county of nestmeath; and on the west, by the 
county of Roscommon. Its greatest length, west 
by .northward, is 10| miles; its breadth varies from 
4 pf H pile at the east end to 9} miles near the west 
eDO i and its area is 4fi^839 acres, 3 roods, 9 perches, 
>^f. which 8,820 acres, 2 roods, 37 perches ar^ 
water. . Lough Re9 forms f^ve-sixths of the western 
IJQimdaxy, ^id upwards of one-half of the southern 
boundary ; and Uie rivers Shannon and Inny trace 
the, remaining parts of the respective boundaries. 
The surface of the barony is everywhere low, and 
comprises a large aggregate of bog. The eastern 
district is traversed by the Royal Canal. — Thi.4 bar- 
ony contains the whole of the parishes of Cashel, 
Rathcline, and Shruel, and part of the parishes of 
Kilcomacki Koughaval, and Tughshinny. The 
towns and chi^f villages are Keenagh, Lanesborough, 
and part of Ballymabon. The Act 6 and 7 William 
IV.p cap. 84, transferred one tovvnland and part of 
Viother In the parish of Noughaval, from tbe barony 

of Abbeyshruel to that of Rathcline, — pop., in 1841, 
26. Pop. of the barony of Rathcline, in 1881, 
14,375; in 1841, 14,589. Houses 2,436. Familiea 
employed chiefly in agriculture, 1,910; in mannfae- 
tures and trade, 490; in other pursuits, 204. Fam- 
ilies dependent chiefly on propertyand profinaioDa, 
71; on the directing of labour, 833; on their own 
manual labour, 1,651 ; on means not specified, 49. 
Males at and above 5 years of a^e who could read and 
write, 2,180 ; who could read but not write, 1,499^ 
who could neither read nor write, 2,839. Femalet 
at and above 5 years of age who could rtfad and 
write, 719; who' could read but not write, 1,702; 
who could neither read nor write, 4,050. — Rathdiiie 
baronv lies wholly within the Poor-law union of 
Longford. The total number of tenements valued 
is 2,864; and of these, 1,581 were valued tinder £5^ 
_573, under £10,— -302, under £15,-150, under 
£20,-^2, under £25,-55, under £30,-52, under 
£40,-28, under £50,— and 41, at and above £50. 

RATHCLINE, or Rathunv, a paiiah in the 
barony of Rathcline, co. Longford, Leinster. It. 
contains the town of Lan bsbobocgb : which see. 
Length, south by westward, 6 miles; breadth, from 
I to 4i ; area, 12,883 acres, 1 rood, 7 perdiea, — of 
which 1,820 acres, 1 rood, 26 perches are in Lough . 
Ree, 93 acres, 3 roods, 27 perches ere in the river 
Shannon, and 96 acres, 3 roods, 8 perches ere in 
Lough Bannow. Pop., in 1831, 3,096; in 1841, 
3,095. Houses 406. Pop. of the rural districts, 
in 1831, 2,646; in 1841, 2,792. Houses 448. The 
Shannon and Lough Ree form the whole of the 
western boundary ; and Lough Bannow lies in the 
northern part of the interior. The islands of Lougli 
Ree which belong to the parish are Little Island, 
Incbenagh, Goats' Island, Bushy Island, and Incbar- 
mundermot. The land of the parish is nearly ell 
low and level ; a considerable part of it is hog i and 
the greater ^rt has a limestone soil of a lifpit end 
poor description, llathcline-house, the seat of Luke 
White, Esq., in situated on the shore of Lough Ree, 
1 } mile south of Lanesborough ; and some compare- 
tively high grounds on its demesne eoouDand a good 
view of the naked and boggy country whidi ftioks 
tbe Connaught side of Lough Ree. The other seats 
are Mount-Davis, Salisbury-lodge, and Clonboey* 
houHC. The road from Dublin to RoscommoD tra- 
verses the interior This parish is a vicarage, and 

a separate benefice, in the dio. of Ardegh. Vicuial 
tithe composition, £131 ds. 4d. ; glebe, £45. Gross 
income. £176 3s. 4d.; nett, £154 lis. lOftd. P^ 
tron, the diocesan. The rectorial tithes are ooa>-. 
pounded for £262 6s. 8d., and are iamropdate ia 
Messrs. Armstrong. The church was built at the 
private C06t of the Lanesborough fiunily. Sittines 
200 ; attendance 9. Two Roman Catholic duipeU 
have an attendance of respect! vdy 900 and 150 ; «nda 
in tlie Roman Catholic parochial arra^geoMait, an > 
mutually united. In 1834, the Protestauts aoiaiiated 
to 15, and the Roman Catholios to 3,013; and 5 . 
hedge-schools had on their books 192 boys aad lOfi 
girls. In 1842, a National school at Laneaboroqgh 
was salaried with £15 a-year from the Boar^/uM| ■ 
had on its books 141 boys and 133 girls. 

R ATHCOFFEY, a demesne in the parish gTBd^ 
raheen, barony of Ikeathy and Oughtereny, 3 nulet 
north- north -eai^t of Clane, co. KUdare, Iieineter.., 
Archibald Hamilton Rowan, Esq., purd^aaed froi^' 
Richard Wogan Talbot, Es<|. of Malahide, the uaqor ! 
of Rathcoffey, built upon it the present luamiOB,^ 
and. with the exception of one andent gatewayt ' 
levelled to the ground an old castellated ana fbrti4f4i 
pile, which had long been the residence of the WogSQ^ 
family. The Wogaiis were of Welsh extracfiioBp, 
and settled in Ireland so early i 

I toward thddoii' 




of Ui« 13th ceiitury; but they became merged by | 
iiiarrii^fe alliances, into the families of Talbot, of , 
MaljLbiile, and Browne, of Castle - Browne. 8ir \ 
John Wogan was Viceroy of Ireland in the reign of i 
Edward I. The Cat^tle of Rathcofiey was captured | 
in June 1642, by Colonel Monk, who afterwards 
beoame Duke of Albemarle ; and, on this occasion, 
he iiia<le seventy prisoners, most of whom were exe- 
cuted in Dablin as rebels. 

RATUCONDBATH. 8ee Bathconbatii. 

RATHCONEY. See Bathcooney. 

BATUCONNELL, a parish in the barony of 
lloyashel and Magheradenion, 6 miles east-north- 
east of Mullingar, co. Wevtmeath, Leinster. Length, 
south-westward, d^ miles; extreme breadth, 4; 
area, L5,6fi9 acres, 1 rood, 12 perches,-^of which 
^1 acres, 2 roods, 30 perches are u-ater. Pop., in 
1831, according to the Census, 3,002, but according 
to the Ecclesiastical Authorities, 2,940; in 1841, 
3.606l Houses 61 1. About 405 acres are bog ; and 
the remaining portions of the land average in ^vearly 
valae about 35s. per plantation acre, prevailingly 
consist of low and level grounds, upon a limestone 
subaoil, and constitute very fine grazing districts ; 
but though much better adantcd for pasturage than 
for tillage, they have very largely and increasingly 
been broken up for tillage, and are now principally 
devoted to the growth of wheat, here, oats, and 
fiouitoes. Loughs Drin, Pot, tSlevin, Boch-Hole, 
Sheevir, Black, ami White lie on the boundaries; 
and Loughs Brittas and Bluck in the interior. The 
tine demesne of Knockdrin, the residence of Sir 
Richard Levinge, Bart., occupies the extreme west ; 
presents a splendid specimen of niixedl^ natural and 
artitieial scenery; abounds in decorations of wood 
and water ; is presided over by a haiidctome, modem, 
cAhtclIated mansion ; and contains a hill which gives 
it the name of Knockdrin, and which is sheeted all 
over with w^ood, and forms one of the most remark- 
able features within a considerable expanse of oir- 
cumjacent eountry. The other senU are Cooks- 
l»oroagh-house, Rathconnell-rottage, Clonlort-house, 
Re\-neIla-house, Knockbrack-house, Edmondstowit, 
aii^ Killynaii* house. The principal hamlets are 
Paos-tf-vou-can, Newtown, Cloghan, Drumman, 
and Lif^dillon. The road from MuUingar toC?aHtle- 
town-Del vin. and that from Castle- Pollard to Killn- 

can pass through the interior This parish is a 

separate benefice, consisting of part rectory and part 
vicarage, in the dio. of Meath. *' It is observed,** 
Mvs the Report of the Commissioners on Kcelesias- 
tin! Revenues and Patronage, '*that the benefice 
of Rathconnell, as at present constituted, was an- 
ciently an union of the parishes of Rathconnell and 
Turin ; and that the whole of the tithes of Rathcon- 
nel belonged to the incumbent, who only enjoyed 
the ncarial tithes of the parish denominate'd Tunn.*' 
Tithe composition belonging to the incumbent, £184 
l'2». 3|d.; glebe, £42 8s. lid. Gross income £231 
^**. ll|d.; nett, £177 3s. 4?d. Patron, the Mar- 
<jui$ of Droghoda. The rectorial tithes of the Turin 
portion of the benefice are compounded for £184 
124 3|d., and arc impropriate in Nicholas Ogle, 
Ei^. oif l)ys€rt. The church is situated on the 
eastern border of the pari>h, and was built in HJ**, 
bv means of a gift of £401 10s. U^d. from the late 
iWd of First Fruits. mikI the sum of £3(t9 4s. 7&d. 
rtti^d by parochial a-isessment. Sittings 120 ; at- 
tendance 00. The Uomari (.'atholic chapt*! has an 
attendance of a}>out ^>; and, in the Roman Cath- 
olic parochial arrani.n*ini>iit, is united to the chapol 
of Mountain. In 18.34, the [mrishioners consisted of 
3JA Churchmen, 8 Presbyterians, and 2,784 Roman 
C.*thulirs; and 2 pay daily schools had on their 
Uwki 45 boys and 12 girU. 

RATHCONJNELL, one of three denomiDations 
of a bog, in the baronies of Farbill, and Moyashel 
and Maghcrademon, co. Westmeatb, Leinster. It 
lies along the north bank of the Royal Canal, from 
1 mile to 5i miles east of Mullingar. The oth^r 
denominations than Rathconnell, are Wood- Down- 
and Great- Down. The entire bog comprises an aqea 
of 2,506 acres ; and lies from 292^ to 836^ feet ab^ve 
the level of high water io Uublin bay. It is in. 
general very firm ; and has long been the principal 
source for the supply of fuel to Mullingar. £«ti-» 
mated cost of reclamation, £2.590 17s< lOd. 

RATHCONRATU, a barony of the county gf> 
Westmeatb, Leijister. It is bounded, on the ii«rth« 
by the barony of Moygoish ; on the east, by the 
barony of Moyashel and Magherademoa ; oh thfi 
south-east, by the barony of Moycashel ; on the south, 
by the baronies of Moycashel and Clonlonan ; and on 
the west, by the barony of Kilkenny. West and the 
county of liongford. Its length, south-westward» 
is 10 miles ; its greatest breadth is 7 I and its area is 
48,415 acres, 23 perche8,^4if whieh 207 Mres, 8 
roo<is, 33 perches are water. The surface comprisea 
some bog, and several hills and undulations $ but, in 
general, it forms part of a great fertile plain. The 
principal heights are the hills of Ushnagh, Rathcon* 
rath, and Skeagh, all situated in the east, and poaJ 
sussing an altitude above sea-level of respectivelr 

802, 470, and 420 feet This barony contains pari 

of the parish of Dysert, and the whole of the parishiafe 
of Ballymore, Ballymorin, Churchtown, Conrr, 
Killure, Piercetown, Rathconrath, and Temple- 
Patrick. The principal villages are Rathconrath, 
Bnllvmore, and Movvore. Pop., in 1881, 15,064 ^ 
in 1841, 15.317. Houses 2.^52. Families employed 
chiefly in agriculture, 2,268; in manufactures and 
trade, 368; in other pursm'ts, 161. Families 6^ 
pendent chiefly on property and professions, 56 ; on 
the directing of la1>our. 690 ; on their own manual 
la))our, 1,982 ; on means not specified, 64. Males at 
and above 5 years of age who could read and write, 
1,908; who could read but not write, 1,588; whd 
could neither read nor write, 3,206. Females at and 
above 5 years of a^e who could read and write, 714-s 
who could read but not write, 1,786; who coultt 
neither read nor write, 4,858.— Rathconrath barony 
lies partly in the Poor-law union of Athlone, and 
partly in that of Mullingar. The total number of 
tenements \idued is 2,426; and of these, 1,880 wera 
valued under £5,-824, under £10,-206, under 
£15,-93, under £20,-79, under £25,— 62. under 
£80,-78, under £40.-55. under £50,— and 14^, at 
and above £50. 

RATHCONRATH, a parish, containing a villagtr 
of the same name, in the baronv of Rathconrath, 
miles west of Mullingar, co. Westmeatb, Leinster. 
Length, south -south -eastward, 5 miles; breadth, 
from I to 8^ ; area, 8,745 acres, 3 roods, 7 perchet, 
— of which 51 acres, 1 roo<U 83 perches arc in Mount* 
Dalton lake. Pop., in 1831, 2,862 ; m 1841. 8,878. 
HousL's 599. Pop. of the rural districts, in lasi, 
2,627; in 1841. 3,165. Houses 561. The number 
of townlands is 22. The proportions to one another 
of arable land, meadow liuid, and pasture land, are 
13, 1. and 33; but the last of tbc«c classes include! 
a considerable extent of bog and morass. The only 
hills are those of Rathconrath and Skeagh, with al- 
titudes above sca-lcvel of res|K'ctively 479 and 42(J 
{evi. Mount- Dalton lake lies chiefly within the 
parish of Rathconrath, but partly also within the ad- 
joining parish of Churchtown. The principal bogs 
are those of Killahev and Balnacarra. The rivulet 
Rathconrath issues from the former of there lMigs» 
and runs northward toward the Inny; and the rivulet 
Sheawii, thoujjh small, traces the Iwundary-line with 




fht parochial union of Pierccto\Yn. . Limestone wmI 

'Tairied and ti^^d-aH a'natarHl' rtiAiMk*:' This viettts 
«ro' Motitit^Dalton-hoiise/ Ratlteastl^' OMtbwh- 
'li<]iUBe, aiid' Meaflreourt.lkc5iise. The fl(c^ of these 
aeats was buiU about t;hi* ytkr ^dO; bv UoHiii R^dh- 
•rd I>''Altoti^ a eoAnt ()f the RoiMiir>' t^ire, tt^a 
dtstiiiguiRhed o(fii(*er in- the A Ufltrifan service. A 
fi^niaiidal monvnientf ilftv - feet Mgh; situated ; on • a 
•nWing 'gKouiYd kinidsi a ndndwine plantation^ aiid 
cUnMoajidnig^a VefycxtaTHivie aixl interesting proft- 

gect« wag built witlilri th« Moiiiit^Dalton deme«ne, 
f l^e Mirrie 'genllenian and bi§! brother,' General 
Janoes D* Alton, in honour «f Oeorg« 111., the EiA. 
pcmr JoMiph IIm kmd the Empress Marie Tfaeres«; 
iiul thrca cf its giflei are adorned withproHles of tfae^ 
-•ovei>etgba' in white marble,- while the foarth bears 
the D' Alton anns and a suitable inscription. At t9ie 
4ieath of Count Oliver 'D- Alton, iho' last male heir 
of the ancient fiiinily of D' Alton,' the' Moant-Dalt^ 
ontate* ware inherited by h\B three meters, l^he 
chief aniiqoitioy' within the pAifsb are ten raths,<otie 
.<of which contauist saveral roonM= or^ i^cesses-i-^tlic 
iDtttnsbf Millttf'wfucaitle; Sknonstown^castle^ and tin- 
cifaec tastle,.— -and the ruine of the formisr <rh^ch of 
-Bathcoorathv encloaiig'thd ^buriaUplaee- of the re- 
mains of General D' Altoiu thi chief c€ th6 rath*, 
oc:Rath*€onrath-.pat teeellenee^ hdj^iti^ tbe' viUkge, 
hatian. altitude above sea^vol of 470 faet^ aiidcom- 
iitiErula an extensive krie w of the beaiitifully undulatod 
^ciECunqacent country* Tbe road from MuUingilr 
to Ballymahon pastes through- thd central di«tn^t 
■«f the pariah, and tbo Royai Canal' passes across the 
Aortliern diiitriot. Thw riihiga of Ratbconrath attinds 
oaithe MuUingav and Bail vraahon road; and on the 
ea^rn v«r^ of the parish ; but it is- a very poor 
. place, .And jds fentarkablo only for eoiitaining the 
ithuroh and a constabulary barraek, fo9- -giving its 
name to the fMirish and the baHcmy, and tor ctvbig 
•4he titla of baron^palatine to tbe faoiilids'^f IVAlton 
aodOMreo. The OwenraRieofbarooa of 'RatheoA- 
.irath bttsanne extlActiii tlie male line towards- 1^ 
olose bf the reign of Elisabeth,' at the death of Sir 
Aichard Owen, uterine brother of ' Hugh O'Neill, 
Earl of Tyrone. Area: of the riUage,' 14 acres. 
Fop., in 1831, 23A; in 1641, 212. . Houses 38.-^ 
V^B parish is a rectory,! and a aeparate hcaeA<?e, hi 
ibe diow of Msath^ Tithe : compcAAtlon, £267; 
^be; £^.l4i. Grosff iacome; £294 .14s. ; nett, 
.i£:l89.;19«/ Id. JRatron, the £ari of iinnesborouiiii. 
Thediuroh wok built in ilHOO; by nidans of a giiib of 
4£738t9s.'2«d. from the late Board of First Fruits. 
Sittings. lOU; attendatioe, from iN) to *2j^. The Ro- 
joati fCathc^ic chapel Mas aoi .aLteiidaiiee of ' aboat 
i%&OQi Slid* in liheRanaii Catholic parochial armnge- 
S9«nt« U united to tbo chapel of £DIpo^r. In ISdl, 
the -iProtestantti amounted to ^(K iJid the Roman 
C^hoiicfi to 2iSiH& ; a he4ge«school at Irishtown was 
Vsii|d)y atlieiided: by about 4^- children; and 8 daily 
sfalMPis sit<Mi^owii« Baihconfath, and Siinonstowii, 
49M,4W tJbeiff V>oks 180 boys,. and m giHsi l^ke 
spli^at Milltdwn was salaridd witk-£10 a^year 
f^flm.the .Nat^ial Board'; aad (hat af.RathconratV, 
with £$ and other advaotage*- from the rector. In 
134i), the National Board had. one school at^ MilU 
town. Jind another 4t Irishtowi. :' )■ 

BATJHCOOLE, a parish in thti bardtiy of Goui- 
can, ^ miles .north-east of Kilkenn>% co. Kalkemiy, 
X^sinster, Lerv^th* soutib-soath-wttstward, -3>} nnlea^ ; 
^j^qsme. breadth, 2.; areaj 9,67*2 acres, 3 roods, 25 
p^fches^tTrof which 28& acres, ^ perrheA lia do- 
tai;hed a little to the north.-eaat. It contains the 
Tijyiage of^oHNswjCtL: whidk soe. Pop., in 1831^ 
L,:{25; in t84U 1,283. Houses 1^2. Pop. of the 
rfuiia di8,tricts,.in 1841, 9c29. Houses :ia7. About 

one-half.of tl;fi ^tirtirc, from the northern ^x|fep^i(y 

! iNiUfh^iA-d, i^ nuitiilEdrif^ii- f sinil tlu^ ro^^SJidt'ir'i^p- 

, "siftts oP'iitaiTv Cfjtfnl praponion^i of (,^o6(f ittd irjd 

J" Inferior lanf I / TBe liigtitii^t gr^^Uh^J ;-, i;? t!;,- rVtrrHJe 

'•rti9rth,l»n<l Imk Hit ^mtudfe *if l.lJi*!^ i^n iil.uvt- ^ei- 

I IfeVel: I'hi:* pfindpiil re'si'^iir^j arc MoiiritrKo^!^ afid 

I Bandford-s-etrifrt; iud th^ chiE^f ui^tltjiiitieis lir'i? ri^fis 

I'df a chureh and two mMleu.— Ttii^^pftj'i^h b a y'^^^- 

I age, in the <Tio. fjf 0*yDrj-. \^^ria1 tttbt CoiniM^ 

ti'on, £81 Pii . 1 <Vd , Th(* rectdriiil tit &i?a if t ^eotii- 

poiindod far £t(?*i I7i?. liM. ; ^id tire^tpM^rS*^** 

to thedcftii fiT>d chnfT^i^r of ^fv C4fii^qe ^^ifliedfiiL 

The vi<*arapWst f*t* T!tithcbrtle arid RikikTRiir [*v& 

tlint article], »?mu(titat<j the Ijcrr^le^ «»f Jtiith<?oole* 

Length; 3J milL*« j hrnidt^.'di, Pop.^m llWt. r.'j^f. 

Gross incijni<^, £Wl9*^* li<t. i Tiet,t, £vXl 4< ^ji 

tron, the dioct^i^n* Thc^nf^irnhJ^Tit )inlt!> iiho tne 

benefice of rimriiiiiriierli,' nnd. the' bt^n^^tiCL* and pM' 

bieiid of AghoLir. in rlic dio. of Os^rtfV ; und i^^ rjoi- 

residertt in Rftthroule'. A cyrat^ for UatRtf^otL' f^- 

ceires a sitlury <ff £30. Thert b nf> Hiicrhh. ^TM 

Rom4ti OithoHt? dinptf) hftj* itti ntt^ntUmre of fiidih 

1,000 to J, 100 J ftTi^H iTlthc HtTtrtftfi tatUolEi* '\%'^^ 

ochial Bf^aw^^tn^ritj i^ liHiiyd to, the t^hafttil of &titf- 

miffy in St. Jdhtj^a patiJ^, atid to Mi(n<J]i(i-?Trt'^ 

<!hape4 in K itkt^miy , ' ' l*i 1 &R4\ \ ht I*i-ot<*sTtij rt k pi 1 |lb 

pak-isbamt ih^ iJtiidrT fim<yiihre(l' to'^f ; th^ fitniiSAi 

Catholics of *}i e pArh bib I , S^^ ; i'hc ' R onj eUi Oaf ti- 

oiies of th^ imionift j;HH4 rnTitf n [lay diilly srho'dl'ik 

the pimsh liad on it* tw^rk^ 70 lu'Vrt sind 3(t i^ir!^. '^ 

third, 14 niit« north-M^est iy noHh'<^ Pe^d, Vd. 
Tipperary, Mnnster. L^ngth.-Wjest-^fii^utli-iirestinitW, 
8f miles; estrMn^' bi«adth,'8i ; ai^ 5,904 ia<:r«s| S 
porches. E^op., In ISS'l,' 1,901? fti lMr,"1;677^ 
House* ^40. The vurlm^ cbhsists of artfiTe'lnid' p4k- 
ture land of tlie yeerlf »v«tilge ^lue^ of ab^i -9W. 
per plantatibn acr«. -^hd prinHplii ^atsVe D^r^- 
luflkan-houfie, the i^dence'Of WrayTtili^^E^.'; 
Rocklow-bouse, the re*id*n(»fe <rf'Bejrjanitt'%feitli 
BaiT-) Amiesgifti the residence c€ Oiorj^ GU&V, 
Esq.; Ooolhioyle^h«M0e; Afdsallatgfh'-ftOv^/ Pmu 
poet* house ; Otolmore-^hotts^;'' find HathctwAtr- 
castilew Tht 'diief afntiffuirtes ai^ the Jtiirta: t^ kwo 
choKfae8,the (at« of h^third Md chorehy^e sM'df 
an old castle, and th^ min^ bf K'ba^tle. ' The^foM 

from> f^thardito Cishel (ravdrs^ 411^ 'MtMot' 

This parish i« a rectory; aftd pan df' the'%tfiiHlr^^f 
Fbtsjlad (; which aeeQ; in'^fhedio: of Ckshel.' Tftfie 
composition, £36l»: f^leb^. £dS Idif. eH;-i 'i^d84; 
the- Protestanis amouMM'to 56^- and 'the'ltOiMft 
Catholics to ly^H/Si; andi>payd£ly s^lG^l tedidl^ik 
books ieboya«na4g{i^ii/ '♦'• ■= .-J'^^-'ib i.iin 
: HAT! ICOOLB, «• parish, 'colhtfdHitt|^rVini|il?'<jr 
the tame namey forrfieirly^iiki the bardnf"M' tmM> 
cross, butnow in tbo barony of 'Ne^A^mvWDilt& 
lioi LeinsMr, Length; 8<krth ward; ^'ia^M^i eftMMi 
bBeBdth»'l<} ;«<««. 4',705 acrefl^ i i^Mdj^SS'tM^H^r 
Pop., iti 1834v h4(^^*ihtS4fi}\,S^J'UM^2m 
Popjof tho rumi distriote,'lnr>m^ 9741 '*Bi>tel| 
1:04. - About 800 aere^'aF*: itM]^titidtMN)imiM^^ 
the' remainder of the iui^od* c<oil8i8ts,fM^tBh littM 
part, of excellent landi 0»e^4i|!ht'4lh'Mft4iNMK. 
wiest boundary has an- altftude* &t7il*fAt^i^bmi 
aea-lerel; ond on the eastern bOttMdbi^ lib'toi^dflii 
tude of 3B8 ieetj-aild tiire^ irt th«"tidiMli«ti^Mtt 
mountainous district ha¥e- altHuAM'Of 'MplJei^VCto 
003, 1,008) and 1,906 i^etr- Tiro '<Mlxnill#iW 
situated in the Mrth. Tlw-«rlnf«ipa|(MMtlfl'>«3ie 
Sladeroore, RathcooU-hoasO^ BUlihaMlijri^MVttS 
and Johnstown whou80,^the liiV tlte MMdMJiAA V 
John Kennody, Esq. The tiOt^h«rMr diiH^M li tM4l 

: -^ — : L — . ; • ■■ ..'i !■■ •;-•- ■=■'; Imi 

• T^e CenniS »%AM the t 
include iuKsUicodle tUs K' 



'ft AT 

rersed by the reail-road from Dublin to Limerick ; 
•nd the southern district extends to the south-west- 
em extremity of the county, and contains part of 
the Saggart-Hill ^roup of mountains. The trans, 
ference of the/pansh from Uppercross to Newcastle 
was made by the Act 5 and 6 Victoria, cap. 96. 
The villa^ of Rathcoole stands on the Dublin and 
Limerick mail-road, 2 miles south-east of Newcastle, 
7| north-east by east of Naas, and 8 south-west by 
west of Dublin. It contains the parish-church, a 
dispensary, two sehoolbouses, and a constabulary 
barrack. The dispensary is within the Celbridjre 
Poor-law union, and serves for a district of 10,013 
•crea, with a pop. of 3,157; and, in 1839-40, it ex- 
pended £86 lOs., and administered to 1,505 patients. 
Area of the viUage, 20 acres. Pop., in 1831, 602 ; 
in 1841, 556. Houses 112. Families employed 
chiedy in agriculture, 74 ; in manufactures and trade, I 
31 ; in other pursuits, 13. Families dependent chiedy | 
on property and professions, 3 ; on the directing of I 
Ubour, 34; on their own ooanual labour, 80; on ' 
means not specified* l.-^Ratbcoole parish is a ¥ic- 
axage, in the dio. of Dublin. Vicarial tithe com- 
position, £250; glebe. £27. The rectorial tithes 
are compounded for £60 ; and are appropriated to 
the deanery of 8t. Patrick's cathedral, Dublin. The 
vicarage oif Rathcoole, and the chapelry of €▲&• 
UAOHSTowx [see that article], constitute the bene- 
fice of Rathcoole. Length, 4 miles ; breadth, 2. 
Pap., in 1831, 1,476. Gross income, £304 IGs.; 
nett, £267 10s. 6d. Patron, the diocesan. The 
church was built in 1736, by means of private 
•ubscription, and the rents of economy land ; and 
%iras, not venrmany years ago, repaired and re-slated 
by meant ot a loan of £VJ9 4s. 7^d. from John 
Kennedy. Esq. Sittings 200; attendance, from 46 
to 60. In 1834, the Protestants of the union 
amounted to 145 ; the Roman Catholics of the parish 
to 1,280; the Roman Catholics of the union to 
1,344; one daily school in the parish was almost 
wholly supported by Mr. Latouehe, and had on its 
books 37 boys and 26 girls ; and another daily school 
in the parish was supported wholl v by fees, and was 
usually attended by about 40 children in summer, 
and between 20 and 30 in winter. 

B ATUCOONEY, a parish in the barony of Cork, 
4 miles eaat-nortb-east of the city of Cork, co. Cork, 
Munster. It contains the villages of Glajimirb, 
and Salltbbook: which see. Length, 3| miles; 
breadth, 2i; area, 5,152 acres. Pop., in 1831, 
2,988 1 in 1841, 3,376. Uouses 618. Pop. of the 
rural districts, in 1841, 2,473. Houses 880. The 
aur&oe is bounded on Uie east by the Olanmire 
rirulet, and on the south by the river Lee ; it poa- 
seaaes, aloqg both streams, a large amount of finely 
picturcMiue cbaraoter ; and it consists of rich arable 
iaad in the south, and light, poor arable and pasture 
land in the north. The mail-roads from Cork to the 
cast sad the north-east pass through the interior. 
The former parish-church^ now an old and venerable 
ruin, measures 42 ieet in length and 21 feet in 
width, and has a principal window at the east end, 
two small and narrow windows on the south side, 
and a anudl and narrow window on the north side. 
The small cemetery attached to it is still a favourite 
place of interment, and contains several old tomb- 
stones. Ratiis or intrench ments are numerous. — 
This pariikh is a rectorv, in the dio. of Cork. Tithe 
euBspOftition, £500; glebe, £18. The rectories of 
RATflcooLC. Cahieloo, and Littlb-Island [see 
tJb0« articles], constitute the benefice of llathcuoney, 
artd the corps of Ratbcooney prel>end. Leiigth,'5 
miles; breadth, 2^. Pop., in 1831, 5,907. Gross 
income, £1,005; nett, £830 19*. 3d. Patron, the 
The incumbent holds also the benefice of 

Brinny and Knockayilly in the .dip. of Cork; Wtlif 
U resident in Rathcooney. A curate receives a salary 
of £75. The church was built in 1784, by meansiuf 
private subscriptions.. Sil^gs 300} attendance 23). 
The Ratbcooney Roman Catholic chapel has nn at- 
tendance of 1,000; and, in the Roman Cathoilc: par- 
ochial arrangement, is united to the chapeht of 'i'^in- 
plemichael and Duubullugue. There is a Romfn 
Catholic chapel also in Cabirk)g. In 1834, the i^iro- 
testantsof the parish amouBted to 174, ai^ the. Ro- 
man Catholics to 2,661 ; the Protestants of the unioi), 
exclusive of 18 Dissenters, to 453, and the ItonMhi 
Catholics to 5,443; a Sunday school in the pariah ulis 
usually attended by about 40 children \ 7 ^ly sckoe^s 
had on their books 199 boys and 171 girls? aiwl 9 dmky 
schools in the union had on their books ti92 boys and 
199 girls. One of the daily schools in the parivii «tes 
salaried with £24 a-year from the rector; one, wibh 
£4 from the London Ladies' Hibernian Society.,' aod 
£10 6s. from subscription; one, with £5 17i»v'tM. 
from Bubscription, £10 from the Kildare Plaoe So- 
ciety, and £4 from the Cork Diocesan Education 
Ai^^ociation; one, with £8 from the National Board, 
and £9 from subscription ; and one, with £12 Utiua 
the National Board, and £10 Irieh from a bequest Hy 
the bite Rev. M. O'Keaue. .^.n 

RATHCOR (Low&ft and Uppia), two viflngM 
in the parish of Carlingford, barony cii Lower DiidU 
dalk, CO. Louth, Leinster. Lower Rathcor, 'the 
larger of the two, is situated on the north shore- %f 
Duudalk bay. 2 miles west of Cooley Point, ahd'O^ 
south of CarUngfurd ; and Upper Rathcor is sitBAMU 
between 2 and 3 furlongs inhuid from Lower Rath- 
cor. In the vicinity are a coast-guard station, Bat- 
lug-house, Ballttg-castle, and the hamlet» of Tem- 
pletown, Maguire's-Croiis, the Bush, the Acre, aild 
Riverstown. Area of Rathoor, U) acres. Pop.^ifn 
1831. 274 ; in 1841, 175. Houses 30. -^ 

RATHCORE, a parish, partly in the barony 4f 
Upper Deece, but chiefly in that of Lower Moy'tiHi- 
ragh, CO. Meath, Leinster. The Moyfenragh sectiUh 
contains the town of Enfuld : which see. Leti§fCh 
of the parish, west by northward, 6^ miles ; extri^k; 
breadth, 4^. Area of the Dette section, 1^078 acr^, 
2 roods, 26 perches; of the Uoyfeiiragh eectioil, 
12,804acres, 26 perches. Pop. of the whole, U\ 18dl, 
3,455 ; in 1841, 3,546. Houses 555. Pop. of vbh 
Deece section, in 1831, 402; in 184l« 445. - liouM 
76. Pop. of the mral districu of the MoyfenHi'ili 
section, in 18;il, 2,7*20. Houses 430. The surfkte 
lies on the southern margin of the county, and '4s 
traversed by the Royal Canal and by the maiUr^ 
from Dublin to Galway. A small quantity Of it'%i 
bog and monwB ; much is good meadow and graiii^r 
ground; and most is very good or even excett«|W 
tillage land. The interior contains a watershed W- 
tween the basin of the Liifey and that of the Boy«i^. 
The principal hamlets, with their respective pop-:*th 
1831, areRathcore,73; andBlackwater,0». IMh^ 
core is situated 2^ miles north of Enfield, on -Mb 
road to Togber, and is the site of the parisfa-chm^^lr. 
The principal seats are Newcastle -hoinns BalliAL 
derry-house, Springmuunt, Raheiistown, Johnstowff, 
and RhyndviHc, — the three last the rcitidenceiltt 
respectively R. G. Bomtbrd, ¥^n., J. H. Rourke, 
Em(., and R. 8. Rhynd, E^q. — TIih parish Iau viear- 
age, and a separate benefice, in the dio. of Meat^i. 
Vicarial tithe composition, £309 4s. 7d. ; glebe, MS 
2s. Gro^s income, £431 t)ti. 7d. ; nett, £394 8*. 
I OH. Patron, the diocesan. The rectorial titlxtt 
are compounded for £4.'<8 9s S^d., ami are approi- 
priated to the see of Meath. The church wa^ built 
in 1788. Sittings 120; aUendtfice 40. The Romah 
Catholic chapel has an attendance of aboot 2,tN)0; 
and, in the Roman Catholic parochial arrangement. 




MjUDited to U)e c^pel.of lUiilunoylap* ](o 1834, tbe 
Pfuritbion^rs confUl«4 of 133 Gl^urckfneti,. 2 Preiby^ 
l^n»o»p ftnd 3,286 Rowiu Catliolirs ; aiid 4, hedge- 
sqhqolf at Enfbsld, lUtboore, Qallycwran,, and bftl- 
linuk^a, were .uftiwUy amended by about 130 cbil- 
drea. Ii) 1842» two ^fational ^cbooli at HaconstowQ 
bad on their books 121 boys and 123 girliu 

^.ATUCQHi^ACK, aparUh, containing a town 
of t^f svfKi name, in the barooy of Barrvmore, co. 
Clprk, Aj^nster. JLenfth, ^ noiles ; breadth, 4; area, 
i3,08^acrei. . Pop., in 1831, according to th«iCen8Uf, 
^113, bat according tq the Ecclesiastical Autboritiet, 
5J43; ill 1B4U 5,3-^. Houses 815. Pop. of the 
i;ural districts, in 1831, 3,539; in 1841, 4.003. 
Houses 014. The surface consists of p<^rt of the 
f^Uey and hill-screens of the river Bridq; and is 
traversed southward by the mail- road from Puhlio 
to Cork. About tbree-fourths of the land are 6t 
for tillage, and possess a good soil ; oud tbe remain- 
ifig fourth is unreclaimed mountain, all <^pable of 
improvement and cultivation. On the n^h side of 
^e Bride's valley, is a range of bills, terminating in 
a summit called Caim-Tierna, or the Thane's or 
Lord's Heap; and on this summit is a large, nide 
b^p of stones, said to have been tbe judgoDent-seat 
of a very ancient and primitive toparchy, and the 
eentri4-apot of the placie of agsembly on which the 
famiUes oi a sept, in the days <^ tanistry, ejected 
their chiefs, Dr. Smith regands the tradition re* 
■peoting ^his object as evidence that cairnB. were 
sometimes of very different character and purpose 
froia sepulchral monuments. The hill of Gairn- 
TieiTia is a conspicuous feature in an extensive land- 
fcape. Liane^r, the pleasant seat of Lord Rivers- 
dale, and tiie ancient residence of the descendants of 
Alac-Adam Barry, is situated on the Bride dos^tly 
fdjacent to the town, and contributes to the scenery 
•ftbe warmest portion of the parish, the features m 
a mvmrial mansion and a beautifully planted demesne. 
— Tbia pariah is a rectory^ and a separate benefice, 
in the dio. of Cloyne. Tithe composition, £642; 
glebe, £64. Gross income, £906; nett, £619 17s. 
2d. Patron, William Smith, Esq. of HendboitH^b, 
p^ Waterfbrd. A curate receives a salary of £100. 
The church was enlarged in 1828, by means of a loan 
of £276 from tbe lata Board of First FruiU* Sit« 
tixigs 300; attendance, from 40 to 170. The Wes. 
leyan Methodist chapel has an attendance of 30. 
Tfaie Roman Catholic chapel baa an attendance of 
3^300; and, in the Roman .Catholic parochial arrange* 
roent, ia united to the chapel of Gurtroe. In 1834, 
the.Protestaata amounted to 310, and the Roman 
<]brtholica to 4,891 ; a Protestant Sunday school waa 
usually attended b v about 80 children ; and 8 daily 
schools^one of which was salaried with £7 a-year 
fcom the rector, one with £12 from the National 
jRoard, and one with £10 from Lord Riversdale, and 
SI. frvm the Association for Diseounteuancing Vice — 
had an their books 197 boys and 123 girls. 

V.BATUOORMACK, a market and post town, and 
l^rnmrly a parliamentary borough, in the parish oi 

]itf thcormack, barpiiy of Barrvmore,. co. Cork, Mun- 
atec, . . It stands on the rii'er Bride, and on the road 
frofi I>ubU«i to Cork by way of lUlkenny and Clon^ 
mel| 3^ miles south by west of Fernoy, 4| north- 
pfQCth-east of WatergrayshilU 9} nocth-north-west 
of MvddlffUm, 14 oorth-^nortb-east of Cork,. and 112 
■mrtfah west by south of J>ublin. It ia a pretfty place, 
^leasfmtly situated, ^nd beautifullv environed; it 

ooiwists orincipally of one street ; and it has a church* 
aMtthodist meeting-house, a Roman Catholic chapel, 
oae or two schools, and a sessiooii-housQ. A dispeo^ 
•ary here ia within the Poor-law union of Fermoy^and 

ryes for a district cootaining a pop. of 12,573 ; and, 
1830.40, it ^^pei^ded £70 )4s., uj^d administered 

to.^OOO patieoii, Faif* are h«ld pn. Aug. 12, Vfi 
Oct. 20. A. court of iJt^Uy-Am^ivm U belli on i^ 
second T uesjay <*^ ^ ^' ^^y ^'^ ^"^ ^ - i^ * i wm-u^t j^qI q % 
of any .project^ ridiMr^vv pcqur^ oa tjbepulilifi %iii 
Cjork luie at |J[itrlnfU»t"&v\Ti/ The puiilkcouvtJjf^ 
ances are coaches irnd atker vobidua in trai^^it frijui 
Cork to Fermo). Cluuwiel, t^illcenny, aiid Dabliij, 
The town, t^boi^h ix psirVmmentury boTDUj^^b, or /» 
place possessing t^e parliiuu«;iilac>- frt^tialuiic, d^W 
not appear to hav^ been iupurporikU^L A charter of 
33 Charles II. erei-tod tbu town into a l^e^ bpro^gbp^ 
gave it the power pf s^^itdL^g iix-tf memberg to parliaK 
menty and vested that poAvor ui it« fri%'lujld<irs aiid 
inhabitants.; and th« t^omi^'UMiiiijii ol' Jtl^,l)UOfGr dk^ 
francbisement at tbi: l^^ilrtrivt^ Uiiiun waj^ &U paid 
to tbe trustees of tb« v^ iU^f the hvt« l^ord Eiven^aiide^ 
Area of the tow^i, 4d acreu. Ponr^f hi 1331, J ,574 i 
in 1841, 1,321. }h>m'^ 201, Fiwiliiu cmpki>ed 
chiefly in agriculture, 1^2,. m m^nuikctiireii luxa 
trade, 96; in otht^r purHtiitiiL,^^. , ^amdl«d d^^pcfidrii^ 
chiefly on property all (i proTesijianf, 13 i cm tl|e diruct^ 
ing Ot labour, 10^; on their <i\\:ii uiaiiuul kbokir^ U 1 » 
on means not specified, 22^ ; , 

RATHCORMUCK, CO. Waterford. J3m j^^to. 


RATHCOURSET, a viUu^e ii): the. pan^ of 
Oarranekennefick, banoify of Biirryroore. cout Cork. 
MuiMter. Aieap 11 acres. Ppp.,. i^ J84i| .1.45, 
Houaes 28. 


RATHDOWLAN,aa i:ccli!^t^tici^l pafivb,md>t 
eastern division of the baroray uf J^t CWbery, cia. 
Cork, Munster. Length, | gf u roib^ brvadU}, | ; 
area, 357 acres. Pop. not spixiiUly returned. ^Thfi^ 
political t<q[K)graphy of tha kmedum trvaU it iu| 
merely a townland of ib<? ritifi^h of BaUifiadee.— Ij- 
Eathaowlan is a rectory, md part ^f the booirticc ti 
Ballinadee, in thedio^ cuf Cgrk. TuhjL! cum|)afition, 
jt35. All other statistics aro mhsd up with th<H« 
of Balunaveb : which aee. . . • 

RATHDOWN. a Poor-U^w maoo in the eounjdci 
of Dublin and Wicklow, Leinatw^ It Indudea a 
small part of the co, Pablin baronies of Dublin and 
of ITppcrcrosa, the greate<^ pfirt of the oo. Doblis 
barony of Rathdown, and the whole 'Of the co. 
Wicklow barony of Rathdown ; ODd it coqiprefaenda 
an area of 51,154 acres, which containedL.ln 1831, % 
pop. of 39,391 . It ranks as the 6(8% linioo, and wta 
declared on Aw, A 1839. its electoral divittonti 
together with their respective pop. io 1831, are, in 
ia CO. Dublin, Dundrura, 2,020,^Blackrock, 6.136« 
..^Kingstown, 6,571,-rJStiUor|^ 2„799,— Killiney» 
3,713, —GlencuUen, 2,2^, _ and RathmichadL 
1,296; in cos^ublin and Wicklow, Bray, 5^710; 
aod, in co. Wicklow, Pbwerscourt,; 4,002,— and 
Delgany, 3,404. The nuinber of ex-offioio and of 
elected giuudians is resptotiyely- 8 and 34: and oc 
the latter, 4 are elected hy the divi^on of Bla^ 
rock, 4 by EiiJg^town, 3 by Brny, 2 each 1>y lino- 
drum* Stillorgaii, KiUiney, G^L-ntiilicn, Powprscoiirt^ 
mid Dcbfutiy, i^iil 1 by liathDuirhacL The Blocks 
n)ck divi^iuJt lies mthiii tb^ baruuie:;! of Dublin aud 
Ratbdowii-Bubliu ; the divisions of Kiogai^iwn, 
^tjjlorpi^i, DuTulrujVf an,d Gk'ncullen, lie wit bio 
Bu.tbUgwii'Dubjiu^ ', tbP ili%']-^ions of liatbmlcbaf L and 
JviiliKey Ik* ifl Bathiovvn-IiubUii aud rppBccrosa; 
th^ div'iidiort of Bray lit.'!^ In Hnthduun^Dviblm tmd 
ll&thOi^vi^- Wicklow i luid the di> imLuds oi^ Powtt^s- 
Kt>ntt <md Dcli^kUiy lit: iji lUlbdowji- Wiijklyw. Tb^ 
jiiuubtfr of tc»qnenU valut;dJij the barony at Uubllo 
district, h 69^— in tbi; RiiibtWwn-Dublijt district^ 
4J71^— in tbe Vppi*fero3i dxstrucK Sj^^^ii tb* 
Rj*tbdowi I- Wicklow districts* l,U36)r— iu the entiff 
umoo, Ot'^i ; '^nd (tt lbi& iptal,. 2^0^! w&rt vati^d 
under jei,-^25, uuder JEIO,^-^&0, uiidef i^U,— 




S11. ilndfir' £20,^^7, under £25,-290, ufrdirr 
£»),— 37«^. under £40.-190, under £50,— «hd 761, 
At and Aboyte £30. Tbc total tiett ahnual value of 
the propeHy nrtea i« £16».396 Bs. 8id. ; the total 
nnnibiet* of person^ i^ted is 6,330; and of these, 351' 
are rated tor a valuation not esteeeding £1,-969, 
not ezeeeding £2,-620, not exceeding £3,-876, 
not eirceedinQf £4,— and 316, not exceeding £5. 
The woriehotise i« mtuat«d in the parish of Rath-< 
Aichaet; it was contracted for on July 21, 1840, — 
to be completed in Mart!h 1841, —to cost £6,500 for 
btiildiag and completion, and £1,100 for titiings and 
contingencies, — ^to occupy an area of 8 acret*, oh- 
ti^ed for im annnal rent of £49 12s. 9d.,— and to 
contain aeeomniodiltion for 60O paupers ; it was first 
opened for the admission of paupers on Oct. 12, 1841 ; 
and it contained 846 pauper inmates on Dec. 2, 1843. 
Thtf ttttal expenditure of the union previous to the 
opening of the worlchouse amounted to £6&5 9s. 7d. ; 
and the expenditure from the date of opening till 
Feb. 6, 1843, amounted to £5.126 138. lid. The 
medical charities within the union are fever hospitals 
at Braj, Enniskerrv, and Rathdown, and dispensaries 
at BrSy In'co, DtnEn. Bray in co. Wicklow, Boo- 
terstown, Dundrum, Ennislierry, Kilteman, Stillor- 
nn. Kifliney, Kingstown, and Rathdown; and. in 
1839^40. they received £771 178. from subscription, 
^CS54 1^. from ptiblic grants, and £58 Us. from 
other sources, — expended £802 5s. 3d. in salaries to 
medical officers, £175 18b. 5d. tot medicines, and 
£630 14ft. 5|d. for contingencies, — and administered 
to 31 1 intern and 15,609 extern patient«. The fever 
hospital ofKcially reported to be at Rathdown, is 
reany situated at Monkstown ; it serves for a dis- 
trict contdning a pon. of 29,288; and, in 1839^40, 
it expended £155 2s.2d», and admitted 189 patients. 
The Rathdown dispensary docs not seem to have 
anv deSned district; and, in 1839^40, it expended 
£f78 14s. 9d., and administered to 1.232 patients. 

RATHDOWN, a maritime barony of the county 
of Dublin, Leinster. It is bounded, on the north, 
by the barony and the bay of Dublin ; on the east, 
by the Irish sea ; on the south, by the county of 
wicklow ; and, on the viTst, by the borony of Up. 
percrost. Its length, westward, is 7} miles; its 
greatest breadth is 7 miles ; and its area is 32,870 
acres, 2 roods. 24 perrhes. It contains the whole 
of the beautiful and brilliant sweep of coast from 
Blackrockr round by Dalkejr and Ktlliney, to Bray ; 
it comprises the greater portion of both the southern 
sea-board aiid the southern Jbackgronnd or perspec- 
tive of the bay 'of Dublin;' It contains. In its upnnd 
district on ^c southern margin of the county, one 
or two of tlie most magnificent ptmorama-viewing 
summita id Ireland ; and it, in consequence, both 
forms and eoranumds some of the most superb land- 
scape! w^in the United Kingdom. Thediiefsum- 
u^t of KiUiney hills, qn the coast immediately south 
of Dalkey. has an altitude above sea-level of 4/2 feet ; 
8r;d the Three -Rock -Mountain, the Two-Rock- 
Moantahi, Prince- WilliaihVSeat, and three other 
principal summits in the southern district, and upon 
the margin oC the county, have altitudes of respec- 
tively 1,479, 1.763, 1.825. 1.103. 1.359. and 1,618 
fi«et. The other parts of the barony consist, in a 
general view, of rich champaign ground, and ure very 
profumrlv powdered with mansions and Wllas, and 
eodbclli^lied with wood, shnibbery, lawn, and gar- 
dcil. The Art 5 and 6 Virtoria. ciip. 96. transftrrrcd 
part of the parish of Rathfarnham from the barony 
rtf Neti-eanlc to that of Rathdown.— pop., 4,394; 
two tni\iihinds of the parish of Rathmicnael fnjtti 
T'pperrrrw* to Rathdown, — pop., 778; and the whole 
rf the parfi'h of Oalkov from Upperrross to Rath- 
down,— pop., 1,419. — The barony of Rathdown, as 

1 now cohfctl^uted, etyntafni part of the par^he** of 
I Booterstown, Donnybrook, Monkstown, Rathflmtii 
ham, and Taney, and the whole of the parishes ef 
Dalkey, Kilgobbiu, Kill, Killiney, Kilniaetid. RilK 
tieman, Old Oonnaoght. Rathmichael, Btillorgani^ 
Tully, and Whitechureh. The towns and ehiijf 
villages are Kingstown, Booterstowh, Dalkej', Stepi-' 
Aside, ^valloping-Green, Killinev, BiiHock, c4wm- 
tealy, Glastbule, Iloncy-park, )iittle-Bray, Ratliv 
fam'ham. Ponds, Roundtown, Stiltorran, Dnhdriirn,' 
"Windy-Harbour, Ballybodin, EdmondstoWn, part or 
Williamstown, and part of Blackrock. Pop., ■ill' 
1831, 29,288; in 1841, d8,7r5. Houses ^Mli- 
Families employed chiefly in agricnlture, 2.883 «, ih 
manuliurturts and trade. 'l.9i52; in other pursuit^^ 
2,358. Families de|)endent eliiefly on property and 
professions, 848; on the directing of lalMiur, 2,535V 
on their own manual labour. 8,124; on means not 8p««' 
cified, 686. Males at and above 5 years of ^e wbe^ 
could read and write, 8, 158; who could read but rK>V 
write, 2.527 ; w-bo could neither read nor write^' 
4. 686. Females at and above 5 years of age who coultf 
read and write. 8.708; who could read bat not write;- 
4,078; who could neither read nor write, 5,902.-J 
' Rathdown barony lies partly in the Poor-law uukjui' 
of South Dublin, but chiefly in that of Rathdown:' 
The total number of tenements valued is 4,474; an^ 
of these, 1,850 wi^e valued under £5, — 558, und^ 
£10,-323, under £15,-237. imder£20,— 190, un-' 
der £25,-207. under £:U),— 813, under £40,— 148, 
under £50,— and 647. at and above £50. 

RATHDOWN, a maritime barony in the north^ 
east of the county of Wicklow, Leinster. It ik 
bounded, on the north, by the comity of Dnhlin ; on 
th(> east, by the Irish sea ; on the south, by the bar- 
onies of Newcastle and North Ballinaeor; and, mi 
the west, by the barony of Lower Talbutstown an4 
the county of Dubbn. Its length, westward, U 9f 
miles; its greatevt breadth, southward, is 5\ miles { 
and its area is 84,381 acres, 3 roods, 39 perche:*, — 
of which 93 acres. 1 rood, 23 perches are in Loughs 
Bray. The surface is one of the motft exquisiteljr 
varied, powerfully romantic, and generallv interest* 
ing (fistricts bi even the county of Wicklow; an^ 
it boasts, upon its coast, the grand promontory df 
Bray Head. — upon its boundaries, the 9calpflnd tHe 
Olen of the Downs, — and, in its interior, Glencree, 
Loughs Bray, the Sugarloaf mountain, the 'glen of 
the Dargle, and the vale of PowerKcoyrt. Tim 
chief summits, together with their respective altj^-i 
tudes above sea-level, are, in the interior, the Qre^lt 
Sugarloaf, 1,651 feet ; and, on the boundaries, Ki'bl 
pure, 2,478 feet, — Prince- William Vseat, 1.8^ 
feet,— War-hill. 2,250 fbet,-and Douce, 1,884 feet. 
— This barony contains part of the parish of Oalary. 
and the whole of the parishes of Bray, IMganyl 
Kilmacanogue, and Powersrourt. The only town 
is the larger part of Bray ; and the principal villiigeiB 
are Delgany, Kiltincarrig, and Rnniskerry. Pop., 
in 1831, 11.652; in 1841. 11.423. llou^s I.r67. 
Families employed Hiiefly in agrirultniv, 1,091 ; in 
manufacfure^ h>k1 tradi*. 448; in other pursuits, 41^. 
Families dependent chiefly on property and profe<u 
sions, 143 ; on the directing of labour, 512 ; on their 
own mainial labour. 1.185: on means not specified; 
1 14. Males nt and n)>ove 5 years of age who could 
read and write, 2,148; who could read but not 
write, 917; who could neither read nor write. 1,777. 
Female* at and above 5 year* of sge who could read 
and write, 1,985; who'wiuld rcail but not write, 
1,163; who could neither read nor write. 2,002.— 
Rathdown- Wicklow barony lies wholly within the 
Poor-law miion of Rathdown. The total numhef 
<»f tenements %-a1ued is 1,6;W; and of these, 797 
were valued under £5,-269, under £10,-132, uB» 




der£l$.-^l, und?r £20,_51, uiuxer £25,->68, un- 
der. £30,-58. under £40,-40, under £«0.— and 
140, bt and above £50. 

ftATHDOWN, an old and ruined ca»tle, and the 
site of a r^uondam village, on the coaat of the parUh 
of pelgany, 1^ mile south x)f Bray Head, and 1} 
noj-.tb-north-east of the viMage of Delgany, barony 
of Kathdown, co. Wicklow, Leinster. ** Beside a 
litftle itreaui in a deep ravine, and on the bold sea- 
beaten shore, titand tnc ruins of the once strong and 
extensive castle of Rathdown. The ground plan 
may. be distinctlv traced by the heaps of ruinous 
maso;iry, now all grass-grown, which, like lifeless 
b^iiJies that occupy the very spot on which they 
perished, lie regularly and artificially arranged in 
square, and circular, and other usual architectural 
fotf'ins. The basement of one large square tower may 
sUU be seen, the walls of which are four feet in thick- 
ness ; in the eastern side was a circular-headed win- 
daw» the architrave of which is yet tolerably perfect, 
wild an.d deserted as the whole of this district, 
from the Windgate-road to the beach, now appears, 
with scarcely a Qomfortahle residence, it was once 
the Site of the village of Rathdown, and surrounded 
by. baronial and ecclesiastical edifices. The castle, 
St, Crispin's cell, and the parish-church, were Matbin 
short distances of each other and of the Tillage." 
(Quide to Wicklow.) 

IIATHDOWNEY, a parish in the barony of 
Clandonagb, Queen's county, Leinster. It contains 
the town of Rathi>owmbt, and part of the village 
of JDovAOHMORjB: sce these articles. Length, west 
by; ^rthwardi 6 miles ; extreme breadth, 5^. But 
tbive measurements include the parish of Rathsaran, 
wl^oAk Uea isolated in the centre of Rathdownej ; 
and. they at the same time include a detached district 
of Rathdowney, which lies 1 mile north-east of the 
main body„ and measures 2 miles b v 1 ^ . 8ee Rath- 
6 ABAN. Area of Rathdo^vney, 17, 1 16 acres, 2 roods, 

28 perches, — of which 1,585 acres, 1*2 perches are in 
thedetached district. Pop., in 1831, 6,054; in 1841, 
6,7»56. Houses 1,05B. Pop. of the mral districts, 
in 1641, 5,267. Houses 8^6. A larpe proportion of 
the Btirface, especially in the west, is bog ; and the 
remairtder consists partly of good arable land, but 
principally of good grazmg-ground. Nearly all the 
parish is flat, tame, and wholly or partially repul- 
sive ; and the main body borro-ws some slight relief 
from one or twt> low hills in Rathsaran. The 
chief aeats are Lisduff- house, Harristo^m- house, 
the Cottage, I^ackland-bouse, and Becfield-honse ; 
the- 'principal hamlet is Errill, situated 3^ miles 
woit' of the town of Hathdowney ; and the chief 
antiquities are the site of an abbey on the south- 
wdrt border, the nrins of a Roman Catholic chapel, 
and of Clonburren-castle on the south border, the 
ruins of two churches in the south-east, the site of 
a coslile in the east, the ruins of a friary, a church, 
and a castle, at Errill, and the ruins of Ballagh- 
castle and Graigneavallagh-house in the centre. The 
road from Monntrath to Thurles traverses the inte- 
rior. — This parish is a vicarage, in the dio. of Os- 
sory. Vicarial tithe composition, £250 ; glebe, £418 
16*. 9d. The rectorial tithes are compounded for 
£500 ; and are appropriated to the dean and chapter 
of St. Canice cathedral. The vicarage of Rath- 
downey, and the rectories of Glashere and Kii<- 
DELLtc [which see], constitute the benefice of Rath- 
do wnev. Pop., m 1831, 7,576. Gross income, 
£806 68. 9d. ; nett, £758 Ss. 7id. Patron, the dio- 
cesan. A curate receives a salary of £69 4s. 7}d. 
The church was built in 1815, by means of a loan of 
£923 Is. 6i(d. from the late Board of First Fruits. 
Sittings 250 ; attendance, from 80 to 150. The Me- 
thodist meetihg-housc has an attendance of from 100 

to 150. The Roman CathoUcehapel his an cttend* 
ance of 1, 100; and, in the Roman Catholic parochial 
arrangement, is united to the chapel of Grogan, in the 
parish of Rathsaran. -In 1834, the inhabitants of 
the parish consisted of 609 Churchmen, 5 Protestant 
dissenters, and 6,210 Roman Catholics; the inhabi- 
tants of the union consisted of 617 Churchmen, 5 
Protestant dissenters, and 7,144 Roman Oatholics; 
a Sunday school in the parish was usually attended 
by about 80 children ; and 14 daily schools in the 
union — 12 of which were in the parish — had on their 
books 540 boys and 326 girls. Two of the daily 
schools in the parish were in connection with the 
London Hiberman Society, tnd two with the Na* 
tioiial Board ; and one of the former two was princi- 
pally supported by subscription. In 1843, the Ka- 
tional Board had two schools at Rathdowney, and 
one at Errill. Ledwich, the well-known antiquaryp 
was for some time curate of Rathdowney. 

R ATHDOWNEY, a small market and post town 
in the parish of Rathdowney, barony of Clandonagh, 
Queen s countv, Leinster. It stands on the road 
from Mountrath to Thnrles, and near the source of 
the river Erkin, 5 miles south by east of Borris-in- 
Ossory, 7 west of Castle-Durrow, 9 north-east of 
Templemore, 10 south-south-west of Monntrath, 18 
north-north-east of Thurles, and 54^ south-west of 
Dublin. It is a poor place, amid a tame comftrVt 
and without any interior feature of interest, it 
contains the church, a Methodist meeting-houfe, the 
Roman Catholic chapel, two National schools, a con- 
stabulary barrack, and a small inn and posting estab- 
lishment. A court of petty-sessions is held on the 
second Saturdav of every month. Fairs are held on 
Jan. 27, April 1, May 6, July 10, Sept. I^ Kov. 1, 
and Dec. 15. The route of the projected luie of 
railway from Dublin to Cork approaches witmn 9 
miles of the north-west side of the town. The 
Rathdowney dispensary is within the Roscrea Poor- 
law union, and serves for a district containing a pop. 
of 10,176; and, in 1839, it received £99 68. and ez^ 
pended £104 10s. 8d. Area of the town, 47 acres. 
Pop., in 1831, 1,214; in 1841, 1,414. Houses 209> 
Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 96; in man- 
ufactures and trade, 116; in other piirauitf, 52. 
^ Families dependent chiefly on property and profes* 
sions, 18 ; on the directing of labour, 126 ; on their 
own manual labour, 104; on means not specified, 16. 

R ATHDRUM, a parish, cantainii« a toim of tl» 
same name, in the south end of the barooy of Korth 
Ballinacor, co. Wicklow, Leinster. Length, aoii£h 
by eastward, 4| miles ; extreme breadt]i» 2| ; area, 
5,798 acres, 3 roods, 14 perches. Pop., in 1831, 
2,688; in 1841, 2,905. Houses 384. Pop. of the 
rural districts, in 1841, 1,673. Houses 238. Thf 
surface descends to the southern eztremitv of ihe 
barony, at the * Meeting of the Waters;* it iaWundid 
by the Avonmore river along the whole of tlM ea^ 
and by the Avonbeg along one-half of the west; aad 
it contains some moorish and uictuntainQus grouad hi 
the north, but consists, in general, of a fOwnaijiflTdly 
low and a lusdously beautiful and powerftiUjr p i o t i » 
esque portion of the Upper basin of the Ovooa, A 
rivulet in the north-west descends withia the f^mikk -.• 
from an elevation above sea -level of 973 fe4it 
and the Avonmore, while on the easteni lioiiiidiiy«v 
descends from an elevation of 306 feet to > one 4f 1MB 
feet. The principal demesne is the briUianl,isii«^f 
A voND ALE : which see. The ofthw te^ke ere Avto*^ 
Hill-cottage, Ballard-Park, Avon-Pwk, end Ballii^ 
derry-house. The chief hamlet, BaUiadeiTT* ■»•&!*»> 
ated 2 miles north-west of the town, ami on A* 
western verge of the parish. The road firon IMUia * 
to Wexford, by way of Newtown -MoiHii«K«inid^ 
and Arklow, passes through the mterior..Tbb par- 




iali^vfaoonliiiff to coclesisstiral topo^hilpby,Ms niettly 
q»e ofi»ur dbmnnifiafeioniubf the paMi- of llkthdnim ; 
U»e oChec droominitions baiiifr BitxTKtsm, KKorK< 
i|ATii,.aad AALiiXVACORtlwhirh see] ; And thte whole 
Wviiw contained, in ItdSli » fi6p. of «,0M. The er- 
c]fniii*tical paruihi compvinn^ tlie fbur denominn- 
tion», i« A rectory,' ami a separate benefice, in the 
dio. «C Dublin. Tite composition, £553 I Os. 1 1 d . ; 
glebe, £M 10s. Gross iacome, £610 14:1. 7d, ; 
iiett, £500 7»».7id. Patron» the Coqioration of tlif" 
cjty of DibUn. A curate rerciws a salary of £10(1. 
The parochial church \na built in 17^« Ht the cont 
of £1,470 18b. .54d^ raised by euhscription, a loan. 
arp4-tba «aJ6 ,'of ibe oiaicriHls of the former church. 
SittirvsH 500 ; attendanoe 500. There are ehurchea 
al»9 in the phapelrics <^ Oartsfort and Ballff.!- 
c^^AiSH : w.hiich see. The Methodist meeting-hou^p 
h' of from 30 to 50j The Romafi 
Catholic chapels Ht Rathdninw OUra^ Maereddin, 
iiul Cri^^u^tn^ havf) m^ HtUmWee of resptati\'tl v 
M>j 60Q, i/^QO. JiaU i.'im. U ia$l» the ProtissV 
tj^-iti of t^«,^i^«iad dvijiA pacii^b mi^ounted to KOSB^ 
■iii^ the Houwv C^ligli^'f to L,6$<.h the ProtArtanttt 
^|f|e ^i^ea^ map poi^t^h ^ l^Btini and the Roouui 
Qltllpli^ to. 6,^-^3. Ill J^-^, 2 t^unday Fchoohi ai 
RtftHilrum w&^ M<iu;t}U att^'iuldd by about 100 chil- 
dlri-n ; 3 SiMiduy f^rtigof'^ at Curysfort, Ballinadasb, 
and Bftlli/iiicctr^ ^^i^e iifUimy atttfj^dcd by about 2tK) 
~*vtdreti : AAiJJ^ ilrily sdsanU vviUnn the quoad sarm 
1 tbdf b'U>k^ 'J 18 Wiys mid 181 girl», and 
ed, by abuut 51> ot fiLr ohildren^ One iff 
^ toa!* M:aH u RujaI i Wt<^ped achool, sup- 
B^Wut iljJ a-yi-'iH" ifoiu th^ income f>f 
Tc?t<? J UHfl ; c»rib vvA^ S3liif ii'U with £tiO from the 
Boiifd <^(f Era'iiiiH^ i^uiiOi^ OHf wv^h £:J*2 from thts 
Briiird <>F Ef^i^iuu^ ?*uith : tiiif^ ^vit|i £20 from -the 
Ead rU3;,vvin;ani. atitl t^tlt^^fe* 1^ rhildreo fret?* 
one. whf) £2*1 fiiJcfx •mhaotiptipn^, guaranteed by 
Cftpf ., 3fi0i *M fh** U'rtflr of Cft^ile^Macadajaj oni', 
witli 110 ffotti ^Tr.K 01 Tunis; ni]d the : remaining 
thj^'e ivfrfr jvitfily ,*u;i[iorttd J»v tho rector of Hatli- 
irisra/ Ip T>M^. it\o N,it' jr til rlnard h«| t,wo ^chooU 
it ^!aTt?aHnv, 11 t' i:i fUthi]ri(in sv^irlfhot^ne, one m 
Tffwjpi-rj«tu4 fi, or if ut Murklue^ and one at Glen- 

RATm>Tlt-M a market, and p6s4 town in the 
psrisli of Rathdrum, barony of Xorfh Ballinaror, co, 
Wick low, l-cinstcr. It (ttahd^on the wept bank uf 
the rirer Aronmorc, and on the road. {1*9111 .Pi|l4iu h> 
Wexford. 2J miles enit hv north m Biillinacor, f5| 
•notfi-'weft of Rathni!W» ik ^tiil-w^t by west <*f 
\firlElow. 9} nbrth-nfjt^fh-^v^-^t bf Arklow* 20 south 
by wwt of- Bray" arid W ^outh of publ^. The ap- 
prnaf'b from the ksipni^ly rmftfi k f(ikhlyjyi^turesqui', 
and com m tt i d!* rw^ fine! Views bf the Avonmocc, 
wMtnj? grarefiillv along^ » p1*^ft"iii1|5 yati. The towji 
cN^irptes the ticclfvitlcs and th^ itiiv^Uh of a hitU 
whM nrvrlooks the rnSc below, and Is serioufJy and 
pemwtientiy rTf^dranfaiEreotis fbr the purposes </ 
bntH thfirmiirhfan^ am! tmde;^tid though RathdruEii 
hi* *fij<wefl more pafronntre nnd stimulating, ariel 
rnovfRtmt^ a m\n+ CTf^tcr ii'cope of country for mur- 
kr**wf. than most phifr^ <tf it« nn)()tmt of p'opulatiorf, 
ir rontivineiK to ho tinprwperoa*, and is n poor aiMl 
mManHioly-lookimr place. In consr^uence of tin 
•V^pae** 14 the hill on uiiirh thr town stands, and 
vbo*r !iumitiit hn* an alfitmlf of 7-3fl fret above <Pi- 
Ir-ael, Hie {Mblic 7i>«d pH^ve^ a few perchr< to tl^r 
w#«t: Kill II Ivranch rtaid leaH»« 'up to the rcnfn- rit 
rSr M^n, an4 rtiMliet^ m-cr the siiraniit. T\h: 
tri«ni eotttjiln« thv pHri4).f>hiitc'h, the Roman Tfj. 
tb«Aie chapel, a AaMiel • hHll, a wnrkhniixc. a AU^ 
•-'••JT. twn comf»»rraMf hin«i. and hoiiic <rhfmli^ 
Ta*- fbwel - h.ftll rro^u^ the «umfmt of the hxM, 
a?.^ is » aiiare stru(?ture, extending ^> feet iij 

iFrtWrt, *nd chrri A ricn M wHh a "cil'pofe, a cJocTc. ^I^IJI,; 
and tho'R^ckih^ham ffrms ; and it Was hdtU in 1793. 
at the cost o{ £;3,500, the whdTe of w£ich ^iicaa coiii- ' 
trihuted by Earl Fitxw5tlfafn, the propriiBtbr of the 
town. The total of sillea at thift cstablighmeiit during 
1 2 year* ertdinfcr iir IRtfc), was 55,042 nieces of woollen j 
but the mfltnufifeet Are which it Wtt9.uCAi^ed to estab- 
linh and promote has eventnally' proved an entire 
failure. FairH are held on Jan, 2, Feb. 16, March 
1». April 5, Mriy2.5, June 19, July 5, Ang.31, Oct. 
10, N(»v. II, and Dec. 11. A court of petty-ses- 
sions is held on the second Thnrndny of every month. ' 
The pnblie convevances in 1K58 were a car in trth- [ 
Rit between Dublin snd Arkloiv, a coach betweeh 
Dublin and Enm*corlhy, awl a coach and a ttiail- 
coaoh between Ihiblln and Wexford. Tlje natnd 
Rotbdrum \a a eorruptfon of Rathdhrin, the ^ame (^ 
the seats of the chiefs of roolaii. situated In the 
vicinity ; and the Kite of the town is suppomd also to 
hare been that of the ancient Ddmim, which Ptolerar , 
mentioiif as the eityand the metropolis of the M enapih. 
Id 1595, Rattbdrum was taken by the Lotll-depocfy 
Fitzwiliiam from Pheagh MacTf uJAfh OUyrne, ohe of: 
the most turbulent amd powerful of the Irish enennei 
of the goveitimeat of Queen Elixabeth. Area of the 
town, 88 acres. Pop., in 1881, 1.054; in 1841," 
1,28*^. HouHc^ 14& Pamiiiea employed chiefly iti 
agriculture, 59; in manufactures and trade, .84; ih" 
other punnita„ 4!i. Families deperident ichiefly ein 
property and profcMioiis, 17 ; on the din^cting of hu 
hour, 90; on their own manual labour, 85. 

The Rathdmm Poor-law union ranks a« the 77th, 
and was declared on Sept. 25, IH39. It lies wholly 
in CO. Wicklow. and comprcliends an area of 207.*358 
acres, which contained, in 1K31, a pop. of 51,^^ 
It» eWcioral diviaions, tofrethcr with their respee* 
tive pop. in 183L, are Nowcaitle, 7.521 ; KilliMkeV, 
2>02;>; ^Vrklow, aa25 ; Kilbride, 2..185 ; Claatle. 
Maeadani^ 5,155i Dunfranstown, SJ98) Wickknr,' 
4,743; Bathdmm, 0,868; Glcndalough, 2,ll0»r 
Roi|iidwoo(\^ 2,954; Glatiely, 2,H49 ; and Aughrim, 
3,077. The Buniber of ex-odhdo and of elected 
gtwdianii U re^ipectivcly 10 and 90 ; and of t^e 
latter, 4 are elected by each of the divisions of Ark- 
low, Newcastle, and. Bathdrum, and 2 by each of 
the other divisions. The Imrooy of Newnastle con^- 
tnios the divisioiv of Newoastle and Killiskey ; the 
baronies of Newcastle and Arklow contain the divifi. 
sions of Wicklow and Glaoely : the baronies of New- 
castle and North BioUinacor contain tlie divisioas of 
Roundwood ; thq barony of North Ballinaoor con* 
tains the division of Glendalough ; the baronies .of 
Newcastle, Arklow, North Bullinaror, and South 
BuUliuicor conUin the division of Bathdrum ; the 
barony of South Balliiiaippr contaiiw the division of 
Au|;hnm ; and the baron j^ of Arklow cootains the 
division of Arklow, Kilbride, Caatle^MuciMhun, and 
Duiigar.^^own. The nuAiber of tenements valued in 
the Arklow di-^ricts is 3,4^3,— in the North Balliiuu. 
cor districts, l,G32,_in the South Ballinacor dia. 
tricts, 591,— in the Newqastlc dUtricti, 2,^2» 
— in the entire uuion, 8,298 ; and of this total, 
4,140 were valued under £5,~-.l ,(;74, under £K),-^ 

f;j>2, under £15,-484, under £20 324, under 

£2.5, -iV^ mulor £30,^345, under £40.— 2iy, 
ui!dur £.jO,— and 7G7, a|. and above £50. The 
tot ill n^tt annual va)iic of the property rated i# 
£154,J?18 iSs, 4d. ; t'lic total number of |>crHen8 
rated I* 8,781 ; ^nd of tln'se, 871 were rated iiur a 
v8hi:ition not exceeding £1,-^2,018, nut exoeedis^ 
£2,— (i.52» not exceeding £3. — 390, not exci*vdii^ 
£4, — iuid 3;14. not exceeding £5. The workhouse 
\v;i<i coutrarfed for on June U>, 1840 to be com- 
pleted in Sept. 1841,— fo co^t £0,0(X) for building 
and completion, and £1,200 for fittings and contin* 




g6nd^8,'>ltj> occupy an area of 5 acre'f, 1 rood, 34 
peaches obtained for an annual rent of £10 IBs. Od,, 
— kiid to contain arcoinrnodation for 600 paupers. 
Tbe dat# of the first admission of pa^per^ was 
Alarch 6, 1842; the total expc'nditure thence till 
Feb. 6, 1843, was £2,912 6s. 10^1. ; and the total 
previous expeii(Uturc was £733 158. 10^ d. The 
number of pauper inmates ou Dec. 2» J 843, was 
376. The medical charities within the union are the 
County intirmary at Wicklow, fever hospitals at Ark- 
low, WicUow, and Newtown-Mount-kenncdy, and 
dispensaries at Arklow, Au^rim, Calary, Newtown- 
Mouiit-Keoncdv, Rathdruin, and Redcrosa; and, in 
1839-40. they recuived £550 13s. 2d. from subscrip- 
tion, £1^626 1^« 5d. from public grants, and i2 
from other sources. The Rathdruoi dispensary 
serves for a district of 33,509 acres, with a pop. of 
14,711 ; and, in 1889.^, it expended £167 7». 7d., 
and Qoade 6,047 dispensations of medicine. 

R ATUDRUMMIN, a parish in the barony of Fen- 
rard, 2} miles east-south-east of Dunleer, co. Louth, 
Lainster. Length, westward, 1| radle; extreme 
breadth* l| ; area,. 1,211 acres, 27 perches. Pop., io 
1831, 640; in 1841, 710. Houde^ 119. The surface 
coQsists of tc4«rablv good land, and is all in tillage. 
The seats are WalshestqivD-houfte and Kiltull^h- 
hbouse. The hamletsa/e Rathdrmnmin and Ardbolies; 
and the former hod, in 1831, a pop. of 171. The 
road from Dro^heda to Annaf^^asson passes across 
the western wing; and the road from Dunleer to 
Clogher passes through the interior. A large Danish 
rath, in good preservation^ measuring 00 yards in 
diameter, and surrounded by a double fosae and 
mounda, the exterior of which measures 130 yards 
HI diameter, ia situated in the vicinity of the hanilct 
of Rathdninunin.— This parish in & rectory, in the 
dio. of Armagh. Tithe composition, £86 6s. S^d, ; 
glelw, £20. The rectories of Rathdrummin and 
Cabrickbaogot, and tlie vicarage of Port [see 
these articles], constitute the benefice of Rathdrum- 
min. Pop., Ill 1831, 1,789. Gross income, £810 
44. l^d.; nett, £286 7s. 5d. Patron, the Orown. 
The church is situated at the hamlet of Rathdrum- 
min, and was built in 1814, by means of a loan of 
£mi lOs. 9^. from the hita Board of First Fruits. 
Sittings 150 1 atf endance, from 8 to 10. The Ro- 
man Catholic chapel at Wal^estown has an attend- 
ance of 700 ; and, in the Roman Catholic parochial 
arrangement, is united to the chapel at llacket's- 
Cross: in tha benefice of Termonferkan. In 1834, 
the Protestants of the parish amounted to 7* and the 
Roman Catholics to 662 ; the ProtestantP of the 
union to 12, and the Roman Catholics to 1,794. 



RATHfiANICH, the unknown «ite of an early 
Mcleaiastical establishment, in the luirony of Innis- 
llowen, CO. Donegal, Ulster. Archdall, who, with 
tfxqtLuiUi fiicility, makes every early Ouldean sta- 
tion an abbey, And every early Christian minister a 
bishop, says, ** $t. Brugarh, the son of Degad, was 
bishop of Ratheanich about the beginning of the 
6th c^ntory ; from which period we can learn nothing 

gjf if'** 

RATHE ASPUlCiyNIC. the site of an early 
church, in the barony and county of Antrim, Ulster. 
Yet such historical notices as exist of the founda- 
tioti is deeplf tinged with the fabulousness of much 
of the^ hagioiogy of St. Patrick ; and Archdall's ac 
c6unt of it says, ** St. Patrick founded a church 
hei^, and appointed St. Vinnoc bishop of it. It is in 
th^ territory of Hua-derchain, a valley in the barony 
of Antrim. There are four churches in this valley ; 
one of which, Rathmore, probably is Ratheus- 


EATHENY. See Rahent. 

BATHERNAN, a parish in the barony of Coni- 
nell, 3 miles north-west of Newbridge,, co. KHdare, 
Leinster. Length, south-south- westward, 4| miles; 
extreme breadth, 2^$ area, 5,140 acres, I rood, dC 
perches. Pop., in 1831, 1,010; in IMI, 977. 
Houses 155. The interseetion of a tongue of RiL- 
meague parish, not more than al)out 1 furlong m 
mean breadth, cuts Rathefnan into two mutually de- 
tached parts, the northern one of which comprises 
an area of 1,376 acres, 8 roods, 6 perches. , A vary 
large proportion of the parochial sui^e is bog.; aacl 
the remainder coitsists, m the aggregate, of pqor light 
land. The whole surface is a ol(»k portion ot tl^e 
low and far.spreading tableau of the county ; and it 
contains the Hill of Allan, and the aumnutp^oand 
of the Bog of Mounds, whose altitudes above set- 
level are respectively 676 and 3 Id ibetb Ratherfian- 
house is the only seat. The Leap of AUen is on 
the western noargin. The Grand Canal iminiiges on 
the extreme north; and the road frppi |[ildare to 
Robertstown passes through the interior. — This 
parish is a rectory, and part of the benefice ot Kiv- 
MAOGUE [which soe]t in the dio. of Kildare. Tithe 
composition, £118 48.; glebe, £21 lifew! In 1834, 
the Protestants amounted to 129, and the Roman 
Catholics to 923 ; and there was neitktf dmrcli, 
chapel, nor school. 


RATIIFARNHAM, a parish, partly in the bar- 
ony of Uppercross, but chiefiy in that of Rathdown, 
CO. DubUn, Leinster. The Rathdown section con- 
taining the villages of Rathfabsrax, PoNJ>t, awl 
RocKDTowsi : see these articles. Lengtk of the 
parish, south by we stward* 3 ioiles ; ' extreme 
breadth, 2. Area of the Upperorosa section, 200 
acres, 2 roods, 39 perches ; of the- Ralthdown sec- 
tion, 2,581 acres, 30 perches. Pop.< of tlie whole, 
in laSl, 4.673; in 1841, 4,469. Houses 707. Pop., 
in 1841, of the Uppercrofts section, 75; of the nunal 
districts of the Rathdown section, 2,479. Houses 
in these respectively, 13 and 381. ' The whole par- 
ish formerly lav within the barony of MdwoMtle; and 
it was politically tram^frrred to its proscni position 
by the Act 5 and 6 Victoria, cap. ^« The paroohial 
surface is bisected by the river Dodder, posaesses 
agreeable undulations and other natural dnrenBties, 
consists for the most part of excellent land, presents 
the utmost profusion of mansion apd iilla deconrtion, 
borrows from the vicinity of the Dublin -Ulia mndh 
protection and great scenie powi*r, and eshibita a 
ridier combination of beautv, romanee* and a^diision, 
than any other portion of the crowded aad^gomeps 
environs of the metropolis. The roads fr6ni Dubttn 
to Glencree, and to JBIessingtOn* pass throogfa tie 
interior. The principal scats are Barlcy4iiil« Edin- 
brook, Willbrook,^, BartoiKlo%, 
Silveracre, Rathfarnhaffl-icastle, LiaiAioapt,>'|l«#- 
town- house, Newtown • eottage, Ratbgar>*bMrt« 
Mountainview, West Bourne, ProspMBet-irilltti fttt" 
mount, Tranquilla, iVrraee, Garmle, ''AnaeAeM, 
Glenpool-pUice, Mount- Talluit, ftt. iohtt^ &Mi- 
borough, Scfaolarst own-house, Hsyflsld. Bodeft |iifft, 
Tcrenure-house, Fortfield, and Kianniejpag ' . t fcethfiw 
last the residences of respectively FfeMdck Bmkm, 
Esq., Sir William MacMahon, Barti, tad tlM< Wgki 

Hon. F. Shaw This parish is a rsctorlr, nft niirt 

of the benefice of St. Peter's, in tbe^o. (of AMIil 
(See Dublin, Covkty of tb* CiTt ov.V ^Mie 
composition, £290 15s. 4|d:. 'l^wo'lcmtMf thr 
Rathfumham receive each a salary of £50;- 'nc 
church was built in 1789, partly by means (bf a 'Ml 
of £369 4r. 7id. from the late Board of First FiuKi. 
Sittings 700; attendance, from 300 to 450. iTht 




Roman Catholic chapel has an attendance of from 
400 to 900; and, in the Konian Catholic paro- 
chial arrangement, is united to the chapeU of XaU 
hgbt and Cnimlin. In 1834, the parisnioners con- 
sigted of 800 Churchmen, 14 Protestant dissenters, 
and S,549 Roman Catholics ; a daily school, in con- 
oectfon with the London Hibernian Society, was 
supported almost wholly by subscription, and had 
on its books 38 boys ana 40 girls ; a Roman Catho- 
lic daily school was supported by collections at 
charitT sermons in the chapel, and was usually at- 
tendea by from 60 to 90 children; a third daily 
nchool vras aided with £2 a-ycar from the arch- 
<feacon of Dublin, and was usually attended by firom 
!i0 to 40 children ; and a daily school at the Loretto 
nunnery was supported chiefly by the nuns, and had 
on its books 145 girls. In 1643, the National Board 
liad two schools at respectively Rathfamham and 

RATHTARNHAM. a lai^ge and pleasant village 
jn the parish of Rathfiutiham, barony of Rath down, 
CO. IMilin, Leinster. It stands on the right bank 
of the Dodder, and on the road from Dubhii to 
Glencree and Laragh, or at the commencement of 
the Military-roa<], | of a mile south of Roundtown, 
1| mile west-north-west of Dundrnm, and 3 miles 
•oath of Dublin. It has, in some parts, a rural and 
pleasing character i and its principal thoroughlkre is 
tanked with the boundaries of demesnes, and shaded 
and overhung with trees. Its church is a respectable 
structure, ornamented with a neat spire, but other- 
wise destitute of arehitectural decoration ; it is built 
of rough stone, with coignes of squared stone at the 
angles of the tower end other parts of the building; 
and its windows have wooden firame-work, and are 
of Assinilar forms. The only other noticeable pnb- 
lic buildings are the Roman Catholic chapel aiid the 
tehools. A dispensary in the village is Mrithin the 
Soutli Dublin Poor-Uw union, and serves for a dis- 
trict of 3,724 acres, with a pop. of 4,573; and, in 
183f, it eipended £143 2b. 9d., and administered to 
1,284 patients. A fair is held on July 10. A court 
ef pctty-sessiona is held on the second Tuesday of 
every month. Rathfamham - castle, situated in a 
owe Boble demesne, at the south-east extremity of 
the village, was not long ago esteemed a magnificent 
baikKBff, and boasted a gorgeous picture-gallery, and 
a soperD series of garden and pleasure grounds, but 
it was allowed to mil into decay in oonseauence of 
the prolonged non - residence within it or its pro- 
prietor, the Marouis of Ely, and it now prosaically, 
thongli ntefiilly, figures as an extensive dairy. ** The 
iiMina termed Rathfarnham-caiitle, long a seat of 
the Loftua fiunily, and now the property oi the Mar- 
fm of Ely*** aaid Mr. Brewer in 1625^ " is an ex- 
ttiMive nbric, in the style often tcnned modem 
Gothic, an appellation by no means improperly ap- 
plied to an emfioe, in the design of which particulars 
« Grecian aad embattled architecture are licentiously 
■ii^ed. The great hall is entered from a terrace, 
by * porticoof eight Doric columns, which support 
a dooie* painted in fresco, with the signs of the 
Kkdiac sfKl other devices. T^is room is ornamented 
with antique and modem bunts placed on handsome 
M d aat als of variegated marbles ; and has three win- 
dows of stained gla^s, in one of which is an escut- 
rhuan of tiie Loflus arms, with quartering finely 
•leeuted. Several other apartments exhibit consi- 
dtniile splendour of arranf^ement, and contained, 
■■til ^tef y, numerous family portraits and a valuable 
coUfction of paintings by ancient masters. The 
cmi*tle of Rathfamham was founded by Archbishop 
L«ftusw On the breaking out of the rebellion in 
Ki4l. Sir A<him Loftud. of Rathfamham, held a 
gnrriiDo in thia catrtlc, in order to cover the city 


wainst the irruptions of th^ septs of 9'3ynie j^id, 
O'TooIe. Adam, the grandson of that gentleman,' 
and the son olT Sir Arthui* Loftus^ iJieutenant-colonel' 
of Sir Charles Coote's regiment, .and governor of tha 
town of Kaas, was, by privy seal, date^ the 5th ^f 
January 1685, and by patent, the 29th of ^e san^ 
month, created baron of Rathfarnhatn, and Vis- 
count Lisbum. His only daughter Lucia, by Lucia, 
daughter to George Brydges, Lord Chfuido#, mar. 
rying Thomas Lora Wharton, qai^ed the Rath&m^ 
ham estate into her husband's, family. Lord. Lis- 
bum, the fether of Lady Wharton, was kflled by t 
cannon shot, on the 15th September lODl, comm&nd^ 
ing a regiment in the service of Kirtg Wilu^n^ At 
the siege of Limerick ; and PhiKp, late D^ike bi 
Wharton (who was also Bu-l of Rarthfturhhim, arid 
Marquis of Carlow), sold' this estate in 1723, ib 
William Oonolly, Esq., speaker of the house of com- 
mons, for the sum of £o2,060, fhmi .whose succe^ 
sors, as we believe, it passed to the kite Bf^ftrqtii^ of 
Elv. The mansion has been lately des^i^ ^a' re- 
sidence by its noble proprietor, and the best bictnret, 
together with the family portraits, hive oeeii rfei 
moved from the hatkt, to which thev afforded appro- 
priate and estimable ornaments. The dem^Mi^ latidi 
of the castle are laid out with oomnderable judgment, 
and are entered from the Rathminefr road byaiplenC 
did gateway, ranking among the best produ(ctipns of 
this species of architecture to be ^atnessed iii Ire* 
land." On May 23, 17M, a body of ^beU broke 
out into insurrection at Rathfamham, whefe the 
Earl of Ely had the command of a yeomatiry corps 
of cavalry ; and they went into skirmishing actidn 
with the Veomanry, and forced them to retreat. Area 
of the village, 24 acres. Pop., in 1831, 1,572; in 
1841, 644. Houses 98. Families employed chieOy 
in agriculture, 53 ; in manu^Ktures and trade, 56 ; 
in otner pursuits, 40. Families dependent <^iefl v on 
property and professions, 8; on the -directing of 'la- 
bour, 57 ; on their own noanual labour, 09) onmeoni 
not specified, 20i 

RATHFEIOH, or RATHf Aroar, a parish in the 
barony of SkreeSv 4^ milea south-sovth^west of 
Duleefc, CD. Meath, Leinster. Length, southward, 
S^ miles ; breadth, from I to 2| ; area, 2,887 acresv 
3 roods, 2& perches. Pop., in 1831, 385; in 1B4I; 
301. Houses 47. The Luid ia» in genesal, of an 
indiflhrent quality. The seats are Skcny^bill, 
Woodland^house, Dorea^cottage, dtid QilKamBtownk 
cottage. The hamlets are Rathfeigh «nd Edoztown* 
The road from Ottleek t^ SummerhilU and thai firoai 
Slane to Dublin, interseet each other in the int^or. 
— This parish is nominally a chapelrv, but pmctioriU 
a rectory, and part of the bcneftc* or S&rskn [which 
see], in the dio. of Metith. Tithe composition, 
£180 ; glebe, £5^ Tho Roman CMhoKc dhap^l haa 
an attendance of 450; and, in the Roman Cbtholic 
parochial arrangement, is united to the chapel of 
Skreen. In 1834, the Protestants amounted to l^ 
and the Roman Catholics to 387; and a hedge«scbool 
had on its books 21 bo}'s and 24 girls. 

RATHFRAN, a small estuarial bay, andafishing 
harbour, in the parish of Templemurray, barony of 
Tyrawley, n>. Mayo, Connaught. It opeoa imme- 
diatelv north of Uosi*- Point, on the west side of 
Killalla bay, 2^ miles south of Kilcummin Head; 
and it penetrates the land nearly two miles south- 
westward, with a mean breadth of about A a mile, 
and receives at its he»d the united waters of the 
rivulets Breaghwy, Rathroe, Ouvoweiit and Cloon- 
aghmore. The peninsula of Ross, which flanks its 
south-east side, is curiously intersected by the sea at 
high water ; and the creeks behind it have a valuable 
Hoil, and would richly repiiy the cost of embaiikiuent 
and reclamation. The Chtuarial bay of Rathfrau is 




iKMlj all ^ n^ eiw effluK of the.ti^e; but tbe 
4]hafiBQl» . udiicb: i||ik«pt . open by. tlie 8tream> along! iis 
9liFtli-.wesl«ide/^ugh narrow aod r^thsn trouble- 
AQoie fi>rr.)raw]8^,ia. Aafer and' less brolL^n ^an the 
^bMmel (qi the bar of KiUalla; and ib<Hi^b no^quay 
ba$ 9B. y«t beef butit» an axcellent situationibr one 
■Qccuro at t^e old aaltwoj^s on tbe nortb«weat 
fide* ■ . < 

H.RATHFIlIIiAND/or Rathfrti.ani>» a market 
and post tawn .U the paruhea of X>caaiballvTon«y 
and Drumgath, barony of Upper Iveagh» co. Down, 
•Ulator. the inter^eetion of the roads 
frpm Newry to Down Patrick, from Warrenpoint to 
I>rpiQore, , from jRoatrevor to Liebum, and from 
Kilkaalto Qanbridge, 3 miles north of HiUtown, 7 
Bortb-ieast by east of Newry, 7i south-soutb-eaBt of 
Banbridge^i 7i wett by -south of Castlewollan, 27| 
iouth-soiith-west of Belfast, and 67 north by ha^ 
«ast of iDubliSt It stands on the acclivities or ascent 
of a small hiU» «n4 radiatea, downward, in a aeries 
of.stireets. tciM^ard thQ five roads which meet at its 
mte. The rock op which it ptands, and of whiob it« 
hou^s are built, if a firm, close, gritty samdstonc, 
abounding near the surface of the fu^aeent lands, , 
easily <cut into aqaarea, piUarsy urns, and vasea, and 
Yieldiing, lin- the quarries wh«ince it la raised, a dry and 
bright-colourod s^id of e;icellent use in garden 
walka. The summit of the 1^11 pn which the towti 
ataad^ commands an extensve yiefw of the surrcMnd- 
ing country ; and. is crownediby some slight remaioB 
of an old castle* anciently 'Oper of the> fortified roaR^ ! 
aionaL ressdeooef ^f the Magennise*, l^ordstof ivoagb, 
and tribHt4;*payieiB to the proud and ^ppresaive 
O'NeillB. T he - castle . was ;# riginaUy a ' large pile, 
but it was palled dQWQ: ky the iirst Protestant pro- 
prietor of' the town 9&es the. ^bcUion' of 1641t and | 
used as a quarry for the er-ectiop of the inn and j 
other hpusea of the town. The present pubbci 
buildings are a Presbytedan meeting-house foriaerly 
belonging to the .Seceders, a Covemntera'' meeting* 
house^.alioraan Catholic chapel, and a market-house; 
and within two miles of it are another Covenanters' I 
mevting-bouse, anotlier Roman Catholic diapel, and 
the parish-churcb of. Drumballyroney. The Rath- 
friland dispenfWy is. within the Newry Poctr4aw 
union, and serves for a district of 48,600 acres, with 
a pop. of 25.000 ; audi in 1830, it expen/ded £124, 
and admmist^red to 1,026 patiept^,. A bonaiderable 
proportion of the inhaVitants are employed in the 
linen manufaottire. Fairs are held m Feb., Apidl, 
June, Aug., Sept., and Dec. A court of pettv* 
sessions is beld on the third Friday of «very month: 
One car runs to IS'ewry, one to Banbridge, and an* 
other in transit between Newry and Downpatrick. 
The manor of RathOiland, which includes the town, 
was granted by Charles II. t^ Alderman Hawkins of 
London, in guerdon of services rendered to Pro^ 
testant refugees ; and it still belongs to the alder* 
man's descendant, the Hon. ^General Meade. Pop. 
of the town, in 1831^ 2.001 ; in 1841, 2.103. Houses 
433. Area of the Drunibally roney section,: 26 aores. 
Pop., in 1831, '724; in 1841, 793. Houses 144; 
Families employed chiefly in agriculture, 43; in 
manufactures and trade, 109; in other pursuits, 19. 
Families dependent chiefly on property and profes- 
sions, 1 1 ; on the directing of labour, 73 ; on their 
own maimal labour, 84 ; on means not specified, 3. 
Area of the Drumgath section, 45 acres. Pop., in 
1831, 1,277; in 1841, 1,460. Houses 289. Families 
employed chiefly in agriculture, 42; in manufactures 
and trade, 224 ; in other pursuits, 66. Families de- 
pendent chiefiy on property and professions, 16 ; on 
the directing of labour, 180; on their own manual 
labour, (19 ; on means not specified; 27. 
RATHGAR, a villtige in the parish of Rathfam- 

•ton, haroHK of Bathdown, eoj^Bablin, LesniteT.' Jt 
stands 1 mile north Vy.e«t of tha > town off BAtfafern- 
Mm, and 2 miles /eouih of Dublimcaitki * < Hefe^iand 
m the immediate viciaiily, are Rathgar-houtc, u- 
merqus'villast some ranges of neat .housesy an otm- 
■ive bkaching«grQen, • muslin, .•caUoo,tmd silk print, 
works, and an extepaive. ^Mry of caJpiBnd^black 
flinty limestDoe. Pop. not tpecially naitumed; 
RATHGORHUCK, or RATBtfouiaek, a psridi 
in the barony of Upperthird, cx>. Wateeford* 4 nilea 
south-west of Carnck-on-Soir, Munster. = Length, 
aouth-aoath- west ward, 6^ miles ; extreme breadth, 
6; area, 17,966 acrea^ 3 roods^: 19 pensfaesi Fop., 
in 1831, 2,252; in 1841, 2,498. Houaea888. •iW 
greater part of the surface consists of the loftiest 
summits, decUvitieai and glena of the MoDBVoiifawfc 
or Cummeragh mountains ( and ia remarkable for 
the great average altitude of ita water4eveli, aad of 
the bm of ita mountaina. Its lakes atd onl^ poiida 
in extents but they posacas a wild and sublma in- 
tereat in the loftiness of their elevatioiv and the 
stern grandeur of their acentfry^ Loqgh C umma wigh 
lies on the southern border, and haa-'a ewiao&^cva*- 1,6^ feet above aea^level. Loa§^ Co«u- 
stiilogemore and Coum8tillogebcg,.1Ee bn. the aovth- 
^m .boundary, and have an ekvadon of opwArda of 
4>20U feet. I;ough Coumdoula lies in the eentre, 
and has wn elevation »Yf. 1438' feet. Loogh More 
lies in the western boftier between two Msuntains 
of respectively 2,181 and 2,478 feet of altitude. 
The nver Mahon rises within the siuth* eastern 
border, at an elevation of upwards^f 2^030 feet ; the 
rsvulet Kier traces the aduthem 'boandarV firom an 
elevation of upwards of l,20Qfeet ; arivuleti tribu- 
tary to the Sttir above :Carnck, traces t^e nenh- 
westem boundary fromt an elevation of 1,066 fbet ; 
and the Clodiagh rivulet iasues from Lotwh More, 
and runs eastward througb the interior: The prin- 
dpal summits. of the Cummeragh iiiounlains withfai 
the parish, named in an order from socttlMnat to 
northru-est, have altitudes of severally %M04i S,0Q8» 
2,478^ 2.181, and 1,761 "feet abow eeaJetd; and 
the prineipal hill-aummit north of the dodiagk baa 
an altitude of 816 leet. The Vallev^ bmd of the 
eastern and northern distr ic ts ia genMally arable 
and> fertile. Shanakill*honse, the only ieat, stands 
on the eastern boi^der . immediately ' scutk of the 
Clodiagh ; and Bathgormaefc, theetaly viUaoe, stands 
on the eaatem bbrder, }of a mile ndrtl of that stream. 
Area of the viUaj^ 7 iterer. Pop., in <1B41, 130. 
Houses 2S. The south road fi^miPoriltfw to Ckm- 
nel. passes tbeoiigfa the interior df the parish. ** At 
Rathgormudc," says the- Rev. Mr. -R^laitd, ««tba 
church occupied a large space of grouiid|' aid tbsra 
are neat it traces of former iroprDVCinents; The 
west wall of the church is still staadKlig, aridoiUfaits 
some remains- of its Saxon architeetofo, frUck ap- 
pears to have been afterwards, in sotae degree^ n- 
placed by Gothic arches, clumsily affixed to the 
exterior of the doors and windows. "^i-^TUtf porlsk 
is a vicarage, and part of the benefiee of BloraOL 
[which see], in the dio. of Lismore.- 'The Wtalriil 
tithes are compounded for £167 3ii.-6d.b 0&d''tiii 
rectorial for £241 4s. ; and the lati6^ M ittbifoMitt 
in the daughters and co-beiivssm of tbc^'Uo CM. 
Hardy. The Roman Catholic chabel Ims tt ttMbd- 
ance of from 1,000 to 1,200; and^ ifrlle BbMi 
Catholic parochial arrangement, -is «llited 'tJbHtfti 
chapel of Mothell. In 1834^ the IVolesttntaaaodMat 
to 34, and the Ronnn CathoUei'W %IM? Ml 3 
daily schools— one of which i^ aided iritit 'tfoi* 
year from Lady Osborne — we^'OiUalty attdidcd Vv 
about 120 children. In 1843, a KetiMiM 'ichdolhi 




bvQB^.of Dertiifi^re, «>. •^«M)me«Ui/L«iilBter.' It 
CBBtaiBi. Uw-teMb; of OAdTUS-PonbiiRD } whibfa «««. 
Length^. '8<ki«h.« 'by- wfliAwan]« 5 -mlldtf ^ «ktreitie 

—of itlridi ^ aiftreii-fiS MVchMi'kre iw Locitfb GlOfe. 
Pop., in 1831,' 8]61«^4il> 1841, St^ddJ ' Hbii^ifk)!. 
Pop. of tkevoiml'duirictorin l^]\'l;994i< In/1B41, 
%^m. . Hoam 8Mi 'The ^rfabe' ediMisIb; ibr the 
rairal ^utj of mUe ud ftftll» Itiid. Tb« prindptd 
stmt M> KintarlD.ft6u0e, tlie bMratifuUf yMoo&ed r^K 
dwofrof Wi D< PolUrdi Bsq;-, and the cuther se